Rudolf Nieuwenhuys's research while affiliated with Radboud University Medical Centre (Radboudumc) and other places

Publications (174)

Article
Full-text available
This paper presents a survey of the cell masses in the brainstem of the Australian lungfish Neoceratodus forsteri , based on transversely cut Bodian-stained serial sections, supplemented by immunohistochemical data from the recent literature. This study is intended to serve a double purpose. First it concludes and completes a series of publications...
Article
Full-text available
The comprehensive research programme of the Vogt–Vogt (V–V) school, which was active during the period 1900–1970, included detailed cytoarchitectonic and myeloarchitectonic analyses of the human cerebral cortex, with the aim to integrate the data obtained into a map, showing a parcellation of the human cerebral cortex into fundamental structural an...
Article
Morphological and genoarchitectonic studies have conclusively shown that the human brain (and that of all vertebrates) is segmented i. e. is fundamentally composed of a number of rostrocaudally arranged brain segments or neuromeres. However in the current neuroimaging literature the term segmentation, derived initially from computer graphics techno...
Article
Full-text available
During the period extending from 1910 to 1970, Oscar and Cécile Vogt and their numerous collaborators published a large number of myeloarchitectonic studies on the cortex of the various lobes of the human cerebrum. In a previous publication [Nieuwenhuys et al (Brain Struct Funct 220:2551-2573, 2015; Erratum in Brain Struct Funct 220: 3753-3755, 201...
Chapter
At the beginning of this new section it may be recalled that: 1. The CNS consists of fundamental morphological units (FMUs), which are centres of neuronal and glial proliferation, migration and differentiation (Plate 93, Fig. A). 2. All of these FMUs are radial entities, the ventricular/ependymal surfaces of which occupy a specific area of the vent...
Chapter
By way of introduction, we present here two figures that have been shown before (see Plates 24 and 34).
Chapter
Neuromorphological concepts have stood and evolved upon methodological foundations.
Chapter
All fundamental morphological units (FMUs) in the CNS occupy their own, specific locus at the ventricular surface of the neural tube, and hence their position can be fully characterized in flat maps of the ventricular surface of the CNS (see Plate 68). However, the CNS is a three-dimensional structure and so are the FMUs. The third dimension, which...
Chapter
The mature brain contains more than a hundred types of neurons. These may differ in the size and shape of their cell bodies or somata, in the size, shape and complexity of their dendritic trees, in the length and destination of their axons, in receptor repertoire, in neurotransmitter profile , in their mode of influencing other neurons (excitation...
Chapter
Plate 17 presents dorsal views of early frog and human embryos (Fig. A, B). In the frog embryo, the neural plate is surrounded by a distinct ridge (neural fold). In the human embryo, such a demarcation is lacking and the neural plate can only be arbitrarily delimited morphologically from the remainder of the external germ layer , though a precise n...
Chapter
The centres or grisea in the brain discussed in the previous section are interconnected by fibres, which commonly assemble in fibre systems, bundles or tracts.
Chapter
Full-text available
The transformation of the neural plate into the neural tube is known as neurulation. During this process, the bilateral outer borders of the neural plate fuse together point-to-point along the median line, forming the roof plate. The neural crest population is released into the mesenchyme at the same time, and the skin also fuses, covering the whol...
Chapter
Most of you will know that the human brain begins as a tiny epidermal plate, called the ‘neural plate ’, whose lateral edges rise upward, approach each other and finally fuse, so that the originally flat neural plate is transformed into a hollow neural tube with a fused roof plate (left panel). Note that this closing process does not occur synchron...
Book
This book demonstrates that the systematic study of gene expression patterns in embryonic and adult brains, in combination with selected data from earlier studies, can pave the way for a new neuromorphology, the most salient features of which may be summarized as follows: (1) Causal analysis of molecular patterning at neural plate and early neural...
Chapter
We have already pointed out that the orthogonal or Cartesian coordinate system (Plate 64, Fig. A) used in descriptive anatomy and adult brain stereotaxis, is fully inadequate to characterize the true morphological directional and positional relations within developing and adult brains, due to various accumulated morphogenetic deformations which sta...
Chapter
Let us begin our discussion of the neural tube and its regional differentiation by looking at some historic pictures, one from His (1893b), and three from Karl Von Kupffer (1906).
Chapter
It has already been discussed that the brain is essentially a tube to which a long axis can be attributed.
Article
The human cerebral cortex contains numerous myelinated fibres, the arrangement and density of which is by no means homogeneous throughout the cortex. Local differences in the spatial organization of these fibres render it possible to recognize areas with a different myeloarchitecture. The neuroanatomical subdiscipline aimed at the identification an...
Article
The human insular cortex forms a distinct, but entirely hidden lobe, situated in the depth of the Sylvian fissure. Here, we first review the recent literature on the connectivity and the functions of this structure. It appears that this small lobe, taking up less than 2% of the total cortical surface area, receives afferents from some sensory thala...
Article
The human cerebral cortex contains numerous myelinated fibres, many of which are concentrated in tangentially organized layers and radially oriented bundles. The spatial organization of these fibres is by no means homogeneous throughout the cortex. Local differences in the thickness and compactness of the fibre layers, and in the length and strengt...
Article
Full-text available
According to His (1891, 1893) the brainstem consists of two longitudinal zones, the dorsal alar plate (sensory in nature) and the ventral basal plate (motor in nature). Johnston and Herrick indicated that both plates can be subdivided into separate somatic and visceral zones, distinguishing somatosensory and viscerosensory zones within the alar pla...
Article
The Actinopterygii or ray-finned fishes comprise, in addition to the large superorder of teleosts, four other superorders, namely the cladistians, the chondrosteans, the ginglymodes, and the halecomorphs, each with a limited number of species. The telencephalon of actinopterygian fishes differs from that in all other vertebrates in that it consists...
Article
Les résultats de l'analyse du développement embryonnaire du télencéphale de Polypterus senegalus, ainsi que d'une courte description du télencéphale de l'adulte ont été comparés aux données présentes dans la littérature scientifique, concernant le développement et la structure du télencéphale des Chondrostéens (Ch), des Holostéens (H) et des Téléos...
Article
Full-text available
La vascolarizzazione e la circolazione del fluido cerebrospinale (liquor cerebrospinalis, FCS) dell’encefalo e del midollo spinale sono di notevole importanza clinica. Le principali sindromi vascolari sono riassunte nella Tabella 4.1. In questo capitolo sarà trattata l’anatomia dei vasi sanguigni, delle meningi e degli organi circumventricolari. Il...
Article
Il talamo ventrale occupa una zona relativamente stretta del diencefalo interposta tra il talamo dorsale e l’ipotalamo. I suoi principali gruppi nucleari sono rappresentati dal nucleo reticolare, dalla zona incerta, dal nucleo pregenicolato e dal corpo o nucleo subtalamico (Figg. 6.36, 6.37). È importante notare che Kahle [20] e Richter [52, 53] as...
Article
La percezione cosciente della sensibilità cutanea e propriocettiva e del gusto dipendono dalle vie di conduzione che connettono i recettori periferici con i centri a livello del diencefalo e del telencefalo. La maggior parte di queste connessioni, a eccezione delle vie per il gusto, è crociata. L’elaborazione iniziale dell’informazione sensoriale a...
Article
L’area che occupa la porzione centrale del tronco è nota come formazione reticolare. Per gran parte della sua estensione, questa area è occupata da aggregati di cellule sparse, diverse per tipo e dimensioni, e i sistemi di fibre che attraversano questo territorio sono parimenti organizzati in maniera alquanto diffusa. Il termine “formazione reticol...
Chapter
Il sistema visivo risulta costituito da un certo numero di vie parallele, ciascuna interessata a una specifica funzione. L’elaborazione parallela dell’informazione visiva è presente già a livello della retina (Figg. 19.1, 19.2). La struttura e la funzione della retina sono state ampiamente analizzate [54, 114, 155, 188, 189, 309]. Fig. 19.1 A–F.La...
Article
Herrick [9, 10] ha diviso il diencefalo in quattro zone longitudinali: l’epitalamo, il talamo dorsale, il talamo ventrale e l’ipotalamo. Questa suddivisione è stata ampiamente condivisa dalla comunità scientifica ed è stato asserito che poteva essere applicata a tutte le classi di vertebrati, inclusi i mammiferi [3, 27] e l’uomo [5, 11, 12, 26]. Se...
Article
“I circuiti neuronali dell’encefalo determinano il comportamento ponendo in essere l’esecuzione di movimenti differenti e di movimenti complessi che consentono all’organismo di raggiungere determinati obbiettivi. Le proiezioni discendenti dalla cortex motrice” e il tronco dell’encefalo “costituiscono i canali attraverso cui i messaggi che in ultimo...
Article
Il midollo spinale con i suoi rivestimenti meningei è accolto nel canale vertebrale (Figg. 4.30–4.32). Il limite tra midollo spinale e tronco encefalico è fissato rostralmente all’origine del primo nervo cervicale, a livello della decussazione delle piramidi. Comunque, il passaggio dai nuclei motori e sensoriali del midollo alle corrispondenti stru...
Article
La nomenclatura utilizzata per l’anatomia macroscopica dell’encefalo umano è la versione in lingua latina della principale nomenclatura tedesca introdotta da Burdach e Reil tra la fine del diciottesimo e l’inizio del diciannovesimo secolo, con alcuni termini introdotti da anatomici italiani e francesi come Malacarne, Rolando e Gratiolet [10]. Quest...
Article
Il termine gangli della base si riferisce a un gruppo di nuclei strettamente connessi che formano un continuum che si estende dalla base del telencefalo, attraverso la parte centrale del diencefalo, nel tegmento mesencefalico. Questo complesso, secondo la definizione classica, risulta composto dallo striato (nucleo caudato e putamen), dal globo pal...
Article
Il cervelletto (il “piccolo cervello”) è posto nella fossa cranica posteriore. Le scissure trasverse dividono la sua superficie in strette pieghe definite folia. Il cervelletto elabora informazioni originate da numerose diverse fonti, tra cui il midollo spinale, il tronco encefalico e la cortex cerebrale, e proietta a numerosi differenti centri nel...
Article
La neocortex è una struttura molto complessa, composta da sei strati che si sviluppa dal settore dorsale del pallio degli emisferi telencefalici (Fig. 2.24, 2.25,11.1). Tutti i mammiferi, compresi i monotremi e i marsupiali, possiedono una neocortex ma, nei rettili, ovvero i progenitori dei mammiferi, è presente un primordio neocorticale composto d...
Article
Nell’uomo, la maggior parte della superficie mediale degli emisferi cerebrali è occupata dalla neocortex notevolmente espansa. Comunque, su questo lato dell’encefalo, sono presenti anche numerose strutture che non sono neocorticali. Due di queste, il sistema olfattorio centrale e il setto, occupano una posizione superficiale, mentre altre due, il c...
Article
Il sistema nervoso centrale negli umani e in altri vertebrati deriva dalla placca neurale, una zona paramediana ispessita e allungata dello strato germinale esterno, o ectoderma (Fig. 2.1 A, E). L’ectoderma, lungo i margini laterali della placca neurale, forma bilateralmente una struttura nastriforme, la cresta neurale primitiva, che divide l’ectod...
Article
L’ipotalamo umano è costituito da soli 4 cm3 di tessuto nervoso, pari a circa lo 0,3% del volume totale dell’encefalo adulto [151, 205]. Ciononostante, partecipa in maniera critica alla coordinazione e all’integrazione delle risposte autonomiche, endocrine e comportamentali necessarie per il mantenimento dei ritmi circadiani e circannuali, il ciclo...
Article
In questo capitolo, saranno trattati l’ippocampo e due relative strutture telencefaliche, il lobo limbico e il setto precommissurale. L’ippocampo, che si sviluppa dal pallio mediale (Figg. 2.24B, 2.25, 11.1), fa la sua comparsa durante la sesta settimana di gestazione. Negli ultimi stadi della vita embrionale questa struttura occupa una considerevo...
Article
Il sistema uditivo centrale elabora le informazioni provenienti dall’organo del Corti nella coclea. Lo spazio perilinfatico della coclea consiste della scala del vestibolo e della scala del timpano, che si continuano a livello dell’apice (l’elicotrema) della coclea. Il condotto cocleare membranoso è situato tra le due scale e contiene l’endolinfa....
Article
Il sistema nervoso centrale umano o nevrasse risulta formato dall’encefalo (encephalon) e dal midollo spinale (medulla spinalis). L’encefalo è accolto nel cranio; il midollo spinale occupa il canale vertebrale e si estende dal grande foro occipitale sino al livello della seconda vertebra lombare. L’encefalo, a sua volta, risulta costituito dal cerv...
Article
Questo capitolo descrittivo presenta quattro serie di sezioni dell’encefalo condotte secondo i seguenti piani: 13 sezioni coronali 4 sezioni perpendicolari all’asse del tronco encefalico 6 sezioni sagittali 9 sezioni orizzontali
Article
L’amigdala, o corpo amigdaloideo, è un grande complesso nucleare situato nella parte dorsomediale del lobo temporale, dove costituisce parte delle pareti rostromediale e rostrodorsale del corno inferiore del ventricolo laterale (Fig. 5.6, 5.7, 5.23, 5.24, 6.39–6.41). Il termine deriva dal Greco (amygdalon) o dal Latino (amygdalum) che significa man...
Article
Il talamo è un grande complesso nucleare di forma ovoidale situato nella parete del diencefalo caudalmente al forame interventricolare (Figg. 3.19, 3.20). Lateralmente, un sottile strato di fibre mieliniche, la lamina midollare esterna, divide il corpo principale del talamo dal nucleo reticolare talamico. La principale massa del talamo costituisce...
Article
Il sistema vestibolare fornisce informazioni relative alla posizione e ai movimenti della testa nello spazio. Gli elementi recettoriali sono rappresentati dalle cellule ciliate disposte nel labirinto membranoso. Queste cellule sono presenti nelle creste ampollari delle ampolle dei canali semicircolari e nelle macule dell’utricolo e del sacculo. Gli...
Article
Nel corso dell’ontogenesi, gli emisferi telencefalici evaginano bilateralmente dalla parte più dorsale della lamina alare del prosencefalo secondario (Figg. 2.2C, 2.3C, 2.4, 2.5B, C). Esistono due principali divisioni degli emisferi telencefalici: il tetto o pallio e la base o sub pallio. Classicamente, il pallio è diviso in tre zone longitudinali,...
Article
In his famous book, 'On Growth and Form', D'Arcy Thompson demonstrated that the shapes of related animals, or parts thereof, can be transformed into each other by a simple graphical procedure, called the method of coordinates. In this procedure, an object is inscribed in a net of Cartesian coordinates. It appeared that the shape of related objects...
Article
The forebrain of actinopterygian fishes differs from that of other vertebrates in that it consists of a pair of solid lobes. Lateral ventricles surrounded by nervous tissue are entirely lacking. This peculiar configuration of the actinopterygian forebrain results from an outward bending or eversion of its lateral walls during ontogenesis. Due to th...
Article
The forebrain of actinopterygian fishes differs from that of other vertebrates in that it consists of a pair of solid lobes. Lateral ventricles surrounded by nervous tissue are entirely lacking. Comparative anatomical and embryological studies have shown that the unusual configuration of the forebrain in actinopterygians results from an outward ben...
Article
During the 2008 Karger Workshop considerable progress was made towards defining a model or structural plan, valid for the prosencephalon of all vertebrates. The presentations demonstrated that the following features, which are valid for tetrapods, also hold true for most groups of fish: (1) The diencephalon proper is clearly composed of three neuro...
Chapter
The vestibular system provides information about the position and motion of the head in space. The receptive elements are the hair cells of the membranous labyrinth. These cells are located in the cristae ampullares of the ampullae of the semicircular canals and in the maculae of the utricle and the saccule. The first-order elements are bipolar neu...
Article
The living deuterostomes comprise six monophyletic groups: (1) echinoderms + hemichordates, (2) tunicates, (3) cephalochordates, (4) myxinoids, (5) petromyzontoids, and (6) gnathostomes. The morphotype of the craniote (myxinoids + petromyzontoids + gnathostomes) central nervous system (CNS) comprises a fixed number of histogenetic units, formed by...
Article
In this chapter, the morphological evidence for the occurrence of volume transmission in vertebrates and invertebrates are discussed. The assembled data is also surveyed and placed in a comparative and a functional perspective. While studying the morphological evidence in invertebrates, the relevant data on the occurrence of other forms of intemeur...
Article
Bergquist and Källén as well as Puelles and collaborators have presented models of the developing vertebrate brain, the basic units of which are formed by intersection of transversely oriented neuromeres and longitudinally arranged zones. These units represent initially discrete, developmentally independent compartments, but during later developmen...
Chapter
The lampreys represent the most primitive group of presently living vertebrates. They are water inhabitants with elongated, eel-like bodies which lack paired fins (Fig. 10.1). In contrast to amphioxus, the head of the lamprey bears a number of special sense organs (nose, eyes, ears). The information gathered by these organs is relayed over the cran...
Chapter
Crossopterygians are a distinctive and once widespread group of fishes, first known from rocks of Devonian age. They are characterised by the possession of two dorsal fins, the cosmoid structure of their scales and dermal bones, and well-formed fleshy lobed paired fins. The internal skeleton of the latter is much concentrated so that only a single...
Chapter
The preceding chapter dealt with the structure and function of the cellular elements in the central nervous system. In the present chapter the same features of assemblies of neurons will be discussed. The approach will be purely morphological, passing from simple to complex and from generalized to specialized, although some theories about the phylo...
Chapter
The science of hodology, from the Greek hodos, meaning road or path, has two principal aims, (a) the determination of the origin(s), course and site(s) of termination of fibre pathways, and (b) the study of the structure and composition of these pathways. During the past 150 years, an enormous body of data has been accumulated on the fibre pathways...
Chapter
“Intelligent activity may reasonably be regarded as the key note of mammalian progress” (Romer 1962). This progress became possible with the acquisition of a neocortex, with its great analytic, associative and synthetic potential. Other mammalian characteristics, such as improvements in the circulation and in temperature regulation and, in most mam...
Chapter
The present chapter is devoted to the central nervous system of holostean and teleostean fishes. Holostean species are restricted to only two genera, i.e. Lepisosteus (the gars), with seven species, and Amia, with a single species, i.e. Amia calva, the bowfin. These are extants of a once abundant group of bony fishes that was largely replaced in th...
Chapter
The Actinopterygii or ray-finned fishes are usually subdivided into three superorders: the Chondrostei, the Holostei and the Teleostei. The present chapter is devoted to the Chondrostei, which are generally considered the most primitive and the most ancient of these three groups. This superorder contains 25 extant species arranged in two families:...
Chapter
The lancelet Branchiostoma lanceolatum, or amphioxus as it is commonly called, is a small, translucent animal some 4–6 cm in length. Although amphioxus resembles a fish, it has a much simpler organisation (Fig. 9.1). There is no true head, and paired special sense organs are entirely lacking. Its body axis is formed by a well-developed notochord, e...
Chapter
Hagfishes (Myxinoidea, myxinoids), sometimes also referred to as slime eels, are benthic marine organisms that occur in temperate or cold water at depths varying from approximately 10 to 1000 m. The following features are characteristic of myxinoids (Fig. 11.1): the body is cylindric and elongated; the adults of most hagfish species achieve a body...
Chapter
The bony fishes, or Osteichthys, constitute by far the largest class of extant vertebrates, encompassing more than 25 000 species. The great majority of these species belong in the large subclass Actino-pterygii, or ray-finned fishes. However, the Oste-ichthyes encompass three other subclasses: the Brachiopterygii, or arm-finned fishes (also design...
Chapter
The lungfishes or Dipnoi form an extremely ancient group of fishes which appeared in the lower Devonian and reached the zenith of its evolution in late Devonian and Carboniferous times (Moy-Thomas and Miles 1971). A variety of fossil lungfishes have been described from geological formations all over the world, but in the recent fauna this group is...
Chapter
In this chapter the morphogenesis and the general morphology of the CNS of vertebrates will be discussed. As regards morphogenesis, emphasis will be laid on those processes and features that are of direct importance for the interpretation of the parts of the adult brain and spinal cord.
Chapter
The neural plate and early neural tube are formed by a single layer of columnar cells, the neuroepithelium (Fig. 5.1a). As this layer thickens it gradually acquires the configuration of a pseudostratified epithelium; that is to say, its nuclei become arranged in more and more layers, but all elements remain in contact with the external and internal...
Book
This section surveys the structure and function of the central nervous system in the various groups of vertebrates. Since it would be impossible to review all the available data on every species examined, we had to be selective. Our choices were based on the following considerations, (a) The species to be dealt with should represent all major group...
Article
This chapter discusses human brain, with particular focuses on the cerebral cortex, which is the principal and dominating center in the human brain. Information related to happenings in the external world enters the brain via the olfactory, somatosensory, auditory, and visual systems. This information from the extrapersonal space is subjected to a...
Article
By way of introduction, an outline is presented of the origin and evolutionary development of the neocortex. A cortical formation is lacking in amphibians, but a simple three-layered cortex is present throughout the pallium of reptiles. In mammals, two three-layered cortical structures, i.e. the prepiriform cortex and the hippocampus, are separated...
Article
In this paper an outline is presented of the foundations of comparative neuroanatomy. The significance of topology (i.e. the geometry of distortion) for an accurate analysis of the kinds of morphological transformations to which central nervous systems are subjected is emphasized. The major tasks of comparative neuroanatomy are: (1) to sample the v...
Article
The efferent connections of the hypothalamic area of the rat, where attack behaviour can be elicited by electrical stimulation, were studied using iontophoretic injections of Phaseolus vulgaris-leucoagglutinin. Specificity for the hypothalamic "attack area" was investigated by comparison with efferents of hypothalamic sites outside the attack area....
Article
Total neuron numbers in the amygdala and in eight of its subnuclei were determined in 9 cases of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and in 6 age-matched controls (AMC). Total neuron numbers were obtained using the fractionator. A neuron loss of 56.3% for the left amygdala and 50.5% for the right amygdala in AD was found, being more severe than previously rep...
Article
By way of introduction, an outline is presented of the origin and evolutionary development of the neocortex. A cortical formation is lacking in amphibians, but a simple three-layered cortex is present throughout the pallium of reptiles. In mammals, two three-layered cortical structures, i.e. the prepiriform cortex and the hippocampus, are separated...
Article
This paper presents a survey of the cell masses in the brainstem of the generalized actinopterygian fish Amia calva, based on transversely cut Nissl-, Klüver-Barrera-, and Bodian-stained serial sections. This study is intended to serve a double purpose. First it forms part of a now almost complete series of publications on the structure of the brai...
Article
The efferent connections of the hypothalamic area, where grooming can be elicited by local electrical stimulation or injection of various substances, were studied using iontophoretic injections ofPhaseolus vulgaris leucoagglutinin. This hypothalamic “grooming area” consists of parts of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus and of the dorsal hypo...
Article
The neurons of the mesencephalic periaqueductal grey substance (PAG) in the rat are small and medium sized. The cells are frequently located in small clusters, without interdigitating glial elements and may be connected by direct membrane appositions or by gap junctions. The inner zone of the PAG is cell poor. In many cases, the cytoplasm of the ce...
Chapter
Projections descending from the hypothalamus to the PAG are in the rat characterized by the fact that they have in common with other ascending and descending projections the principle of termination within restricted parts of the PAG (see Blomqvist and Craig; Shipley et al., this volume). For that reason, we have to pay first some attention to the...
Article
The present study is devoted to a detailed analysis of the structural and synaptic organization of mormyrid Purkinje cells in order to evaluate the possible functional significance of their dendritic palisade pattern. For this purpose, the properties of Golgi-impregnated as well as unimpregnated Purkinje cells in lobe C1 and C3 of the cerebellum of...
Article
The boundaries of the medial forebrain bundle (MFB) of the rat have been presented in previous work on the structure of this fiber system (Nieuwenhuys et al.: J. Comp. Neurol. 206:49-81, '82). Neuronal cell bodies within these outlines constitute the bed nucleus of the MFB. Many fiber components of the MFB appeared to be spatially arranged within t...
Article
In the preceding study (Geeraedts et al.: J. Comp. Neurol. 294:507-536, '90), the rostral or telencephalic portion of the rat's bed nucleus of the medial forebrain bundle (MFB) has been parcellated into several cytoarchitectonically distinct cellular groups and subgroups. The purpose of the present investigation is to subject the caudal or lateral...
Article
In the literature, activation of the hypothalamo-neurohypophyseal system (HNS) in normal aging has been demonstrated in rat and human. This activation might be secondary to an age-related decline in vasopressin binding sites in the kidney, or to cell loss in the supraoptic (SON) and paraventricular nuclei (PVN) and/or to an age-related decline in n...
Article
Marked neuron loss in the nucleus basalis of Meynert complex (NBMC) in Alzheimer's disease has repeatedly been reported in the literature. However, most of these studies quantitated only magnocellular, hyperchromatic (putative cholinergic) neurons of just a small part of the NBMC, and counts were expressed as numerical density. Applying a 3-dimensi...
Article
Electrical stimulation of different parts of the rat hypothalamus has shown that the paraventricular nucleus (PVH) and dorsal hypothalamic area (DHA) form part of the neural substrate involved in grooming behaviour. In order to differentiate between the possible involvement of either cell bodies or passing fibres, selective stimulation of cell bodi...
Article
The class of bony fishes or Osteichthyes is usually subdivided into two subclasses, the Actinopterygii or ray-finned fishes and the Sarcopterygii or lobe-finned fishes. The subclass last mentioned, the telencephalon of which will be treated in the next chapter, can further be subdivided into the Dipnoi or lungfishes and the Crossopterygii or tassel...
Article
Crossopterygians are a distinctive and once widespread group of fishes, first known from rocks of Devonian age. They are characterized by the possession of two dorsal fins, the cosmoid structure of their scales and dermal bones, and well-formed fleshy-lobed paired fins. The internal skeleton of the latter is much concentrated so that only a single...
Article
The fine structural localization of fibres immunoreactive for the adrenocorticotrope hormone (ACTH) was studied in the mesencephalic central grey substance (MCG) of the male Wistar rat. Light microscopically, varicose ACTH-immunoreactive fibres were found throughout the MCG in a dorsal, lateral and ventral, periventricular position. Electron micros...
Article
A quantitative electron microscopic analysis was undertaken of the development of the pyramidal tract, at the level of the third cervical spinal segment, in rats ranging in age from the day of birth to three months old. The axon number was calculated as the product of axon density, determined in a systematic random sample of electron micrographs, a...
Article
The superior colliculus (SC) or optic tectum of mammals consists of seven layers, numbered I-VII from superficial to deep, each of which has distinct connectivity patterns and electrophysiological response properties. The present study is devoted to a morphometrical analysis of neuronal diameters, densities, and numbers in different layers and regi...