Roy Shore's research while affiliated with NYU Langone Medical Center and other places

Publications (14)

Article
Full-text available
Recently, several compilations of individual radiation epidemiology study results have aimed to obtain direct evidence on the magnitudes of dose-rate effects on radiation-related cancer risks. These compilations have relied on meta-analyses of ratios of risks from low dose-rate studies and matched risks from the solid cancer Excess Relative Risk mo...
Article
Evidence is mounting that cigarette smoking contributes to second primary contralateral breast cancer (CBC) risk. Whether radiation therapy (RT) interacts with smoking to modify this risk is unknown. In this multicenter, individually-matched case-control study, we examined the association between RT, smoking, and CBC risk. The study included 1,521...
Article
The recently published NCRP Commentary No. 27 evaluated the new information from epidemiologic studies as to their degree of support for applying the linear nonthreshold (LNT) model of carcinogenic effects for radiation protection purposes [1]. The aim was to determine whether recent epidemiologic studies of low-LET radiation, particularly those at...
Article
Purpose The Women’s Environmental Cancer and Radiation Epidemiology (WECARE) study demonstrated the importance of breast cancer family history on contralateral breast cancer (CBC) risk, even for noncarriers of deleterious BRCA1/2 mutations. With the completion of WECARE II, updated risk estimates are reported. Additional analyses that exclude women...
Article
Full-text available
In order to quantify radiation risks at exposure scenarios relevant for radiation protection, often extrapolation of data obtained at high doses and high dose rates down to low doses and low dose rates is needed. Task Group TG91 on ‘Radiation Risk Inference at Low-dose and Low-dose Rate Exposure for Radiological Protection Purposes’ of the Internat...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: We examined the degree of over- and under-reporting of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) among female breast cancer survivors comparing self-reports to diagnostic codes from the Danish National Patient Register (NPR). Methods: The study comprised 357 Danish breast cancer patients from the WECARE study who completed a telephone interview co...
Article
Purpose: Estimated radiation risks used for radiation protection purposes have been based primarily on the Life Span Study (LSS) of atomic bomb survivors who received brief exposures at high dose rates, many with high doses. Information is needed regarding radiation risks from low dose-rate (LDR) exposures to low linear-energy-transfer (low-LET) ra...
Article
Full-text available
Substantial effort is now under way to identify and follow up patients who have received a computed tomography (CT) scan, to determine whether any increased risk of cancer resulting from exposure to ionising radiation during a scan can be detected. CT scans are becoming an increasingly popular and effective diagnostic tool, and their usage has rise...
Article
Methods for the analysis of individually matched case-control stud- ies where location-specific radiation dose or/and tumor location infor- mation has been collected are described. These include likelihood methods for analyses that just use cases with precise location of tu- mor information, that also include cases with imprecise tumor loca- tion i...

Citations

... However, recent reanalysis of some large animal datasets did not yield very strong evidence for the ameliorating effects of low dose-rate or low dose exposure on cancer risk (Tran and Little 2017), although evidence of such dose rate effects is stronger when the less relevant endpoint of life shortening is used (Haley et al. 2015). This evidence relating to possible effects of dose rate is fairly weak, since we are comparing risks in moderate and high dose rate studies with those at low dose rate among very different study populations, with different periods of follow-up; nevertheless, what we have done is in the spirit of similar exercises that have been conducted in the epidemiological literature that attempt to assess dose rate effects (Hoel 2018;Jacob et al. 2009;Kocher et al. 2018;Little et al. 2021d;Shore et al. 2017;Walsh et al. 2021). ...
... Furthermore, young age is an independent negative predictor of BC survival. 4,5 Young age also correlates with the risk of local recurrence and contralateral BC. 5,16 It is estimated that by increasing BC awareness, the proportion of BC in young women will increase in China. BC in young women presents a clinical challenge; thus, it is necessary to establish a model to predict the risk of BC among very patients, to aid in personalized treatment for these patients. ...
... Such approach facilitates linear extrapolation of data from high and medium doses to low dose radiation. However, there are considerable uncertainties in assessing the risk-related outcomes at low doses or low dose rates (Preston 2017;Shore et al. 2018). Several national and international organizations of radiation protection have recommended integrating the data of radiation biology and epidemiology to improve the radiation risk assessment process NCRP 2020;NASEM 2022). ...
... Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in females (71). Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease, with major subtypes defined by expression of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) receptor (72). ...
... The question becomes, given the present need to operate in such environments and the limiting factor of radiation hardening, what is the best approach to maximize the available operational time in an environment within current capabilities? This work will present a survey of current solutions for the [76] (B) Shape-changing robot. [77] (C) AVEXIS. ...
... 5,6 The understanding and recognition of one's own comorbidities is an essential and fundamental aspect of patient education. 7 Studies on the general population, [1][2][3]8,9 patients with cancer, [10][11][12] and patients with chronic kidney disease 13,14 have reported that patients do not necessarily recognize their own comorbid conditions that are recorded in their medical records and that the agreement between self-reported and provider-reported comorbidities is generally poor. The accuracy of self-reported comorbidities among patients with heart failure has not been reported. ...
... The standard approach for the purposes of radiological protection is based on the hypothesis that radiation-induced risks are directly proportional to the administered dose, as described by the LNT hypothesis. Nevertheless, several radiobiologists have argued that this approach underestimates the current risks (i.e., the relationship is properly described by dose-response curves of a supralinear shape) or that there is a threshold dose below which either no effect or even a beneficial (hormetic) effect is likely to exist [73]. ...
... The Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear accident in Japan in 2011 also released radioactive iodine, but an order of magnitude less than the release during the Chernobyl accident, and thyroid doses were estimated to be much less than those received by children living around Chernobyl (United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) 2014; 2021b). As yet, no studies of populations exposed from Fukushima have incorporated individual dosimetry; in particular this is the case for studies of thyroid cancer by Tsuda et al (Tsuda et al. 2016) and by Ohira et al (Ohira et al. 2020) (see Table 5); the study of Tsuda et al (Tsuda et al. 2016) has been much criticised on other grounds (Wakeford et al. 2016). ...
... Recent studies have found that low-dose medical procedures in childhood are associated with increased cancer risks in later years [1][2][3]. However, while the association between high-dose radiation exposure and cancer is well-established, the causal significance of low-dose exposures from diagnostic imaging is still contested, particularly due to concerns of reverse causation and indication bias [4,5]. Children seem more radiosensitive for some, albeit not all, cancer types; they are more susceptible to radiation-induced myelodysplasia, brain cancer, and thyroid cancer, but have lower susceptibility than adults to lung cancer [6]. ...
... The CT studies reported some statistically significant elevation of cancer rates at doses of a few tens of mSv. However, caution has been advised in the interpretation of these studies (Walsh et al., 2013(Walsh et al., , 2014Boice, 2015). A number of problems were identified, including lack of information on the reasons for the scans, and lack of individual dose reconstruction. ...