Ron Read's research while affiliated with Alberta Health Services and other places

Publications (36)

Article
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Objectives To review the notification rate and characteristics of tertiary and neurosyphilis cases in Alberta, Canada in the postantibiotic era. Methods A retrospective review of all neurosyphilis and tertiary syphilis cases reported in Alberta from 1973 to March 2017 was undertaken and cases classified into early neurosyphilis, late neurosyphilis...
Article
Full-text available
Alberta established a surveillance system in 2001 to monitor resistance to antibiotics used for the treatment of gonorrhea. A retrospective review of gonorrhea cases during the last five years was conducted. All cases of gonorrhea were reportable to public health by testing laboratories and clinicians. Specimens were primarily submitted for nucleic...
Article
Background: A case of gonococcal conjunctivitis (GC) prompted us to review the reported cases and treatment regimens of gonococcal conjunctivitis in Alberta, Canada. Methods: Gonococcal cases reported from 2000 to 2016 were extracted from the provincial STI reporting database. The diagnosis of GC was based on a positive culture and/or nucleic ac...
Article
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Objectives Syphilis is a global health concern with an estimated 12 million infections occurring annually. Due to the increasing rates of new syphilis infections being reported in patients infected with HIV, and their higher risk for atypical and severe presentations, periodic screening has been recommended as a routine component of HIV care. We ai...
Article
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Background: Syphilis is a global health concern disproportionately affecting HIV-infected populations. In Alberta, Canada, the incidence of syphilis in the general population has recently doubled with 25% of these infections occurring in HIV-infected patients. The Southern Alberta HIV Clinic (SAC) and Calgary STI Program (CSTI) analyzed the epidem...
Article
One hundred and thirteen patients with gonococcal (NG) and chlamydial (CT) PID were reviewed at two Canadian STI clinics. The majority (81%) of patients with PID were diagnosed with CT alone. Three treatment failures (TF) were seen in patients treated with ofloxacin.
Article
Full-text available
Background Syphilis is an emerging global health concern with an estimated 12 million new infections being documented annually. In individuals with HIV, syphilis presentations may be atypical leading to the recommendation for regular routine screening. This retrospective cohort study aimed to characterize syphilis presentation and serologic feature...
Article
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Objectives To determine the prevalence and correlates of Mycoplasma genitalium (MG) infection among men and women, determine the prevalence of gene mutations conferring resistance and compare test performance of female specimen types. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted on specimens collected for gonorrhoea (NG, Neisseria gonorrhoeae) an...
Article
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Trichomonas vaginalis prevalence (2.8%) in female sexually transmitted infection clinic attendees was within the prevalence of chlamydia (5.8%) and gonorrhea (1.8%), while being very low for male attendees (0.2%). Correlates among women were indigenous ethnicity, other ethnicity, and being symptomatic.
Article
Adding universal rectal screening to urogenital screening should positively impact rectal Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) incidence in affected populations. A dynamic Markov model was used to evaluate costs and outcomes of three rectal CT screening strategies among women attending sexually transmitted infection clinics in Alberta, Canada: universal urog...
Article
Fifty-seven cases of gonococcal and chlamydial infections complicated by acute epididymitis seen at 2 Alberta STI clinics from 2004 to 2014 were reviewed. The majority responded to treatment recommended by national guidelines. Three of 6 treatment failures were not treated according to guidelines.
Article
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We sought to confirm the results of 81 rectal specimens positive for Chlamydia trachomatis by the APTIMA Combo 2 assay among patients with concurrently collected negative genitourinary specimens. A total of 79 (97.5%) samples were confirmed by the APTIMA single target assay and/or sequencing of the C. trachomatis ompA gene.
Article
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We examined the prevalence of rectal chlamydia treatment failures in men who have sex with men and women attending Alberta sexually transmitted infection clinics. Among those completing a test of cure, there was no significant difference among patients treated initially with azithromycin (treatment failure, 39/460 [8.5%]; 95% confidence interval, 5...
Article
Antimicrobial resistance has developed to all antibiotics used to treat gonorrhea (GC), and trends in GC antimicrobial resistance have prompted changes in treatment guidelines. We examined treatment failures in sexually transmitted infection clinics. Four Canadian sexually transmitted infection clinics reviewed treatment regimens, minimum inhibitor...
Article
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Background: Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common notifiable disease in Canada, and extragenital sites are believed to serve as hidden reservoirs for ongoing transmission of infection. There are no specific Canadian screening guidelines for asymptomatic individuals from extragenital sites. We sought to determine the prevalence and factors assoc...
Conference Paper
Background: The emergence of reduced susceptibility of N. gonorrhoeae (NG) to cephalosporins and azithromycin has required the global revision of treatment guidelines. In Alberta, Canada in December 2011, guidelines for preferred treatment were changed from monotherapy with cefixime 400 mg orally or ceftriaxone 125 mg IM to dual therapy with ceph...
Article
Full-text available
We sought to determine the prevalence of rectal chlamydia and gonorrhea after the introduction of nucleic acid amplification tests for screening in men reporting receptive anal intercourse. The rectal chlamydia prevalence was 14.1% (95% confidence interval, 11.9-16.3), and the gonorrhea prevalence was 5.9% (95% confidence interval, 4.4-7.3). Most c...
Article
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Our review of Neisseria gonorrhoeae pharyngeal treatment failures from sexually transmitted infection clinics in Alberta suggests that treatment failures with oral cefixime monotherapy were not related to elevated cefixime minimum inhibitory concentrations. Dual therapy with oral cefixime and azithromycin may be a suitable alternate for the treatme...
Article
Full-text available
In our jurisdiction the APTIMA Combo 2® assay (GEN-PROBE) is used to detect Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) from specimens collected at Sexually Transmitted Infections (STI) clinics and from select community patients. In addition, swabs are also collected for NG culture, susceptibility testing and sequence typing (ST). Since only a small proportion of p...
Article
Antimicrobial resistance testing and behavioral data combined with Neisseria gonorrhoeae multiantigen sequence typing (NG-MAST) can help to define gonococcal populations and identify, characterize, and compare clusters of infection. Antimicrobial resistance testing, using E test, was reviewed for gonococcal isolates in Alberta, Canada, from 2007 to...
Conference Paper
Background: Following the widespread use of expanded spectrum cephalosporins (ESC) for the treatment of gonorrhea, initial reports of gonococci with reduced susceptibility to ESC and cases of treatment failure have been reported globally. Pharyngeal infection serves as a potential reservoir that sustains the community prevalence of gonorrhea and ha...
Conference Paper
Background: Gonorrhea has evolved to develop reduced susceptibility to multiple antimicrobials. NG-MAST typing can help to define gonococcal populations and identify clusters of infection. Methods: Antimicrobial susceptibility testing, using E-test, was reviewed for gonococcal isolates in Alberta, Canada from 2007 to 2010. Isolates with MICs...
Article
Full-text available
Background Recent recommendations propose that samples dually reactive by a syphilis enzyme immunoassay (sEIA) and RPR be reported as positive for syphilis without confirmatory testing. Methods Samples from 1 September 2007 to 19 March 2011 testing reactive by sEIA and tested by INNO-LIA (IL) were extracted from the Alberta Provincial Laboratory fo...
Article
Objectives: To describe the maternal characteristics, diagnosis, and pregnancy, and the neonatal outcomes of pregnant women with reactive syphilis serology in a Canadian cohort. Methods: We conducted a retrospective chart review of pregnant women in Alberta with reactive syphilis serology between 2002 and 2006. Clinical staging of syphilis in mo...
Article
Resurgence of syphilis in Canada and worldwide requires laboratories to update their methods for molecular epidemiology investigation and surveillance. This study utilizes polymerase chain reaction diagnostic tests for syphilis, identifies macrolide resistance, and uses a molecular typing system to characterize Treponema pallidum clinical strains c...
Article
To describe the impact of surveillance for antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in Neisseria gonorrhoeae over a 7-year period on treatment guidelines in Alberta, Canada. AMR testing data from gonorrhea cases were combined with demographic and risk behavior information collected through surveillance to describe trends and sequential changes to treatment g...
Article
Full-text available
Although detection of Treponema pallidum DNA in whole-blood specimens of syphilis patients has been reported, it is uncertain at what stage of the disease such specimens are most suitable for the molecular diagnosis of syphilis. Also, few studies have directly compared the different gene targets for routine laboratory diagnostic usage in PCR assays...

Citations

... Of 8874 cases of syphilis diagnosed at that time, 251 were neurosyphilis, the were syphilis of the cardiovascular system, and no case of gummatous syphilis was noted. The most frequent manifestation of neurosyphilis was the involvement of the eyes [78]. ...
... 1 However, their performance in GOI has not been fully assessed and are not widely used in clinical practice. 2 We believe it is worth considering NAATs in combination with culture when GOI is suspected, given this diagnostic tool is rapid and easy to collect by any clinician. ...
... Of 27 individual countries with included surveillance systems, five were in the WHO African Region (n = 54 countries) [24][25][26][27][28][29], four in WHO Region of the Americas (n = 41 countries) [30][31][32][33][34][35][36][37][38][39]; one in the WHO Eastern Mediterranean Region (n = 22 countries) [40], nine in the WHO European Region (n = 53 countries) [41][42][43][44][45][46][47][48][49][50][51][52][53][54], three in the WHO South-East Asia Region (n = 11 countries) [55][56][57], and five in the WHO Western Pacific Region (n = 27 countries) [58][59][60][61][62][63][64]. See Table 1 and Supplementary Table S2a and Table S2b, which provide an overview of surveillance systems. ...
... One feature of the current syphilis epidemics among MSM is the increasing prevalence of repeat syphilis infections, with increasing proportions of cases being reported from Belgium [8], Australia [9] and the United States [10]. With mounting evidence on the increased frequency and the mostly asymptomatic nature of these cases among MSM [11][12][13][14], frequent syphilis screening after initial diagnosis and treatment has been identified as a key strategy to control the epidemic in this population. National guidelines in Australia [15] and the United States [16] recommend syphilis testing for sexually active MSM as frequently as every three months. ...
... One of the major concerns related to syphilis is that, similar to other sexually transmitted diseases, it is also associated with HIV and leads to adverse health outcomes. 12 People with syphilis infections are more likely to be infected with HIV. 11 TB is considered to be a major public health threat. ...
... The eradication of M. genitalium is hampered by increased antibiotic resistance. Besides intrinsic resistance to all β-lactams, macrolide resistance has been reported in over 50% of M. genitalium isolates from patients with urethritis and cervicitis in many countries [12][13][14]. Moreover, azithromycin treatment fails in at least 10% of susceptible isolates, leading to the selection of strains with macrolide resistance-associated mutations (MRMs) at positions 2058 or 2059 in the 23S ribosomal RNA gene [15,16]. ...
... Despite current control efforts, CT rates have increased by 25% since 2013, whereas GC rates have increased by 74% 2,3 during the same period. Although we do not formally track TV cases in the United States, data [4][5][6][7] from North America suggest that these infections are more common than gonococcal infections among women and that a large proportion, up to 70%, 8 of male sexual partners of women with TV infections are also infected. The sequelae of untreated infections add substantial burden to the health care system [9][10][11] because each has been associated with downstream consequences including pelvic inflammatory disease, 12,13 tubal factor infertility, 14 and adverse outcomes during pregnancy. ...
... In addition, rectal and pharyngeal infections, which are typically asymptomatic, were assumed to impose no direct health utility losses, consistent with assumptions made in a study on rectal chlamydia. 36 This was a simplifying assumption that also implied that only urethral infections lead to epididymitis and DGI. The proportion of gonococcal infections that are urethral in MSM was obtained from synthesis of the published literature. ...
... To optimize the phylogenetic clustering method to a given data set, we evaluate these models for a range of branch-length and bootstrap support thresholds. We assess the performance of our method on HIV-1 sequence data sets from two regions of the United States (Tennessee [55] and Washington state [56]), the northern region of Alberta in Canada [57], and Beijing, China [58]. ...
... In this study, the incidence of gonococcal urethritis with concurrent gonococcal tysonitis was 0.29%, significantly lower than the reported incidences of gonococcal urethritis with concurrent gonococcal paraurethral duct infection (1.50%) [11] and gonococcal urethritis with concurrent gonococcal epididymitis (0.41%) [12]. Our findings suggest that gonococcal tysonitis is a rare local complication of gonococcal urethritis. ...