Roger J. Booth's research while affiliated with University of Auckland and other places

Publications (104)

Article
Introduction: This study investigates psychological distress and quality of life (QoL) amongst first year premedical and health science students. The primary aim of this study was to investigate potential differences in QoL and psychological distress between students who sought entry into a medicine programme when compared to those opting for a non...
Article
Background Nurses are a critical component of any healthcare system. The novel coronavirus pandemic has resulted in an increased workload for nurses and heightened stress. Aims To assess the psychological health over time of nurses working during the COVID-19 pandemic and to examine the factors associated with stress, anxiety, and psychological we...
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Although the current randomized controlled trial has previously reported an effect of mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) on improving disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), the possible mechanisms underlying this relationship remain unknown. This report presents secondary analyses examining anxiety and depression as potential mediato...
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Objective This study compares data from two medical student cohorts early in their training from New Zealand and Hong Kong and then makes further comparisons with a non-medical group. Methods Questionnaires obtained information regarding educational site (universities situated in New Zealand, Hong Kong, and USA), gender, age, motivational beliefs,...
Article
Measuring competitiveness is necessary to fully understand variables affecting student learning. The 14-item Revised Competitiveness Index has become a widely used measure to assess trait competitiveness. The current study reports on a Rasch analysis to investigate the psychometric properties of the Revised Competitiveness Index and to improve its...
Article
Strong theoretical arguments, such as the expectancy-value theory, support the idea that high-stakes examinations can cultivate competitive behavior and have an impact on wellbeing and motivation, especially in courses that demand high grades for admission. Academic achievement in a high-stakes examination can be explained by cost factors (measured...
Article
Objective: Writing emotionally about upsetting life events (expressive writing) has been shown to speed healing of punch-biopsy wounds compared to writing objectively about daily activities. We aimed to investigate whether a presurgical expressive writing intervention could improve surgical wound healing. Method: Seventy-six patients undergoing...
Article
Rasch analysis was conducted to enhance the precision of the widely used 10-item Perceived Stress Scale using two datasets (n = 450 each) randomly selected from samples of the New Zealand general population (n = 1102), New Zealand university students (n = 479) and US university students (n = 396). The best Rasch model fit (χ2(27) = 29.92, p = .36),...
Article
At this university, a Biomedical Common Year 1 occurs prior to admission to the medical programme. Students achieving a minimum GPA of 6.0 are eligible for consideration for an admissions interview. The aim of this research was to assess the psycho-educational factors that underpin students’ intention to study medicine. The research question drivin...
Article
Written emotional disclosure (expressive writing) has been shown to reduce stress and speed the healing of punch-biopsy wounds in laboratory studies. However, no research has investigated whether expressive writing can improve wound healing in surgical patients. We investigated whether a pre-operative expressive writing intervention could improve s...
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Vagally mediated heart rate variability (vmHRV) is a measure of cardiac vagal tone, and is widely viewed as a physiological index of the capacity to regulate emotions. However, studies have not directly tested whether vmHRV is associated with the ability to facially express emotions. In extending prior work, the current report tested links between...
Article
Objective: In order to harness the placebo effect for clinical benefit, more research is needed to determine who might be responsive to a placebo treatment. Recently, a two-faceted Transactional Model of Placebo Responding (TMPR) was offered, which suggests different personality types might respond to different contextual cues. The current study d...
Article
Background: With a healthcare system burdened by symptomatic and mental-health related conditions, the placebo effect may represent a useful clinical tool. First, however, there is a need to broaden research attention and investigate placebo effects outside laboratories and beyond experimental pain. This study investigated the effectiveness of a t...
Article
This study investigated trait predictors of placebo responses in the context of inflammatory skin reactions. This was a randomized, cross-over, experimental study using a deceptive placebo protocol. A healthy sample of volunteers (N = 48) completed online personality measures, then attended two laboratory sessions in which short-term inflammatory s...
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Purpose: To investigate suggestion-induced placebo effects in inflammatory skin reactions. Methods: A healthy sample of volunteers (N = 48) attended two laboratory sessions. In each, a local short term inflammatory skin reaction was induced with histamine. Participants were told that one session was a control session and the other was a treatmen...
Article
Mindfulness training involves the cultivation of non-judgemental attention to unwanted thoughts, feelings and bodily experiences via meditation and may help ameliorate both psychological and physical symptoms of chronic disease.1 Clinical trials have shown that mindfulness training improves the psychological well-being of people with rheumatoid art...
Article
The placebo effect is now recognised as a genuine psychobiological phenomenon; however, the question of how it can be systematically harnessed to improve health outcomes is not yet clear. One issue that remains unresolved is why some respond to placebos and others do not. A number of traits have been linked to responding, but findings are scattered...
Article
Objective To investigate whether expressive writing could speed wound reepithelialization in healthy, older adults.Methods In this randomized controlled trial, 49 healthy older adults aged 64 to 97 years were assigned to write for 20 minutes a day either about upsetting life events (Expressive Writing) or about daily activities (Time Management) fo...
Article
Although mindfulness has been generally linked to superior emotional functioning, several areas remain unclear. In extending prior work, the current report evaluated the link between trait mindfulness and physiological patterns of recovery from negative emotion and . investigated possible associations between trait mindfulness and emotion different...
Article
Objectives: The purpose of these two studies was to assess how repressors and defensive, high-anxious individuals exhibit their psychological and health characteristics subjectively through self-reports and objectively through physiological markers and ratings of emotional expression. Design: Cross-sectional descriptive design (study one) and ra...
Article
Objective The aim of this study was to examine whether participation in a 4-week massage intervention is associated with reduced distress and enhanced antibody responses after hepatitis B vaccine in students embarking on academic examinations.Methods Seventy medical student volunteers (36 women, 34 men) were randomly assigned to intervention or con...
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Physical diseases that appear to be symbolic somatic representations of patients' personal meanings or individual 'stories' continue to be reported in the medical literature. The identification of a symbolic disease requires a clinical focus upon a patient's highly individual and nuanced meanings largely rendered invisible by the usual methodologie...
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LIWC is, originally, a text analysis program that counts words of English texts in psychologically meaningful categories. It provides an analysis (in percentage) for 80 dimensions of language (functional words, topics, punctuation). The goal of this methodological note is to present the French LIWC. This version respects the structure of the catego...
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Psychological stress has been shown to impair wound healing, but experimental research in surgical patients is lacking. This study investigated whether a brief psychological intervention could reduce stress and improve wound healing in surgical patients. This randomised controlled trial was conducted at a surgical centre. Inclusion criteria were En...
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The local and systemic humoral response after colorectal surgery is thought to affect postoperative recovery. It is commonly claimed that laparoscopic surgery elicits a diminished inflammatory response than equivalent open surgery. Despite these claims, the evidence is conflicting. Therefore, we aimed to systematically review the results from rando...
Conference Paper
Introduction: Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) programmes have demonstrated significant reduction in hospital stay for patient undergoing colonic surgery, however their impact on long term outcomes such as Post Operative Fatigue (POF) has not been fully established. Aim: To assess the impact of an ERAS programme on POF and recovery following...
Article
The present study investigated the psychosocial sequelae of radiotherapy and chemotherapy for primary breast cancer. Negative and positive affect and functional impairment were measured at five intervals between pretreatment and three months after treatment in 78 patients with primary breast cancer who were undergoing radio- or chemotherapy. The ra...
Article
Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) programs have demonstrated significant reduction in hospital stay for patients undergoing colonic surgery; however, their impact on long-term outcomes, such as postoperative fatigue (POF), has not been fully established. To assess the impact of an ERAS program on POF and recovery following elective open coloni...
Article
The effect of post-surgical inflammation, as indicated by peritoneal cytokines and neopterin, was assessed on the duration and characteristics of post-surgical fatigue (PSF) experiences. During the weeks following major colorectal surgery, many patients report experiencing substantial fatigue but the physiological factors contributing to this are n...
Article
Feelings of fatigue are pronounced even after uncomplicated abdominal surgery. Patient expectations are associated with a variety of postsurgical outcomes, but few data about fatigue prevalence, nature, and time frame are available for patients and health professionals. Therefore, this study sought to investigate the effect of patient expectations...
Article
This study aimed to explore criteria for shift work tolerance and to investigate the relationships between personality traits and states and shift work tolerance. Eighty-nine policemen and police women completed a questionnaire, once during consecutive night shifts and again during rotating shifts, and their responses were used to assess anxiety, e...
Article
The present study examined the effects of emotional disclosure (ED) intervention on both disease severity and quality of life in patients with psoriasis. Fifty-nine patients were recruited (mean age, 50 years; 32 men and 27 women; mean length of diagnosis, 22 years). Individuals were randomly assigned to receive ED intervention or standard control...
Article
The present study examined how cardiovascular and salivary cortisol responses varied in response to an acute challenge in medical students under exam stress versus those not under exam stress. One hundred and twenty-nine medical students were randomly assigned to undertake a CO2 inhalation test either prior to an examination period (exam group) or...
Article
This study assesses the efficacy of a group intervention in altering emotion regulation processes and promoting adjustment in women with breast cancer. Using a design with 10 alternating phases of availability of the intervention versus standard care, we assessed women participating in one of three conditions: a 12-week group intervention (N = 54);...
Article
Colorectal surgery is associated with a number of postoperative complications, including anastomotic leak and local recurrence. These complications are more common after rectal surgery than after colon surgery. Cytokines are secreted into the peritoneal cavity after colorectal surgery and have a number of metabolic and immunological effects. Hence...
Article
Fatigue is one of the complaints most widely reported during peri-operative periods. However, despite its prevalence, the aetiology of this fatigue remains poorly understood. Recent meta-analysis suggests that the limited applicability of existing fatigue measures is contributing to the current lack of understanding. This research therefore sought...
Article
This prospective study assesses the roles of illness beliefs, emotion regulation factors, and sociodemographic characteristics in decisions to participate in a group support program for women recently diagnosed with breast cancer. Women recruited during clinic visits 2 to 4 weeks after diagnosis completed measures of affective and cognitive factors...
Article
To determine whether writing about emotional topics compared with writing about neutral topics could affect CD4+ lymphocyte count and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) viral load among HIV-infected patients. Thirty-seven HIV-infected patients were randomly allocated to 2 writing conditions focusing on emotional or control topics. Participants wrot...
Article
Laboratory studies have demonstrated that psychological stress is associated with slower healing of small superficial wounds. The application of this finding to the clinical environment has not yet been undertaken. In order to do this, we investigated the relationship between psychological stress and wound repair in patients following routine surge...
Article
This study investigated the positive effects or changes that patients identified in their lives following a myocardial infarction (MI) or breast cancer. One hundred and forty-three patients were assessed in hospital following a first-time MI and 52 breast cancer patients were assessed on referral for radiotherapy. Approximately 3 months later both...
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Individuals often suppress emotional thoughts, particularly thoughts that arouse negative emotions, as a way of regulating mood and reducing distress. However, recent work has highlighted the complexities and unexpected cognitive and physiological effects of thought suppression. In a study designed to examine the short-term immunological effects of...
Article
In order to assess whether disclosure of emotions through writing about upsetting or traumatic events resulted in changes in blood-associated immune variables over time, healthy volunteers were randomly assigned to write about either emotional issues or trivial topics for 4 consecutive days. Circulating lymphocytes and T lymphocyte subsets (CD4 (he...
Article
This study sought to test whether a cognitive-hypnotic intervention could be used to decrease skin reactivity to histamine and whether hypnotizability, physiological variables, attitudes, and mood would influence the size of the skin weals. Thirty eight subjects undertook three individual laboratory sessions; a pretest session to determine sensitiv...
Article
The 19-kDa antigen (19Ag) of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mt) is a lipoprotein which is released from the organism during growth. In order to study the possible involvement of this antigen in the host protective response against Mt infection, it would be helpful to obtain high-level production of 19Ag from a recombinant organism. We have found that...
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This study investigated whether emotional expression of traumatic experiences influenced the immune response to a hepatitis B vaccination program. Forty medical students who tested negative for hepatitis B antibodies were randomly assigned to write about personal traumatic events or control topics during 4 consecutive daily sessions. The day after...
Article
Classical conditioning of immune responsiveness has been extensively investigated in animals, but few successful studies have been reported with humans. We report the results of a study in which an attempt was made to demonstrate conditioned alteration to an allergic skin test response in humans. For 8 of 10 trials, allergic skin tests were adminis...
Article
Classical conditioning of immune responsiveness has been extensively investigated in animals, but few successful studies have been reported with humans.We report the results of a study in which an attempt was made to demonstrate conditioned alteration to an allergic skin test response in humans. For 8 of 10 trials, allergic skin tests were administ...
Article
Hypnosis has been used to ameliorate skin test reactivity in studies dating back to the 1930s. This study using modern methodology and statistical analyses sets out to test the hypothesis that it was possible to decrease reactions to histamine by hypnotic suggestion. Five subjects, all asthmatic and untrained in hypnosis, were given three hypnotic...
Article
Immediate (Type I) hypersensitivity skin reactions to allergens or antigens have been used as immune measures that may be subject to intentional modulation. In preliminary experiments using hypnosis we encountered unacceptably large, uncontrollable variability. A method was subsequently devised in which serial, five-fold dilutions of allergen or hi...
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Most of the antigens of Mycobacterium leprae and M. tuberculosis that have been identified are members of stress protein families, which are highly conserved throughout many diverse species. Of the M. leprae and M. tuberculosis antigens identified by monoclonal antibodies, all except the 18-kDa M. leprae antigen and the 19-kDa M. tuberculosis antig...
Article
A DNA probe encoding ∼80% of the 18-kDa protein gene of Mycobacterium leprae was isolated and tested for specificity by assessing hybridization of the probe to genomic DNA from taxonomically related and unrelated DNA samples. The 360-base-pair (bp) probe was specific for M. lepraeDNA and did not hybridize with genomic DNA from 18 species of bacteri...
Article
To localize the epitopes of four independently derived murine mAb IT-10, IT-12, IT-16, and IT-19 on the 19-kDa Ag protein of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, expression plasmids were constructed containing deletions of the gene encoding the 19-kDa protein. Reaction of the 4 mAb with Western blots of the truncated recombinant proteins revealed two epitop...
Article
The 18-kDa protein of Mycobacterium leprae was purified from recombinant plasmids pUL108 and pML-3 grown in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Escherichia coli, respectively. Significant lymphoproliferative responses were observed when T cells from immunized mice were challenged in culture with purified 18-kDa protein. Synthetic peptides have been prepar...
Article
A murine mAb, designated L5, appears to be specific for an epitope on a protein from Mycobacterium leprae of restricted distribution within the mycobacteria. This protein, of Mr 18,000 (18 kDa) is of interest because monoclonal antibodies raised against it do not appear to cross-react with other mycobacterial pathogens. The L5 antibody-binding epit...
Article
This report describes the use of a recombinant yeast expression vector to synthesize and secrete the Mycobacterium leprae 18 kDa antigenic protein. The protein is secreted with a short hydrophilic 'flag' octapeptide fused to its amino-terminus. The fusion protein can be purified directly from yeast culture supernatant through an anti-flag antibody...
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A murine recombinant retrovirus containing the cDNA encoding the human p55 interleukin-2 (IL2)-binding protein was used to insert this gene into a murine interleukin-3 (IL3)-dependent cell line, FD.C/1. Virus-infected cells, maintained in medium supplemented with IL3, expressed human p55 on the cell surface and readily adapted to growth using human...
Article
Recombinant clones expressing antigenic determinants of the 18-kDa protein antigen from Mycobacterium leprae recognized by the L5 monoclonal antibody were isolated from a lambda gt11 expression library and their nucleotide sequences determined. All clones expressed the M. leprae-specific determinant as part of a large fusion protein with Escherichi...
Article
The in vitro T cell-dependent antibody response of human lymphocytes to influenza virus X31 was used to study the role of T cell-derived lymphokines in antigen-specific responses. Supernatant from cultures of phytohaemagglutinin-stimulated, pooled human tonsil cells (PHA-MLR) was capable of replacing T cells and inducing T-depleted tonsil cells to...
Article
In man, B cell maturation factors obtained from T cells or T cell lines have been shown to induce antibody formation in mitogen or anti-immunoglobulin activated B cells, and in some continuous B cell lines, but the relationships between these factors and B cell differentiation factors in antigen-specific antibody responses is unclear. We have now s...
Article
Two distinct classes of B cell growth factor (BCGF) have been described. BCGF I induces proliferation of anti-IgM-activated B cells, whereas BCGF II acts on a subpopulation activated by dextran sulfate. We examined the effect on both these B cell subsets of a B cell growth and differentiation factor that copurifies with interleukin 1 (BGDF/IL 1) pr...
Article
Band 4 protein, isolated from bovine parotid saliva, was used to immunise BALB/c mice. Monoclonal antibodies specific for this protein were made by fusing spleen cells from immunised BALB/c mice with the mouse myeloma cell lines SP2/0 or MPC/11. About 10% of cultures which contained hybridomas secreted antibodies to band 4 protein, and of these, 2...
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The involvement of interleukin-2 (IL-2) in the generation of human antibody responses was studied using the pokeweed mitogen (PWM)-induced sheep erythrocyte-specific plaque-forming cell (SE-PFC) response of cultured tonsilar lymphocytes. IL-2-containing supernatants from phytohemagglutinin-stimulated human spleen or tonsil cells or the cloned human...