Roger Ho's research while affiliated with National University of Singapore and other places

Publications (285)

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Purpose of Review Lumateperone (LUM) is the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved atypical antipsychotic agent for adults with schizophrenia (SCZ) and bipolar depression (for both bipolar I and bipolar II disorder as as monotherapy or as adjunctive treatment to lithium or valproate). LUM simultaneously modulates serotonin, dopamine, and glutam...
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We sought to develop and validate a self-assessment burnout scale of the Chinese general population during the COVID-19 pandemic in the context of a dynamic zero-COVID policy. Factors relevant to individuals’ burnout during the prolonged COVID-19 pandemic were identified in the literature and through the reviews of an expert panel. A convenience sa...
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Anhedonia is a common, persistent, and disabling condition. However, available therapeutics primarily focus on the reduction of depressive and negative symptoms rather than amelioration of deficits in positive affect. As such, extant drug treatments remain largely ineffective in treating symptoms of anhedonia. Ketamine is a rapid-acting and novel t...
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Introduction Bipolar disorder (BD) is characterized by a pro-inflammatory biotype, and is a major cause of cardiovascular disease (CVD), consequently causing elevated rates of morbidity and mortality among individuals with BD. Methods The present study is based on a 12-week clinical trial assessing the antidepressant effects of adjunctive inflixim...
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Background Available studies have evaluated cognition in the unaffected relatives of bipolar disorder patients; however, to our knowledge, there has been no quantitative analysis evaluating the foregoing association. Herein, this meta-analysis aims to provide a quantitative synthesis of the extant literature reporting on the association between per...
Conference Paper
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Introduction: Despite its great success, COVID-19 vaccination has been met either with trust, hesitation, or negation from the general population, including students. Objectives: The study aimed to assess: 1) the rate of COVID-19 vaccination in a group of students from Poland, Philippines, Bangladesh, India, Egypt, Pakistan, China, Mexico, and Viet...
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Introduction: : Ketamine is an established intervention for treatment resistant depression (TRD). However, long-term adverse effects with repeated doses remain insufficiently characterized. Although several animal models have shown N-methyl-D-aspartate glutamate receptor antagonists to produce various neuropathological reactions, attention surroun...
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While ketamine has been used clinically over the past decades, it has only been recently shown to be a promising therapy for treatment-resistant depression (TRD). However, ketamine and related dissociative agents may also be misused recreationally, creating significant concerns for abuse liability when prescribed for depression. Although the abuse...
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Background Early diagnosis of major depressive disorder (MDD) could enable timely interventions and effective management which subsequently improve clinical outcomes. However, quantitative and objective assessment tools for the suspected cases who present with depressive symptoms have not been fully established. Methods Based on a large-scale data...
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Background Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and depression are conditions which commonly co-exist. Recent longitudinal studies now suggest a bidirectional association between these disorders, with inconsistent results. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to examine this relationship. Methods Three electronic databases (PubMed, Embase and P...
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Introduction: Hallucinogen persisting perception disorder (HPPD) affects a subset of persons who use hallucinogens and is defined as the repeated experience of hallucinations and other perceptual disturbances as a result of prior intoxications. As select hallucinogens are under development for the treatment of selectmental disorders, there is a ne...
Conference Paper
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INTRODUCTION The COVID-19 pandemic resulted in a change of cigarette smoking habits of many students, but little is known about its relationship with their well-being. This study aimed to assess: 1) smoking behavior during the COVID-19 pandemic, 2) the relationship between cigarette smoking and the intensity of the emotional distress among students...
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The therapeutic values of contact with nature have been increasingly recognized. A growing body of evidence suggests that a unique subcategory of "contemplative landscapes" is particularly therapeutic. Previous studies predominantly focused on observational designs in non-clinical populations. It is not known if these effects can be extrapolated to...
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Background A considerable proportion of individuals report persistent, debilitating and disparate symptoms despite resolution of acute COVID-19 infection (i.e. long COVID). Numerous registered clinical trials investigating treatment of long COVID are expected to be completed in 2021–2022. The aim of this review is to provide a scope of the candida...
Preprint
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Introduction: Lumateperone (LUM) is the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved atypical antipsychotic agent for adults with schizophrenia (SCZ) and bipolar depression (for both bipolar I and bipolar II disorder as adjunctive treatment to lithium or valproate and as monotherapy). LUM simultaneously modulates serotonin, dopamine, and glutamate ne...
Article
Background Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with a broad range of deficits in cognitive functions which has significant implications for quality of life. Psychostimulants are demonstrated to improve symptoms of inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity, however, their impact on cognition remains incompletely characteriz...
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Purpose: New COVID-19 variants pose great challenges in protecting the success of vaccination programs. Awareness of community becomes an important component to prevent the spread of COVID-19. This study aims to analyze people's awareness of COVID-19 and identify the implications for optimal risk communication in Vietnam. Study methods and materi...
Preprint
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Clinicians are expected to provide accurate and useful mental health assessments, but existing instruments often fail to meet expectations. We used a multi-model approach to address one urgent psychiatric concern, developing a highly valid, ‘free culture’ license, instrument – the Suicidality Scale (SS). Study 1 survey participants (N=5,115, aged 1...
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Background Current guidelines recommend psychological support for patients with pulmonary hypertension suffering from psychological adversity. However, little is known about the prevalence and risk factors of depression and anxiety in patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH). Methods Medline and Embase were searched from inception to 6 May 2021....
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Despite recent leaps in modern medicine, progress in the treatment of neurological diseases remains slow. The near impermeable blood-brain barrier (BBB) that prevents the entry of therapeutics into the brain, and the complexity of neurological processes, limits the specificity of potential therapeutics. Moreover, a lack of etiological understanding...
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Background : Mental disorders are associated with immune dysregulation as measured by serum levels of biological markers of immunity. Adults with mental disorders have also been reported to have attenuated post vaccine immune response. The COVID-19 pandemic has invited the need to determine whether individuals with mental disorders exhibit differen...
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Objective: Meta-analysis was performed to evaluate the effectiveness of rTMS in fibromyalgia on the domains of pain, depression, anxiety and quality of life. Method: Publications were searched with the keywords 'repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation' and 'fibromyalgia' for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that compare rTMS to sham stimul...
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The association between selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) treatment and lower bone mineral density (BMD) remains controversial, and further research is required. This study aimed to compare the BMD, levels of bone formation and bone metabolism markers in medicated premenopausal Singaporean women with major depressive disorder (MDD) and...
Preprint
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Ketamine is a promising therapeutic option in treatment-resistant depression (TRD). The acute efficacy of ketamine in TRD has been demonstrated in replicated randomized-controlled trials (RCTs), but the generalizability of RCT data to real-world practice is limited. To this end, we conducted a systematic review (Search date: 27/07/2020; 1152 studie...
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The broad impact of the COVID-19 on self-reported daily behaviors and health in Chinese and US samples remains unknown. This study aimed to compare physical and mental health between people from the United States (U.S.) and China, and to correlate mental health parameters with variables relating to physical symptoms, knowledge about COVID-19, and p...
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Importance COVID-19 is associated with clinically significant symptoms despite resolution of the acute infection (i.e., post-COVID-19 syndrome). Fatigue and cognitive impairment are amongst the most common and debilitating symptoms of post-COVID-19 syndrome. Objective To quantify the proportion of individuals experiencing fatigue and cognitive imp...
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Objectives : The study herein aimed to assess the prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), impaired fasting glucose (IFG), as well as general and abdominal obesity in patients with bipolar disorder (BD). We also compared the prevalence of T2DM and general obesity in patients with BD with age- and gender-matched healthy controls. Method : A s...
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Antidepressants are associated with symptomatic worsening in a subgroup of patients. Replicated evidence has demonstrated rapid and robust antidepressant effects with intravenous (IV) ketamine in treatment resistant depression (TRD); however, the risk of ketamine worsening depressive symptoms in a subgroup of patients remains unknown. Herein we rep...
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Background The association between impaired social cognition and bipolar disorder (BD) is well established. However, to our knowledge, there has not been a recent systematic review that characterizes disparate dimensions of social cognition in BD. Herein, this systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to synthesize the literature on core aspects of...
Conference Paper
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Introduction: The COVID-19 pandemic has affected students’ lifestyle in the area of physical activity and body weight. However, little is known about how those changes affected students' well-being. Aim of the study: The study assesses: 1) the intensity of physical activity during and before the pandemic 2) the relationship between physical activit...
Conference Paper
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Introduction: The COVID-19 pandemic has affected the concern for health and the wellbeing worldwide. The uncertainty about the virus resulted in self-reaching for alternative protective drugs as well as dietary supplements. Aim of the study: The study assesses: 1) the prevalence of dietary supplement use 2) the relationship between weight and the w...
Article
Therapeutic deficiencies with monoaminergic antidepressants invites the need to identify and develop novel rapid-acting antidepressants. Hitherto, ketamine and esketamine are identified as safe, well-tolerated rapid-acting antidepressants in adults with treatment-resistant depression, and also mitigate measures of suicidality. Psilocybin is a natur...
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Objective .To identify a meaningful change threshold (MCT) in depression outcomes in adults with treatment-resistant major depressive disorder (MDD) or bipolar disorder (BD) receiving intravenous ketamine treatment at a community-based mood disorders center. Method .A triangular approach integrating both anchor-based and distributive methods was u...
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Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) provides a direct and objective assessment of cerebral cortex function. It may be used to determine neurophysiological differences between psychiatric disorders with overlapping symptoms, such as major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BD). Therefore, this preliminary study aimed to compar...
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Approximately 0.35% to 1% of the general population is afflicted with psychotic depression at some time in their life. Psychotic depression is a subtype of major depressive disorder characterized by mood congruent hallucinations and/or delusions. Patients with psychotic depression often represent the most severe cases, with high relapse and mortali...
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Objective The objective of this research was to evaluate the impact of federal, public health and social support programs on national suicide rates in Canada. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Canadian National Database (i.e., Statistics Canada) and Statista. Participants Population-level data, and economic and consumer market data. Main Ou...
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To achieve efficacious and sustainable COVID-19 vaccination programs at the national, regional and global levels require more than vaccine production capacity.
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Objective : To compare the mortality risk due to covid-19 with death due to overdose in British Columbia, Canada. The opioid epidemic was declared a public health emergency in 2016. Methods : Mortality risk was calculated in micromorts with covid-19 data for January–October 2020, derived from the BC Centre for Disease Control, and illicit drug tox...
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Background The efficacy of monoamine-based antidepressants in adults with major depressive disorder (MDD) is attenuated in persons with greater pre-treatment functional impairment. Herein, we investigated whether pre-treatment functioning in outpatients with treatment-resistant depression (TRD) moderates response to intravenous (IV) ketamine. Meth...
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Following recovery from COVID-19, an increasing proportion of individuals have reported the persistence and/or new onset of symptoms which collectively have been identified as post-COVID-19 syndrome by the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Although depressive symptoms in the acute phase of COVID-19 have been well characterized, the...
Article
Objectives To assess acceptance of COVID-19 vaccination and the willingness to pay (WTP) for it, and investigate associated factors among pregnant women in Vietnam. Methods Cross-sectional survey of pregnant women in two obstetric hospitals in Hanoi and Ca Mau provinces, Vietnam. Data on acceptance and WTP for COVID-19, demographic characteristics...
Preprint
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The progression into the Digital Age has brought an array of novel skill requirements. Unlike traditional literacy, there are currently few measures that can reliably measure eHealth literacy. The Transactional Model of eHealth Literacy and subsequent Transactional eHealth Literacy Instrument may provide a feasible option for measuring eHealth lite...
Preprint
BACKGROUND As the pandemic evolves, frontline work challenges continue to impose significant psychological impact on nurses. However, there is a lack of data how nurses fared compared to other healthcare workers in Asia-Pacific region. OBJECTIVE This study aims to investigate 1) psychological differences between nurses, doctor and non-medical heal...
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Background: As the COVID-19 pandemic evolves, challenges in frontline work continue to impose a significant psychological impact on nurses. However, there is a lack of data on how nurses fared compared to other health care workers in the Asia-Pacific region. Objective: This study aims to investigate (1) the psychological outcome characteristics...
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The emerging roles of ketamine and esketamine as effective rapid-acting antidepressants hold promise for patients suffering from treatment-resistant depression and/or major depressive disorder with suicidality. Practitioner familiarity with common tolerability/safety concerns along with pragmatic prevention and management strategies are needed to r...
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Importance Preexisting noncommunicable diseases (eg, diabetes) increase the risk of COVID-19 infection, hospitalization, and death. Mood disorders are associated with impaired immune function and social determinants that increase the risk of COVID-19. Determining whether preexisting mood disorders represent a risk of COVID-19 would inform public he...
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Impaired sense of smell occurs in a fraction of patients with COVID-19 infection, but its effect on cerebral activity is unknown. Thus, this case report investigated the effect of COVID-19 infection on frontotemporal cortex activity during olfactory stimuli. In this preliminary study, patients who recovered from COVID-19 infection (n = 6) and healt...
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The central nervous system was classically perceived as anatomically and functionally independent from the other visceral organs. But in recent decades, compelling evidence has led the scientific community to place a greater emphasis on the role of gut microbes on the brain. Pathological observations and early gastrointestinal symptoms highlighted...
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Background The COVID-19 pandemic represents a public health, economic and mental health crisis. We hypothesized that timely government implementation of stringent measures to reduce viral transmission would benefit mental health, as evidenced by reduced rates of depressive symptoms (i.e., Patient Health Questionnaire [PHQ]-9≥10, PHQ-2≥3). Methods...
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We identified biologically relevant moderators of response to tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α inhibitor, infliximab, among 60 individuals with bipolar depression. Data were derived from a 12-week, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial secondarily evaluating the efficacy of infliximab on a measure of anhedonia (i.e., Snaith–Hamilton Pleasure S...
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Sleep disturbances are commonly reported in patients with treatment-resistant depression (TRD). Available data have shown that intravenous (IV) ketamine is an effective treatment for patients with TRD and growing data suggest ketamine may improve overall sleep architecture. In the present study, we evaluated whether changes in sleep symptoms mediat...
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(1) Background: Prolonged lockdowns with stay-at-home orders have been introduced in many countries since the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic. They have caused a drastic change in the everyday lives of people living in urbanized areas, and are considered to contribute to a modified perception of the public space. As research related to the impact...
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Background: In recent years, ketamine and esketamine treatment have demonstrated rapid antidepressant effects in adults with treatment-resistant depression (TRD). Hitherto, relatively few studies have reported the effect of ketamine/esketamine treatment on functional outcomes (e.g., psychosocial functioning, workplace functioning). Herein, we revi...
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12080 Background: The first five years post-treatment for breast cancer are a critical phase, when the survivors may face a multitude of physical and psychosocial problems. We aimed to develop an e-home based symptom management and mindfulness training program to support women with breast cancer in transition to survivorship and to determine its ef...
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Ketamine may exert pro-cognitive effects on select measures of cognition in adults with mood disorders. We evaluated the effectiveness of intravenous (IV) ketamine on cognition in 68 adult outpatients with treatment-resistant depression (TRD) at the Canadian Rapid Treatment Center of Excellence between July 3, 2018 and April 16, 2020 (NCT04209296)....
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Introduction: Ketamine treatment is capable of significant and rapid symptom improvement in adults with treatment-resistant depression (TRD). A limitation of ketamine treatment in TRD is the relatively short duration of time to relapse (e.g., median 2-4 weeks). The objective of the systematic review herein is to identify strategies capable of prol...
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Background: The differences between physical and mental health across continents during the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic were unknown. Objective: This study compared the levels of impact of COVID-19 and mental health between people from Spain and China and correlated mental health parameters with variables relating to symptoms si...
Article
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Background Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is an emerging neuroimaging modality that provides a direct and quantitative assessment of cortical haemodynamic response during a cognitive task. It may be used to identify neurophysiological differences between psychiatric disorders with overlapping symptoms, such as bipolar disorder (BD) a...
Article
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Intravenous (IV) ketamine has been shown to have rapid and robust antidepressant effects in adults with treatment-resistant depression (TRD). Urological toxicity has been observed in chronic ketamine abusers as evidenced by dysuria, urgency, and hematuria. The foregoing observation provides the basis for evaluating whether ketamine-induced urologic...
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Background: Nurses play a pivotal role in pain management. Knowing more about nurses' knowledge and attitudes regarding pain is important as we develop multidisciplinary pain services. Therefore, this study aimed to assess knowledge and attitudes regarding pain management among nurses in a geriatric hospital and its associated factors. Subjects a...
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The novel Coronavirus-2019 (COVID-19) was declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO) in March 2020, impacting the lifestyles, economy, physical and mental health of individuals globally. This study aimed to test the model triggered by physical symptoms resembling COVID-19 infection, in which the need for health information and perce...
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Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has had severe negative effects on populations worldwide. The seriousness of the pandemic necessitated local and even national lockdowns. In Singapore a national lockdown with aStay-at-Home Order (SHO) lasted for over 7 weeks. The impact of the pandemic and of the long SHO period on neuropsychophysiological functi...
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Replicated international studies have underscored the human and societal costs associated with major depressive disorder. Despite the proven efficacy of monoamine-based antidepressants in major depression, the majority of treated individuals fail to achieve full syndromal and functional recovery with the index and subsequent pharmacological treatme...