Roger C. Anderson's research while affiliated with Illinois State University and other places

Publications (80)

Article
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Alliaria petiolata, a strict biennial in North America, can have an annual alternating high abundance of rosettes and flowering plants. We monitored changes in abundance of rosettes and flowering plants in permanent plots (2004–2014). Three times during our study, the alternating yearly cycle was not observed (2007–2008, 2008–2009, and 2013–2014)....
Article
Full-text available
Introduction Alliaria petiolata, an herbaceous plant, has invaded woodlands in North America. Its ecology has been thoroughly studied, but an overlooked aspect of its biology is seed dispersal distances and mechanisms. We measured seed dispersal distances in the field and tested if epizoochory is a potential mechanism for long-distance seed dispers...
Article
We studied the effect of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus Zimmermann) browsing and fire on diversity and number of prairie-forb flowering stems in a remnant tallgrass prairie in northern Illinois. Our study included two plots protected from deer browsing since 1992 and two unprotected plots. All plots were burned twice in late April of 199...
Article
Invasive plants can have strong impacts on native communities, which have prompted intense efforts at invasive removal. However, relatively little is known about how native communities will reassemble after a dominant invader has been removed from the system. Legacy effects of invasive plants on soil microbial communities may alter native plant com...
Article
Although white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus Zimmermann) are generalist herbivores, they can have significant effects on species composition and abundance of forest trees, especially when deer densities are high and most plant species are heavily browsed but a few are selectively avoided as browse. We evaluated effects of selective deer brows...
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Unlabelled: • Premise of the study: Invasive species are nonnative species that enter novel environments, establish sustained populations, and can negatively impact native species. Here we assess a potential weakness of invasive species (genetic load) and show how species might overcome genetic barriers. Colonization of novel habitats by invasiv...
Conference Paper
Background/Question/Methods Several studies indicate garlic mustard may be more of an opportunist than a problematic invasive species and its abundance and effectiveness as an invader has recently declined. To determine garlic mustard impact on native species, we established 240 2.5 x 2.5 m treatment plots in 2004 from which second-year garlic mu...
Article
Successful biological invasion requires correspondence between invader functional traits and their utility in novel environments. We focused on specific phenological and ecophysiological characteristics of an herbaceous biennial, Alliaria petiolata, related to its successful invasion of deciduous forest groundlayers in eastern North America. We tes...
Article
Garlic mustard, a biennial Eurasian species, has extensively invaded eastern North American deciduous forests. We studied effects of 3 years (2005–2007) of annual removal of second-year garlic mustard plants on first-year plants and native spring herbaceous species in upland and lowland woods. Treatments compared removal of second-year plants in...
Article
Nonmycorrhizal little-bluestem plants grown in sterile soil and mycorrhizal plants grown in unsterilized soil were experimentally subjected to varied soil moisture conditions that ranged from saturation for 12 h followed by drainage for 48 h to allowing soil to dry to permanent wilting point and returning it to field capacity 72 h later. Nonmycorrh...
Article
Changes in little bluestem (Schizachyrium scoparium) plant cover and vesicular–arbuscular mycorrhizae (VAM) root colonization, VAM spore density, and mycorrhizal inoculum potential were examined across a gradient from open sand prairie to closed oak–hickory forest in central Illinois. Soil samples were collected randomly and from the rhizosphere of...
Article
Seasonal variation in abundance of spores of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi was examined for four growing seasons on burned and unburned sand prairies in Illinois. The three leading mycorrhizal species were an undescribed species of Glomus, Scutettospora heterogama, and Sclerocystis rubiformis, in order of decreasing abundance. Mycorrhizal spore abun...
Article
Fire in a prairie significantly affected subsequent vesicular–arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) fungal colonization and sporulation, plant aboveground production, and tissue inorganic nutrient concentration. Colonization levels of VAM fungi in little bluestem (Schizachyrium scoparium (Michx.) Nash) roots were significantly (p < 0.05) lower on the burned...
Article
The percentage of vesicular–arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) colonization of little bluestem (Schizachyrium scoparium) (Michx.) Nash.) and VAM spore populations in the rhizosphere of little bluestem from four prairie areas in Illinois were studied. At Goose Lake Prairie, a significant positive correlation (r = 0.77, p < 0.01) was found between soil moi...
Article
Full-text available
Garlic mustard (Alliaria petiolata), a biennial species, is considered to be among the most troublesome of the invasive plants in the Eastern Deciduous forest of North America. It has been shown to prevent or reduce mycorrhizal colonization of native herbaceous ground layer plants and trees in these forests. It is estimated that 70-90% or more of h...
Article
We studied the effects of hand weeding of second-year plants of the biennial garlic mustard (Alliaria petiolata) on first-year plants (seedlings) and native ground layer vegetation. Garlic mustard is a Eurasian species that has invaded deciduous forest ground layers in eastern North America. Treatments consisted of a control and an early or late we...
Conference Paper
Background/Question/Methods Garlic mustard is among the most problematic invasive species in Eastern Deciduous Forests and is assumed to cause declines in native species abundance and richness. Additionally, garlic mustard was shown to suppress the mycorrhiza mutualism in the field and in greenhouse experiments. We established 240 study plots i...
Conference Paper
Background/Question/Methods The suite of tree species present in closed-canopy forests is largely determined by tree species’ shade tolerance characteristics, site conditions, and response to herbivory. The latter is particularly important in Illinois’ forests having high deer densities during winter months. Repeated sampling of woody species in pe...
Conference Paper
Background/Question/Methods I examine the historic distribution of oak savannas and woodlands, the role of climate change and human activities in the origin of these vegetation types, factors involved in the decline of oak savannas and woodlands, and possible changes in these communities resulting from future climate change and human activities. I...
Article
Grasslands are a widespread vegetation type that once comprised 42% of the plant cover on earth's surface. Features commonly shared among grasslands are climates with periodic droughts, landscapes that are level to gently rolling, high abundances of grazing animals, and frequent fires. World-wide expansion of grasslands occurred 8 to 6 MaBP and was...
Article
Distance sampling methods are widely applied to witness tree data from General Land Office (GLO) survey records to determine historic vegetation. Most researchers apply modifications of the point-centered quarter or random pairs distance methods to witness tree distances as if these data were collected according to the procedures required for the m...
Article
Full-text available
Plasticity in photosynthetic response to varied light conditions likely contributes to the successful spread and domination of eastern deciduous forest ground layers by the invasive, non-indigenous plant species Alliaria petiolata. We examined the effects of growing plants with no shading, or under 30% or 60% black shade cloth on leaf photosyntheti...
Article
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American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L.) is a rare to uncommon CITES Appendix II-listed perennial plant species that is harvested from the wild to supply the herbal trade. Harvest seasons for American ginseng are intended to coincide with berry ripening in the species. However, geographic patterns of harvest seasons among states suggest they may n...
Article
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OBJECTIVES What are the major vegetation types that have occurred in Illinois and how have they changed since the last ice age and more specifically since European-Americans settled the region? Ecological factors influencing trends, composition, and diversity in prairie, savanna, open woodland, and forest communities are examined. Historical and co...
Article
I compared growth and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) colonization of two prairie grasses (Wild rye [Elymus canadensis] and Little bluestem [Schizachyrium scoparium]), an early- and a late-dominating species in prairie restorations, respectively, grown in soil from restored prairies of differing age, soil characteristics, and site history. Ther...
Article
We examined mycorrhizal development in prairie cordgrass (Spartina pectinate Lind.), a mycorrhizal plant that typically occupies wet habitats, under different soil moisture conditions. The five experimentally induced soil moisture conditions ranged from continuous saturation to allowing soil moisture tensions to reach – 15 bars and then saturating...
Article
We examined the long-term success of prairie planting on a former strip mine in northeastern Illinois. The site was reclaimed and planted with prairie species in the 1970s. Total biomass increased over time, largely as a result of an increase in biomass of non-prairie species. Biomass of prairie species remained unchanged because of an increase in...
Article
In prairie restoration, use of seeds from nonlocal sources has been of concern to restorationists. We examined the specificity between vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi obtained from a single location and little bluestem obtained from three localities. Seed was obtained from three sources: (1) a commercial seed supplier in Nebraska, (2) Sand R...
Article
Alliaria petiolata (garlic mustard), an exotic plant species, has invaded woodlands in several areas in mid-western and northeastern United States and adjacent Canada, and it is displacing the indigenous under-story flora. This study was conducted to provide information about the species' biology that might be useful in controlling its spread in na...
Article
Summary • Phragmites australis is an invasive grass that has increased dramatically in distribution and abundance within the USA in the last 100 years. This study determined the effect of nitrogen addition on the growth of this invasive species compared with an indigenous competitor species, Spartina pectinata. • Twenty plants from each of three Il...
Article
We examined the effect of white~tailed deer (Odocoiieus virginianus Zimmermann) browsing on community quality of tallgrass prairie forbs at a site in northeastern Illinois over a period of ten years (1992- 2001). Deer densities in the study area varied from 32- 50 km-2 (83- 130 deer mi-2) between 1992 and 1997 and declined to 7- 9 km-2 (18- 23 mi-2...
Article
American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L. [Araliaceae]), a native plant species of North American eastern woodlands, is highly sought for its medicinal value. The long-lived perennial herb reaches a maximum height of about 50 cm (20 in) and annually grows a determinate shoot from a short underground rhizome atop a fleshy taproot. Ginseng harvesters...
Article
Jack pine barrens, once common in northern lower Michigan, mostly have been converted to managed jack pine plantations. Management of the disturbances associated with logging provides the opportunity to maintain the unique plant assemblages of jack pine barrens and nest habitat of the federally endangered Kirtland's warbler. Studies indicate that C...
Article
We studied vegetation change of a remnant barrens in southern Illinois over twenty-five years. The study area was periodically burned between 1969 and 1993, but fire was excluded for a 16-year period (1974–1989). During the study, the barrens supported a mixture of species whose preferred habitats ranged from prairie and open woodlands to closed fo...
Article
We studied the effect of deer browsing on prairie forbs under conditions of high deer density (30 to 42 deer km-2) on a single remnant tallgrass prairie in the Illinois Department of Natural Resources' Heidecke Lake Fish and Wildlife Area in northeastern Illinois. Almost no grasses or sedges were browsed and the frequency of browsing of graminoids...
Article
Garlic mustard (Alliaria petiolata, Brassicaceae), a biennial plant species native to Eurasia, is of concern in the Midwestern and Northeastern United States and adjacent Canada because it forms monospecific stands that dominate forest understories and displace the native understory flora. We examined the influence of varied irradiance on growth an...
Article
Full-text available
Differences in growth responses, tissue and soil inorganic nutrients, and mycorrhizal relationships of four herbaceous species were studied on burned and unburned sandhill sites in south-central Florida, USA. Three species, (Aristida stricta, Liatris tenuifolia var. laevigata, and Pityopsis graminifolia) responded positively to conditions following...
Chapter
Destruction of native habitat due to conversion to agriculture, logging, and urbanization, and subsequent fragmentation of the remaining habitat, has affected many species negatively (Guttenspergen 1983). Affected organisms include those dependent upon large blocks of habitat such as forest interior birds (Robbins 1980, Robbins et al. 1989), and la...
Chapter
Grasslands are biological communities in which the landscape is dominated by herbaceous vegetation, especially grasses: they contain few trees or shrubs. An estimated 16 to 40% of the world’s land surface is, or was, covered by grasslands (Singh et al. 1983, Burton et al. 1988, Groombridge 1992). Area estimates of current savanna and temperate gras...
Article
The growth response of prairie switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) was compared in strip mine spoil amended with various levels of anaerobically digested waste-activated sewage sludge (0, 56, 111, 222, or 333 dry Mg ha-1) and commercial fertilizer, pure sludge, and glasshouse soil. Plants were grown in a growth chamber and substrates were maintained...
Article
Biomass production was determined on burned and unburned sand prairie sites in Illinois during the 1986–89 growing seasons. Severe droughts characterized the 1988 and 1989 growing seasons with precipitation being at least 50% less in these two years than in 1985 and 1986. During the growing season following a fire, in drought and non-drought years,...
Article
We investigated the root growth of native Schizachyrium scoparium, little bluestem grass, and the seasonal abundance of rhizoplane and root zone soil microorganisms on burned and unburned sand prairies. Root growth and abundances of rhizoplane and root zone microorganisms were greater in burned than unburned sites. Microbe populations were nearly a...
Article
Deer browsing encourages the development of a vegetation dominated by non-browse or browse-tolerant species at the expense of those sensitive to browsing. For restoration or management of forests, it is crucial to understand how browse-sensitive species recover following release from browsing. As these species re-establish, or achieve former levels...
Article
A statewide study of Panax quinquefolium L. (American ginseng), a herb commonly collected for commercial sale, was conducted on 33 protected and unprotected forested sites in the northern, central and southern sections of Illinois. Within these sites, data on the tree, sapling, seedling, shrub and herbaceous strata, and on soil texture and nutrient...
Article
SUMMARYWP examined the influence of burning on little bluestem grass productivity and its vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) fungal associates in a sand prairie community over (bar growing seasons (1586-4). Above-and below-ground productivity was higher on the burned sites than on the unhurried sites. Percent VAM funga1 colonization levels were...
Article
The rhizoplane mycofloras of little bluestem (Schizachyrium scoparium) were compared in unfumigated and fumigated soils to which selected inorganic nutrients were added. Thirty-four fungal taxa were isolated and 20 were common to unfumigated and fumigated soil 17 months after fumigation. Species richness (i.e., number of species) was greater on the...
Article
The rhizoplane mycofloras of little bluestem (Schizachyrium scoparium) were compared in unfumigated and fumigated soils to which selected inorganic nutrients were added. Thirty-four fungal taxa were isolated and 20 were common to unfumigated and fumigated soil 17 months after fumigation. Species richness (i.e., number of species) was greater on the...
Article
Little bluestem grass Schizachyrium scoparium ([Michx.] Nash) plants were grown under field conditions for 2 years in soils fumigated with methyl bromide and chloropicrin, or in unfumigated soil, and treated with supplemental inorganic nutrients (bases calcium and magnesium) phosphorus, nitrogen, and potassium. Most differences in measured plant re...
Article
Little bluestem grass Schizachyrium scoparium ([Michx.] Nash) plants were grown under field conditions for 2 years in soils fumigated with methyl bromide and chloropicrin, or in unfumigated soil, and treated with supplemental inorganic nutrients (bases calcium and magnesium) phosphorus, nitrogen, and potassium. Most differences in measured plant re...
Article
Abundance and biomass of selected insect groups were sampled on adjacent burned and unburned sand prairie for 3 years following a single spring burn. The abundance of all insects combined was significantly lower on the burned site than on the unburned site in the 1st yr postburn but not in subsequent years of the study. Of the selected insect group...
Article
Little bluestem plants (Schizachyrium scoparium (Michx.) Nash) were grown in fumigated and nonfumigated soil under manipulated levels of three inorganic nutrients: nitrogen, phosphorus, or bases (Ca + Mg). Plants grown in nonfumigated soil had significantly (P < 0.05) higher tissue levels of inorganic nutrients (Cu, Zn, Al, S, Mg, Mn, Ca, and P), s...
Article
Usefulness of native prairie and domesticated grasses in reve-getating strip mine spoil and producing biomass was examined on 30-year old, recontoured spoil banks located near Canton, Illinois. Grasses were planted in the spring and fall on strip mine spoil and spoil amended with 333 MT/ha of dry sewage sludge. By the end of the second growing seas...
Article
We tested the hypothesis that western sunflower (Helianthus occidentalis) reduces abundance of prairie species within its colonies by producing allelochemics that inhibit seed germination or vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) formation. Germination of seeds of prairie species was not significantly (P <0.05) inhibited by water extracts of whole...
Article
Vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) fungal colonization of prairie dropseed and rhizosphere spore abundance were sampled seasonally at two sites in Illinois. At Goose Lake Prairie (GLP), Gaussian ordination of 49 vegetation stands, using plant cover data for 40 species, assigned stands x-vector values and ordered them along a soil moisture-nutri...
Article
The growth of eastern gamagrass and corn was compared under various nutrient conditions in sand-water cultures. The nutrient conditions included 1/4, 1/2, and full-strength nutrient solutions without additional nitrogen and each of these solutions to which additional nitrogen, equivalent to 112 ppm of N, were added. Growth of the two species was mo...
Article
Three vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhiza (VAM) fungus parameters were compared for five sites at Weston Cemetary Prairie, and adjacent corn and oat fields. Spore analysis showed Glomus fasciculatum complex to be the most abundant taxon at all sites in both 1982 and 1984. One-way ANOVA of total spores per site showed significant differences between thr...
Article
In closed oak-hickory forest, tree stem density declined markedly following the burn. Tree basal area and density decreased from 17.5 m 2/ha and 630 trees/ha in the preburn sample to 12.0 m 2/ha and 310 trees/ha 5 yr later. On forest-prairie edge, tree basal area and density increased slightly during the same time period from 3.0 m 2/ha and 117 tre...
Article
Tree species composition and density were monitored in closed oak-hickory forest and forest-prairie edge for a period of five years after a prescribed burn. In the closed forest, tree stem density declined markedly following the burn. Tree basal area and density decreased from 17.5 m²/ha and 630 trees/ha in the preburn sample to 12.0 m²/ha and 310...
Article
Number and species identity of seeds in the seed bank of a remnant tallgrass prairie were determined by collecting 50 soil cores (10 cm diam and 10 cm deep), spreading them in greenhouse flats and counting and identifying emerging seedlings. Number of seeds was estimated to be 2019 seeds/m2 and most (66.5%) were in the upper 2 cm of soil. Seeds of...
Article
Removal of the indurate cupule enclosing the caryopsis resulted in relatively rapid and high levels of germination regardless of seed pretreatment and across a wide range of incubation temperatures during germination. Seeds incubated at room temperatures with cupules removed had 58-86% germination, compared with 10-26% germination for seeds with cu...
Article
Vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal spore densities varied among sample areas ranging from 200 cm2 to 2,500 cm2. Approximately 600 cm2 was found to be a suitable area for simultaneously sampling plant cover and spores. Spore counts (per 20.8 cc of soil), obtained within 25 cm x 25 cm quadrats located along a moisture gradient, were positively correlat...
Article
Selfing in Trientalis borealis is reduced by spatial separation of stigma and anthers during anther dehiscence and by internal self-incompatibility. Artificial self-pollination resulted in low levels of fruit set (2.0%). Crosses made within patches of plants yielded variable (0–72.7%), but generally low fruit set (x̄ = 21.4%). This may be caused by...
Article
Selfing in Trientalis borealis is reduced by spatial separation of stigma and anthers during anther dehiscence and by internal self-incompatibility. Artificial self-pollination resulted in low levels of fruit set (2.0%). Crosses made within patches of plants yielded variable (0-72.7%), but generally low fruit set (mean 21.4%). This may be caused by...
Article
Trees in a savannah and adjacent closed forest in the Midwestern United States had a differential response to a prescribed burn. Forest trees suffered heavy mortality (47.6%) within three years after the burn. In contrast, trees in the savannah suffered essentially no fire damage. Reduced availability of fuel is one factor considered to be of signi...
Article
Fire has historically been an important factor in the maintenance of tallgrass prairie vegetation. Summer fires have often been thought to be more effective than dormant season fires in controlling the invasion of woody species into prairies. However, in an Oklahoma grassland, late-winter burning (March) had a more pronounced effect in reducing the...
Article
The generalization that habitat or niche breadth is positively correlated with dominance or importance of species applies to many taxa. However, in this study, we found a negative correlation between habitat breadth and relative importance measured along a moisture gradient for 15 tree species in central Illinois forests. Dominant tree species in t...
Article
Polar and Gaussian ordination applied to data collected from 37 forest sites in central Illinois resulted in a continuous and gradual change in species composition along a moisture gradient. A series of overlapping species success curves formed by plotting Importance Values over stands ordered along the gradient varied continuously in modal locatio...
Article
Summary A bacterium (Pseudomonas sp.), which was repeatedly isolated from the caryopses of the grass,Tripsacum dactyloides, inhibited the growth of selected species of fungi, includingPenicillium chrysogenum, Rhizopus stolonifer, andTrichoderma viride. This inhibition may prevent fungal decomposition of caryopses ofT. dactyloides.
Article
A comparison of the productivity of burned and unburned portions of an abandoned native pasture was made. The harvest method was used to sample aboveground biomass at two week intervals beginning on 3 April and terminating on 7 September 1976. The harvested material was separated into green biomass, standing dead, and litter. With the exception of...
Article
A method to rapidly screen species suspected of producing allelochemics, using results from simple bioassay tests, is presented. By measuring the osmotic potential ofH. mollis extracts and using mannitol solutions of comparable osmotic potential, the influence of osmotic potential in the bioassay was eliminated. Nested analysis of variance was used...

Citations

... Interestingly, second-year garlic mustard plants are also an important competitor with the first-year rosettes; intraspecific competition is likely the cause of alternating dominance between the two cohorts , Davis et al. 2012, creating a strong biennial pattern at most sites (Pardini et al. 2009). However, extreme climate events can disrupt this alternating pattern by reducing the abundance of garlic mustard rosettes (Anderson et al. 2021). Overall, studies of garlic mustard interactions with native plants show that garlic mustard is not gaining an advantage over native species through direct, strong competition for resources. ...
... In fact, an absence of plant-fungal symbiotic associations in wetlands was initially hypothesized to exist due to the stress imposed to fungi by the low-oxygen availability in saturated soils (Khan 1974;Martin et al. 2018). Subsequent research has revealed that plants adapted to different types of wetlands can form associations with both AMF and DSE fungi (Cooke and Lefor 1998;Khan 1993;Liberta et al. 1983;Lodge 1989;Nobis et al. 2015;Weishampel and Bedford 2006). Several studies have observed greater colonization of AMF in wetter compared to drier soils (Lodge 1989;Martin et al. 2018;Rickerl et al. 1994). ...
... One approach to assess community structure is the use of diversity indices and multivariate analyses. Richness and evenness indices have been used to describe plant and animal communities since their introduction almost 40 years ago (reviewed by Peet 1974) and are now being used to describe microbial communities (Banerjee and Anderson 1992;Boehm et al. 1993;Bolton et al. 1991 ;Workneh and van Bruggen 1994). Diversity indices and canonical discriminant analysis were used by Workneh and van Bruggen (1994) to show that rhizosphere communities of actinomycetes on tomato roots were more diverse in organically than conventionally managed rhizosphere soil. ...
... Additional garlic mustard-animal interactions and their effects (e.g., animal-mediated seed dispersal, evolutionary traps, understory structural complexity) further illustrate how ecological context can influence invasion dynamics. For example, seed dispersal experiments with white-tailed deer and raccoon (Procyon lotor) pelts provide evidence for the potential of garlic mustard long-distance seed dispersal, with implications for greater garlic mustard movement across landscapes (Loebach and Anderson 2018). The use of garlic mustard stems and seeds has been documented in nest construction by veeries (Catharus fuscescens; Heckscher et al. 2014), although the potential contribution to garlic mustard seed dispersal is limited, because veeries typically collect material for nest construction close to the nest site (Heckscher 2007). ...
... Even though the molecular basis of the improvement of plant nutrient acquisitions have been well characterized for phosphorus, nitrogen, sulfur, and potassium 18,24,25 , the role of plant uptake of Ca 2+ needs further study. Several reports showed that a moderate level of Ca 2+ supply enhanced the colonization of AMF 26,27 , and Ca 2+ benefited the maintenance of a functioning mycorrhiza 28 . ...
... Prolonged inundation causes anaerobic conditions in root tissues, which can result in plant mortality (Armstrong 1978, Osmond et al. 1987, McKevlin et al. 1998. As a consequence, floodplain woody vegetation varies along gradients of flood frequency, duration, and intensity (Bell 1974, Bell and del Moral 1977, Bell 1980, Adams and Anderson 1980, Hupp and Ostercamp 1985, Wall and Darwin 1999, Bledsoe and Shear 2000. ...
... Propagules of AMF include spores, root fragments containing hyphae and vesicles and soil hyphae (Biermann and Lindermann, 1983; Tommerup and Abbott, 1981). The spores of AMF are the important type of propagules but their numbers are often poorly correlated with mycorrhizal formation in soils (Abbott and Robson, 1984; Abbott and Robson, 1991; Ebbers et al., 1987; McGee, 1989; Mukerji and Kapoor, 1986; Schmidt and Reeves, 1984). This could explain the poor spore density correlation with mycorhizal frequency. ...
... The United States has experienced rapid increases in the number of large wildfire in recent decades, from the forested west to the central grasslands of the Great Plains (Dennison et al., 2014;Donovan et al., 2017). While it is well documented that fire plays an important role in both forest (Ahlgren & Ahlgren, 1960;Johnstone et al., 2016;Roberts et al., 2020) and grassland (Anderson & Brown, 1986;Bond & Keeley, 2005;Wells, 1970) systems, fears persist around the negative social and ecological consequences of fire, particularly as wildfires increase to unprecedented numbers relative to what has been seen over the last century. Almost 3 billion dollars were spent on fire suppression costs in the United States in 2017 alone (National Interagency Fire Center, 2018). ...
... The interactions between the host root, VAM nutrients in the soil (Jasper, Robson & Abbott, 1979; fungi and/or non-VAM microbes can also influence Hays et al 1982-Anderson & Liberta, 1989, the the host plant response to VAM fungi. Several type of root' system (Baylis, 1970;Warner & Mosse, studies have reported that the addition of sievmgs or 1982) and other factors. ...
... Although plant diversity was unaffected by deer exclusion, flowering plant functional responses and abundances dramatically increased in exclusion plots. Throughout the growing season (Figure 2) and across the plant community (Figure 3), deer exclusion consistently increased values for all (Anderson et al., 2017) and temperate forest ecosystems (Ruhren and Handel, 2003;Wang and Mopper, 2008;Sakata and Yamasaki, 2015;Nakahama et al., 2020). Stephan et al. (2017) suggests that in addition to increases in height, size and abundance, plants can allocate more resources to defense against other herbivores in the absence of significant biomass loss from deer. ...