Robert Ross's research while affiliated with Queen's University and other places

Publications (244)

Article
Full-text available
Although many studies have assumed variability reflects variance caused by exercise training, few studies have examined whether interindividual differences in trainability are present following exercise training. The present individual participant data (IPD) meta-analysis sought to: (1) investigate the presence of interindividual differences in tra...
Article
Objective: This cross-sectional study used compositional data analysis (CoDA) to do the following: 1) analyze the relative associations between fat and lean tissues with cardiometabolic risk factors; and 2) estimate how these risk factors would change if equivalent mass was displaced from one tissue to another. Differences between CoDA and traditi...
Article
Full-text available
Objective To examine the association between change in nonexercise estimated cardiorespiratory fitness (eCRF) and mortality risk in adult men. Patients and Methods A total of 10,445 men (mean age, 44.6±9.3 years) from the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study underwent 2 comprehensive medical examinations and peak work rate tests between January 1, 1...
Article
Background: Efforts to manage obesity through weight loss are often unsuccessful as most adults are not able to sustain the major changes in behaviour that are required to maintain weight loss long term. We sought to determine whether small changes in physical activity and diet prevent weight gain in adults with overweight and obesity. Methods:...
Article
Full-text available
Objective This study tested the hypothesis that greater mean changes in cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), in either the absence or presence of reduced interindividual variability, explain larger CRF response rates following higher doses of exercise training.Methods We retrospectively analyzed CRF data from eight randomized controlled trials (RCT; n...
Article
Full-text available
Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) is a direct measure of human cardiorespiratory fitness and is associated with health. However, the molecular determinants of interindividual differences in baseline (intrinsic) VO2max, and of increases of VO2max in response to exercise training (ΔVO2max), are largely unknown. Here, we measure ~5,000 plasma proteins us...
Article
Full-text available
Background Obesity and related comorbidities are the most common chronic conditions in North America where behavior modification including the adoption of physical activity and a healthful diet are primary treatment strategies. Patients are more likely to engage in behavior modification if encouraged by their physician, however, behavioral counseli...
Article
Full-text available
The Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology assembled a Consensus Panel representing national organizations, content experts, methodologists, stakeholders, and end-users and followed an established guideline development procedure to create the Canadian 24-Hour Movement Guidelines for Adults aged 18-64 years and Adults aged 65 years or older: An In...
Article
Full-text available
This overview of systematic reviews examined the effect of balance and functional strength training on health outcomes in adults aged 18 years or older, to inform the Canadian 24-hour Movement Guidelines. Four electronic databases were searched for systematic reviews published between January 2009 and May 2019. Eligibility criteria were determined...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this overview of systematic reviews was to determine the relationship between different types and patterns of sedentary behaviour and selected health outcomes in adults and older adults. Five electronic databases were last searched in May, 2019, with a 10-year search limit. Included reviews met the a priori population (community-dwel...
Article
Full-text available
The objective of this overview of systematic reviews was to determine the benefits and harms of resistance training (RT) on health outcomes in adults aged 18 years or older, compared with not participating in RT. Four electronic databases were searched in February 2019 for systematic reviews published in the past 10 years. Eligibility criteria were...
Article
Full-text available
The Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology assembled a Consensus Panel representing national organizations, content experts, methodologists, stakeholders, and end-users and followed an established guideline development procedure to create the Canadian 24-Hour Movement Guidelines for Adults aged 18–64 years and Adults aged 65 years or older: An In...
Article
Full-text available
Despite considerable evidence demonstrating that waist circumference (WC) is independently associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and/or all-cause mortality, whether the addition of WC improves risk prediction models is unclear. The objective was to evaluate the improvement in risk prediction with the addition of WC, alone or in combination w...
Article
Full-text available
The objective of this systematic review was to examine the associations between sleep timing (e.g., bedtime/wake-up time, midpoint of sleep), sleep consistency/regularity (e.g., intra-individual variability in sleep duration, social jetlag, catch-up sleep), and health outcomes in adults aged 18 years and older. Four electronic databases were search...
Article
Full-text available
The objective of this overview of systematic reviews was to examine the associations between sleep duration and health outcomes in adults. Four electronic databases were searched in December 2018 for systematic reviews published in the previous 10 years. Included reviews met the a priori determined population (community-dwelling adults aged 18 year...
Article
Full-text available
There are gaps in current guidance concerning how to conduct overviews of systematic reviews in an outcome-centric manner. Herein we summarize the methods and lessons learned from conducting 4 outcome-centric overviews to help inform the Canadian 24-Hour Movement Guidelines for Adults aged 18–64 years and Adults aged 65 years or older on the topics...
Article
Full-text available
Establishing a step-by-step process that provides practitioners with a blueprint for translating movement guidelines into action stands to optimize the investment in guideline development, improve guideline promotion and uptake, and ultimately enhance population health. The purpose of this paper is to describe how the Knowledge-to-Action framework...
Article
Full-text available
This systematic review determined if the composition of time spent in movement behaviours (i.e., sleep, sedentary behaviour (SED), light physical activity, and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA)) is associated with health in adults. Five electronic databases were searched in August 2019. Studies were eligible for inclusion if they were p...
Article
Background: The ParticipACTION Report Card on Physical Activity for Adults is a knowledge exchange tool representing a synthesis of the literature and data available at the national level. The purpose of this paper is to summarize the results of the inaugural 2019 edition. Methods: Thirteen physical activity indicators, grouped into 4 categories...
Article
This review attempted to answer whether we should target increased physical activity or reduced sedentary behavior to reduce the risk of CVD. The answer is clearly “both”. There is consistent scientific evidence that sedentary behavior is a risk factor for CVD; however, to maximize the benefits, sedentary behavior should be replaced with as much mo...
Article
Objective: This study aimed to develop and validate health-related criterion-referenced cut-points for the modified Canadian Aerobic Fitness Test (mCAFT), a field-based measure to predict cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) among adults (18-69 years). Methods: Criterion-referenced mCAFT cut-points were developed using nationally representative data...
Article
Full-text available
The indisputable association between visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and cardiometabolic risk makes it a primary target for lifestyle-based strategies designed to prevent or manage health risk. Substantive evidence also confirms that liver fat (LF) is positively associated with increased health risk and that reduction is associated with an improved m...
Article
Full-text available
Despite decades of unequivocal evidence that waist circumference provides both independent and additive information to BMI for predicting morbidity and risk of death, this measurement is not routinely obtained in clinical practice. This Consensus Statement proposes that measurements of waist circumference afford practitioners with an important oppo...
Article
Purpose: To determine whether change in estimated cardiorespiratory fitness (eCRF) is associated with change in measured CRF (mCRF) independent of exercise amount and intensity over 24 weeks. Methods: Participants were 163 sedentary adults with abdominal obesity (waist circumference: mean 109.9(SD; 11.5) cm) randomly assigned to: i) no-exercise...
Article
Objective: To begin the process of developing global reference standards for adults from directly measured cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF). Methods: Percentiles of maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) for men and women were determined for each decade from 20 through 79 years of age using International data from the Fitness Registry and Importance...
Article
Purpose: (1) Determine the effect of exercise amount and intensity on the proportion of individuals for whom the adipose tissue (AT) response is above the minimal clinically important difference (MCID); and (2) Examine whether clinically meaningful anthropometric changes reflect individual AT responses above the MCID. Methods: Men (n=41) and wom...
Article
Findings from epidemiological studies over the past 30 years have shown that visceral adipose tissue, accurately measured by CT or MRI, is an independent risk marker of cardiovascular and metabolic morbidity and mortality. Emerging evidence also suggests that ectopic fat deposition, including hepatic and epicardial fat, might contribute to increase...
Article
Full-text available
Calculating the standard deviation of individual responses (SDIR) is recommended for estimating the magnitude of individual differences in training responsiveness in parallel‐arm exercise randomized controlled trials (RCTs). The purpose of this review article is to discuss potential limitations of parallel‐arm exercise RCTs that may confound/compli...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose We tested the hypothesis that monoexponential regressions will increase the certainty in response estimates and confidence in classification of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) responses compared to a recently proposed linear regression approach. Methods We used data from a previously published RCT that involved 24 weeks of training at high...
Article
Full-text available
Background Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) assessment provides key information regarding general health status that has high clinical utility. In addition, in the sports setting, CRF testing is needed to establish a baseline level, prescribe an individualized training program and monitor improvement in athletic performance. As such, the assessment...
Article
Full-text available
There is evidence from human twin and family studies as well as mouse and rat selection experiments that there are considerable interindividual differences in the response of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and other cardiometabolic traits to a given exercise programme dose. We developed this consensus statement on exercise response variability fol...
Article
The importance of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is now well established and it is increasingly being recognized as an essential variable which should be assessed in health screenings. The key findings that have established the clinical significance of CRF are reviewed in this report, along with an overview of the current relevance of exercise as...
Article
Purpose: (1) Determine the effect of exercise amount and intensity on the proportion of adipose tissue (AT) responses likely, very likely, and unlikely above the minimal clinically important difference (MCID); and (2) Examine whether clinically meaningful anthropometric changes reflect individual AT responses above the MCID. Methods: Men (n=41)...
Chapter
In this chapter we review the evidence from prospective cohort studies and randomized controlled trials that consider the interactions between physical activity (PA), cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), and obesity. Furthermore, we consider the interaction between these variables and obesity-related health outcomes. We observe that in prospective stud...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives: Total, visceral, and abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (AT) depots have distinct associations with cardiometabolic health; however, the metabolite profiles that characterize each AT depot and its reduction following exercise are poorly understood. Our objectives were to (1) assess the independent associations between identified meta...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: We provide our perspective on using cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) as an objective measure to complement the current Global Action Plan on Physical Activity (GAPPA) evaluation efforts, providing a proximal outcome of physical activity levels in individuals of all ages. Method: We interpret the scientific evidence evaluating associations...
Article
The cardiovascular disease (CVD) pandemic has placed considerable strain on healthcare systems, quality of life, and physical function, while remaining the leading cause of death globally. Decades of scientific investigations have fortified the protective effects of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), exercise training, and physical activity (PA) agai...
Article
Objective To determine the effects of exercise amount (kilocalories per session) and intensity (percent of maximal oxygen consumption [% VO2peak]) on adipose tissue (AT) and skeletal muscle (SM) in adults with abdominal obesity. Methods Participants (n = 103; 52.7 ± 7.6 years) were randomized to the following groups: control; low‐amount, low‐inten...
Article
Purpose: To determine the magnitude of exercise-induced individual variability for waist circumference (WC) and body weight change after accounting for biological variability and measurement error. Determinants of response variability were also considered. Methods: Participants (53 ± 7.5 years) were 181 (61% women) adults with abdominal obesity...
Poster
Introduction: Substantial interindividual variability in response to a standard dose of exercise exists independent of the trait under investigation. Whether interindividual variability attributed to exercise exists after accounting for random variability is unknown. PURPOSE: To determine the magnitude of the interindividual variability in response...
Article
Purpose: High throughput profiling of metabolic status (metabolomics) allows for the assessment of small-molecule metabolites that may participate in exercise-induced biochemical pathways and corresponding cardiometabolic risk modification. We sought to describe the changes in a diverse set of plasma metabolite profiles in patients undergoing chro...
Article
Objective: To evaluate the relationship between change in submaximal cardiorespiratory fitness (sCRF) and all-cause mortality risk in adult men and women. Patients and methods: A prospective study with at least 2 clinical visits (mean follow-up time, 4.2±3.0 years) between April 1974 and January 2002 was conducted to assess the relationship betw...
Article
Background Although both cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and physical activity (PA) are associated with mortality, whether they are associated with all-cause mortality independent of each other is unclear. Methods CRF was assessed by a maximal exercise test and PA was measured by self-report in 8,171 male veterans. The predictive power of CRF and...
Article
Full-text available
Aim To determine the separate effects of exercise amount and intensity on the rate of response for glucose and insulin variables, where rate of response was defined as the number of individuals with improvement in glucose and insulin values that was beyond the day-to-day variability of measurement. Methods Participants were 171 sedentary, middle-a...
Data
Dataset. Data used for the analysis performed in this paper. (XLSX)
Article
Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) has been one of the most widely examined physiological variables, particularly as it relates to functional capacity and human performance. Over the past three decades, CRF has emerged as a strong, independent predictor of all-cause and disease-specific mortality. The evidence supporting the prognostic use of CRF is s...
Article
Full-text available
Abdominal obesity and low cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) are associated with insulin resistance in older adults. Exercise is associated with improvement in insulin sensitivity. Whether this association is mediated by change in CRF and/or abdominal obesity is unclear. The current study is a secondary analysis of data from a randomized controlled tr...
Article
Mounting evidence has firmly established that low levels of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) are associated with a high risk of cardiovascular disease, all-cause mortality, and mortality rates attributable to various cancers. A growing body of epidemiological and clinical evidence demonstrates not only that CRF is a potentially stronger predictor of...
Article
Introduction: Adoption of physical activity (PA) consistent with current guidelines does not improve cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2peak, (mCRF)) beyond the error of measurement for approximately 30% of adults. Whether PA improves measures of exercise tolerance at submaximal levels (submaximal cardiorespiratory fitness (sCRF)) independent of change...
Article
The present study was designed to assess the risk of cardiovascular disease as determined by cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) in a large sample of inactive, obese adults. Cardiovascular disease risk was determined using published age- and sex-adjusted values for low, moderate, and high CRF from the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study (ACLS). Contrary...