Robert R. McCrae's research while affiliated with University of Maryland, Baltimore and other places

Publications (321)

Article
We discuss the life and work of Jan Strelau from the perspectives of the Regulative Theory of Temperament and Five-Factor Theory. Both posit that traits are early-appearing and relatively stable over time, have a substantial biological basis, can be found in human and non-human species, and must be inferred from the behaviors that express them; the...
Article
Full-text available
Some accounts of the evolution of music suggest that it emerged from emotionally expressive vocalizations and serves as a necessary counterweight to the cognitive elaboration of language. Thus, emotional expression appears to be intrinsic to the creation and perception of music, and music ought to serve as a model for affect itself. Because music e...
Chapter
Five-Factor Theory (FFT) is an account of the functioning of the personality system, with three broad classes of dynamic processes: assimilative, accommodative, and developmental. Developmental processes, on which the present chapter focuses, are the mechanisms by which traits grow or change. We review some of the evidence leading to FFT, a general...
Article
William Stern, a founder of differential psychology, was also an early exponent of person-centered approaches to personality. Lamiell (2009) and Block (1961) argued that interactive or ipsative approaches to assessment are more suitable for person-centered psychology, but these methods are susceptible to distortions that can be corrected by standar...
Article
Full-text available
Classical psychometrics held that scores on a personality measure were determined by the trait assessed and random measurement error. A new view proposes a much richer and more complex model, including trait variance at multiple levels of a hierarchy of traits and systematic biases shaped by the implicit personality theory of the respondent. The mo...
Article
Full-text available
Trait stability and maturation are fundamental principles of contemporary personality psychology and have been shown to hold across many cultures. However, it has proven difficult to move beyond these general findings to a detailed account of trait development. There are pervasive and unexplained inconsistencies across studies that may be due to (a...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives We tested predictions about the structure and magnitude of method biases in single‐source personality trait assessments. We expected a large number of distinct biases that would parallel the observed structure of traits, at both facet and item levels. Method We analyzed multi‐method ratings on the Estonian NEO Personality Inventory‐3 in...
Article
Five-Factor Theory provides a broad but largely blank template for causal personality research. Within Five-Factor Theory, there are three major categories of questions: (1) how do biological structures and functions lead to trait levels? (2) how do traits and the environment give rise to acquired psychological institutions? and (3) how do personal...
Article
Full-text available
The Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R) and its latest version, the NEO-PI-3, were designed to measure 30 distinctive personality traits, which are grouped into Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness domains. The mean self-rated NEO-PI-R scores for 30 subscales have been reported for 36 countries or cultu...
Article
Full-text available
Mõttus alerts us to the widespread predictive heterogeneity of different indicators of the same trait. This heterogeneity violates the assumption that traits have causal unity in their developmental antecedents and effects on outcomes. I would go a step further: broader traits are useful units for description and prediction but not for explaining p...
Chapter
There is now broad agreement that comprehensive assessment of personality traits requires measures of all five broad factors, and an increasing recognition that lower-level traits – facets and nuances – should also be considered. Self-reports and observer ratings on standardized questionnaires are the most used and useful assessment methods, and th...
Article
It has been argued that facets do not represent the bottom of the personality hierarchy—even more specific personality characteristics, nuances, could be useful for describing and understanding individuals and their differences. Combining two samples of German twins, we assessed the consensual validity (correlations across different observers), ran...
Article
There is a well-established tradition of assessing personality traits, and some of its principles may have parallels in assessment of situations. Trait measures are interpreted in terms of norms; situation assessments may require multiple judges to control perceiver effects. Internal consistency is monitored in trait research; inter-rater reliabili...
Article
Full-text available
Although large international studies have found consistent patterns of sex differences in personality traits among adults (i.e., women scoring higher on most facets), less is known about cross-cultural sex differences in adolescent personality and the role of culture and age in shaping them. The present study examines the NEO Personality Inventory-...
Article
Full-text available
Although large international studies have found consistent patterns of sex differences in personality traits among adults (i.e., women scoring higher on most facets), less is known about cross-cultural sex differences in adolescent personality and the role of culture and age in shaping them. The present study examines the NEO Personality Inventory-...
Article
Full-text available
The revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-3) includes 240 items corresponding to the Big Five personality traits (Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Neuroticism, and Openness to Experience) and subordinate dimensions (facets). It is suitable for use with adolescents and adults (12 years or older). The aim of the current study was t...
Article
Using the NEO Personality Inventory-3, we analyzed self/informant agreement on personality traits at three levels that were made statistically independent from each other: domains, facets, and individual items. Cross-rater correlations for the common variance in the five domains ranged from 0.36 to 0.65 (M = 0.49), whereas estimates for the specifi...
Article
Retest reliability is a better predictor of validity than is internal consistency. One explanation for this is item-specific variance, which distinguishes different nuances of a facet and contributes to retest reliability but not internal consistency. Specific variance at the facet level is temporally stable, consensually validated, and heritable;...
Article
Full-text available
Numerous studies have documented subtle but consistent sex differences in self-reports and observer-ratings of five-factor personality traits, and such effects were found to show well-defined developmental trajectories and remarkable similarity across nations. In contrast, very little is known about perceived gender differences in five-factor trait...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract Numerous studies have documented subtle but consistent sex differences in self-reports and observer-ratings of five-factor personality traits, and such effects were found to show welldefined developmental trajectories and remarkable similarity across nations. In contrast, very little is known about perceived gender differences in five-fact...
Article
Full-text available
Consensual stereotypes of some groups are relatively accurate, whereas others are not. Previous work suggesting that national character stereotypes are inaccurate has been criticized on several grounds. In this article we (a) provide arguments for the validity of assessed national mean trait levels as criteria for evaluating stereotype accuracy; an...
Article
I present a very broad overview of what I have learned about personality trait assessment at different levels and offer some views on future directions for research and clinical practice. I review some basic principles of scale development and argue that internal consistency has been overemphasized; more attention to retest reliability is needed. B...
Article
Do men vary more than women in personality? Evolutionary, genetic, and cultural arguments suggest that hypothesis. In this study we tested it using 12,156 college student raters from 51 cultures who described a person they knew well on the 3rd-person version of the Revised NEO Personality Inventory. In most cultures, male targets varied more than f...
Article
Full-text available
Personality disorders (PDs) may be better understood in terms of dimensions of general personality functioning rather than as discrete categorical conditions. Personality-trait descriptions of PDs are robust across methods and settings, and PD assessments based on trait measures show good construct validity. The study reported here extends research...
Article
• Chapter 6 of this text provides a description of how the personality disorders presented within the American Psychiatric Association’s Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., text revision; DSM–IV–TR; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) can be understood from the perspective of the five-factor model (FFM). This transla...
Chapter
Full-text available
The five-factor model Is a dimensional representation of personality structure that has recently gained widespread acceptance among personality psychologists. This article describes the five factors (Neuroticism. Extraversion. Openness. Agreeableness. and Conscientiousness): summarizes evidence on their consensual Validity. comprehensiveness. unive...
Article
Full-text available
Age trajectories for personality traits are known to be similar across cultures. To address whether stereotypes of age groups reflect these age-related changes in personality, we asked participants in 26 countries (N = 3,323) to rate typical adolescents, adults, and old persons in their own country. Raters across nations tended to share similar bel...
Chapter
Literature and personality psychology both address human nature, but they rarely address each other. We argue that the Five-Factor Model (FFM), a universal and heritable structure of enduring personality traits, provides a framework for integrating these two traditions. For the psychologist, fiction can provide illustrative examples, testable hypot...
Article
Both psychoanalytic views of attachment and evolutionary theories of imprinting suggest that mates may be preferentially chosen to resemble one’s parents. Using data from a large Dutch study of twins and their families, we tested these hypotheses with regard to personality traits from the Five-Factor Model. Little evidence of parent/spouse similari...
Article
Characteristic adaptations often cluster in mutually reinforcing networks. Evidence of stability and heritability suggests that the development of such networks is due in part to the causal influence of enduring dispositions or traits. Many different genetic models are consistent with this hypothesis, and the quest for genes can be pursued at many...
Article
Full-text available
The five-factor model (FFM) is a taxonomy of traits; five-factor theory (FFT) is a theory of personality based on research with the FFM. Both are useful in understanding interpersonal psychology. Traits traditionally considered interpersonal fall in the plane defined by FFM extraversion and agreeableness, but all five factors have interpersonal con...
Article
Full-text available
Personality traits provide distal explanations for behavior and are compatible with personality development, useful in clinical applications, and intrinsically interesting. They must, however, be understood in the context of a broader system of personality functioning. One of the recurring challenges to personality psychology has been the classific...
Article
National income has a pervasive influence on the perception of ingroup stereotypes, with high status and wealthy targets perceived as more competent. In two studies we investigated the degree to which economic wealth of raters related to perceptions of outgroup competence. Raters' economic wealth predicted trait ratings when 1) raters in 48 other c...
Article
Classic personality theories, although intriguing, are outdated. The five-factor model of personality traits reinvigorated personality research, and the resulting findings spurred a new generation of personality theories. These theories assign a central place to traits and acknowledge the crucial role of evolved biology in shaping human psychology;...
Article
Full-text available
The authors examined data (N = 34,108) on the differential reliability and validity of facet scales from the NEO Inventories. They evaluated the extent to which (a) psychometric properties of facet scales are generalizable across ages, cultures, and methods of measurement, and, (b) validity criteria are associated with different forms of reliabilit...
Article
Traits and their stability are in many respects desirable. Persistence of individual differences does not preclude group-level changes, and most data show that normative trait development leads to greater maturity. Theoretically, traits can be distinguished from acquired characteristic adaptations, and the latter offer greater opportunities for int...
Article
Full-text available
There is growing evidence that personality traits are affected by many genes, all of which have very small effects. As an alternative to the largely unsuccessful search for individual polymorphisms associated with personality traits, the authors identified large sets of potentially related single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and summed them to f...
Article
We examined properties of culture-level personality traits in ratings of targets (N=5,109) ages 12 to 17 in 24 cultures. Aggregate scores were generalizable across gender, age, and relationship groups and showed convergence with culture-level scores from previous studies of self-reports and observer ratings of adults, but they were unrelated to nat...
Article
Full-text available
Many domestic and foreign observers have claimed that Russians have a unique constellation of personality traits that mirrors their distinctive historical and cultural experience. To examine the hypothesized uniqueness of Russian personality, members of the Russian Character and Personality Survey collected data from 39 samples in 33 administrative...
Article
Full-text available
Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) I Epidemiologic Followup Study were used to examine some long-term consequences of widowhood. Beginning with a sample of over 14,000 respondents between the ages of 25 and 74, a 10-year follow-up traced 94% of those initially married and 93% of the widowed. There were no differ...
Article
Full-text available
Comments on the original article Personality traits and the classification of mental Disorders: Toward a more complete integration in DSM-5 and an empirical model of psychopathology by Robert F. Krueger and Nicholas R. Eaton (see record 2010-13810-003). Some researchers had hoped the forthcoming Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders...
Article
Full-text available
The stability of individual differences in personality traits is typically examined at the group level with test-retest correlations across two assessments. For 684 subjects (age range 17-76) we computed individual coefficients from three sequential assessments to evaluate intra-individual (i.e., within-person) change in stability over time. For bo...
Chapter
Personality traits are familiar to laypersons as enduring characteristics of individuals that distinguish them from others. Jane may be exuberant, energetic, and overbearing, whereas Jack is sober, steady, and reserved. Such distinctions are routinely made in everyday life and in literature, and they are facilitated by an enormous vocabulary of tra...
Article
Full-text available
College students (N=3,435) in 26 cultures reported their perceptions of age-related changes in physical, cognitive, and socioemotional areas of functioning and rated societal views of aging within their culture. There was widespread cross-cultural consensus regarding the expected direction of aging trajectories with (a) perceived declines in societ...
Article
Data were collected by the members of the Russian character and personality survey from 39 samples in 33 administrative areas of the Russian Federation. Respondents (N = 7065) identified an ethnically Russian adult or college-aged man or woman whom they knew well and rated the target using the Russian observer rating version of the Revised NEO Pers...
Article
Physics and chemistry, two basic natural sciences, are today seamlessly integrated, but for much of their history they were separate enterprises with distinct methods and goals. Physicists have consistently sought simplicity and mathematical rigor, whereas chemists seem to have been fascinated by the challenges of complexity. Parallels between thes...
Article
Full-text available
Although the Type A Behavior Pattern (TABP) is widely considered to be an important risk factor for CHD, several recent studies have failed to find associations between TABP and CHD. As a result, investigators using the Structured Interview have begun to examine more specific aspects of TAPB, and Potential for Hostility has emerged as the probable...
Article
Full-text available
Personality traits underlie maladaptive behaviors, and cognitive and emotional disturbances that contribute to major preventable causes of global disease burden. This study examines detailed personality profiles of underweight, normal, and overweight individuals to provide insights into the causes and treatments of abnormal weight. More than half o...
Article
Culture and the human mind are deeply interdependent, because they co-evolved. Personality traits were a preexisting feature of the primate mind and must have left an imprint on forms of culture. Trait taxonomies can structure ethnographies, by specifying institutions that reflect the operation of traits. Facets of ethos can be assessed by expert r...
Article
Some of the Global Leadership and Organizational Behavior Effectiveness (GLOBE) Societal Practices scales ask for descriptions of typical personality traits that might be interpreted as judgments of national character. Ratings of national character reflect cultural identities and social dynamics, but previous research suggests that they are unrelat...
Article
Reports an error in "Substance and artifact in the higher-order factors of the Big Five" by Robert R. McCrae, Shinji Yamagata, Kerry L. Jang, Rainer Riemann, Juko Ando, Yutaka Ono, Alois Angleitner and Frank M. Spinath (Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 2008[Aug], Vol 95[2], 442-455). In this article, an incorrect DOI was published. The...
Article
Full-text available
Individual differences in personality traits are generally stable during adulthood; where there are changes, they are generally in the direction of greater maturity. The trends are similar for men and women and across cultures. With advancing age, people generally become more emotionally stable, agreeable, and conscientious, with better impulse con...
Article
Full-text available
J. M. Digman (1997) proposed that the Big Five personality traits showed a higher-order structure with 2 factors he labeled alpha and beta. These factors have been alternatively interpreted as heritable components of personality or as artifacts of evaluative bias. Using structural equation modeling, the authors reanalyzed data from a cross-national...
Article
We examined patterns of trait similarity (assortative mating) in married couples in four cultures, using both self-reports and spouse ratings on versions of the Revised NEO Personality Inventory. There was evidence of a subtle but pervasive perceived contrast bias in the spouse-rating data. However, there was strong agreement across methods of asse...
Article
Profile similarity or agreement is increasingly used in personality research and clinical practice and has potential applications in many other fields of psychology. I compared 4 measures of profile agreement--the Pearson r, Cattell's (1949) r(p), McCrae's (1993) r(pa), and an intraclass correlation coefficient (double entry), ICC(DE)--using both b...
Article
We examined the influence of age, gender, Black vs. White ethnicity, and education on five indices of personality stability and change across an average interval of 8 years in the East Baltimore Epidemiologic Catchment Area study. In the full sample (n = 505, aged 30-88), examination of structural, rank-order, ipsative, and mean level stability, as...
Article
Full-text available
Empirical and theoretical status of the five-factor model of personality traits Progress sometimes seems elusive in psychology, where old methods such as the Rorschach endure despite decades of criticism (Costa and McCrae, 2005), and where new research is often based on passing fads (Fiske and Leyens, 1997) rather than cumulative findings. It is re...
Article
National character stereotypes are widely shared, but do not reflect assessed levels of personality traits. In this article we present data illustrating the divergence of stereotypes and assessed personality traits in north and south Italy, test hypotheses about the associations of temperature and national wealth with national character stereotypes...
Article
In response to comments by Perugini and Richetin and by Ashton, we discuss the reference-group effect as a potential source of distortion in cross-cultural comparisons and suggest some research designs to test its nature and importance. We argue that laboratory studies of personality are of limited utility in understanding personality questionnaire...
Article
The Five-Factor Model (FFM) of personality traits has been widely adopted and applied to a diverse set of issues in psychology and related disciplines. In this article, we identify a number of unresolved questions and propose new directions for research using the FFM. In clinical psychology, research is needed on the optimal ways to utilize persona...
Article
Full-text available
Self-report (Form S) and observer rating (Form R) versions of two short forms of the NEO Personality Inventory-3 (NEOPI- 3) were evaluated. The NEO Five-Factor Inventory-3 is a 60-item instrument that assesses the five factors. The NEO-PI-3 First Half consists of the first 120 items of the NEO-PI-3, selected to optimally assess its 30 facet scales....
Article
Full-text available
Potential founder population effects on personality trait means and variances were examined in a large, genetically homogeneous sample (N=5,669) from the Ogliastra, an isolated region within Sardinia, Italy. The Italian version of the Revised NEO Personality Inventory showed good psychometric properties: Internal consistency reliabilities ranged fr...