Robert M. Hauser's research while affiliated with University of Wisconsin–Madison and other places

Publications (162)

Article
Women’s opportunities have been profoundly altered over the past century by reductions in the social and structural constraints that limit women’s educational attainment. Do social constraints manifest as a suppressing influence on genetic indicators of potential, and if so, did equalizing opportunity mean equalizing the role of genetics? We addres...
Article
Shared methods, procedures, documentation, and data are essential features of science. This observation is illustrated by autobiographical examples and, far more important, by the history of astronomy, geography, meteorology, and the social sciences. Unfortunately, though sometimes for understandable reasons, data sharing has been less common in ps...
Article
There has lately been a slew of movies—biopics—that depict the lives of immensely talented individuals—the Indian mathematician Srinivasa Ramanujan, the cryptographer and computing pioneer Alan Turing, the physicist extraordinaire Stephen Hawking, and the southern-born novelist Thomas Wolfe, among others. As I think about my life and accomplishment...
Article
Abstract In an influential body of work extending across more than three decades and drawing on data from the United States, Poland, Japan, and the Ukraine, Melvin Kohn, Carmi Schooler, and their associates have found that cognitive capacities are affected by experiences on the job, specifically that working at a complex job improves cognitive func...
Article
Susan T. Fiske, chair of the National Research Council Committee on Revisions to the Common Rule for the Protection of Human Subjects in Research in the Behavioral and Social Sciences, and Eugene Higgins Professor of Psychology and …
Article
Objectives: We examined depression within a multidimensional framework consisting of genetic, environmental, and sociobehavioral factors and, using machine learning algorithms, explored interactions among these factors that might better explain the etiology of depressive symptoms. Methods: We measured current depressive symptoms using the Center...
Article
To assess and explain the United States' gender wealth gap, we use the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study to examine wealth accumulated by a single cohort over 50 years by gender, by marital status, and limited to the respondents who are their family's best financial reporters. We find large gender wealth gaps between currently married men and women, and...
Article
Full-text available
General intelligence (g) and virtually all other behavioral traits are heritable. Associations between g and specific single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in several candidate genes involved in brain function have been reported. We sought to replicate published associations between g and 12 specific genetic variants (in the genes DTNBP1, CTSD, DR...
Article
Full-text available
Single genetic loci offer little predictive power for the identification of depression. This study examined whether an analysis of gene-gene (G × G) interactions of 78 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes associated with depression and age-related diseases would identify significant interactions with increased predictive power for depres...
Article
This article reviews existing research at the intersection of genetics and economics, presents some new findings that illustrate the state of genoeconomics research, and surveys the prospects of this emerging field. Twin studies suggest that economic outcomes and preferences, once corrected for measurement error, appear to be about as heritable as...
Article
Full-text available
The reproductive-cell cycle theory of aging posits that reproductive hormone changes associated with menopause and andropause drive senescence via altered cell cycle signaling. Using data from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study (n = 5,034), we analyzed the relationship between longevity and menopause, including other factors that impact "ovarian life...
Article
Sociologists have long used educational expectations to understand the complex mental processes underlying individuals’ educational decision making. Yet, little research evaluates how students actually formulate their educational expectations. Status attainment theory asserts that students adopt their educational expectations early based on famil...
Article
Full-text available
This study attempts to explain the ubiquitous positive correlation between cognitive ability (IQ) and survival. A sample of 10,317 Wisconsin high school graduates of 1957 was followed until 2009, from ages 18 to 68 years. Mortality was analyzed using a Weibull survival model that includes gender, social background, Henmon-Nelson IQ, and rank in hig...
Article
Full-text available
This article addresses a potentially serious problem with the widely used self-rated health (SRH) survey item: that different groups have systematically different ways of using the item's response categories. Analyses based on unadjusted SRH may thus yield misleading results. The authors evaluate anchoring vignettes as a possible solution to this p...
Article
Full-text available
We examined the extent to which involuntary job loss, exposure to "bad jobs," and labor union membership across the life course are associated with the risk of early retirement. Using data from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study, a large (N=8,609) sample of men and women who graduated from high school in 1957, we estimated discrete-time event history...
Article
Using two population-based surveys, we provide the first test of longitudinal age variations in Ryff's scales of psychological well-being (RPWB) across three midlife to later-life transitions. Through these analyses we explore: (a) age variation in RPWB, (b) the structure of RPWB, and (c) the potential for methodologically driven age patterns. In g...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper, we evaluate relationships between mid-life work experiences and the realization of preferences for full-time employment, part-time employment, and complete retirement at age 63-64. Using rich data from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study, we demonstrate that the likelihood of achieving one's preferred employment status is related to ear...
Article
Full-text available
Numerous studies find a positive relationship between cognitive ability, IQ as measured in childhood or youth, and subsequent survival. Explanations range from the idea that low ability is an indicator of adverse systemic events in early life to the idea that high cognitive functioning is required continuously to maintain health and reduce threats...
Article
We review recent developments in longitudinal studies of aging, focusing on the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study (WLS) and the Health and Retirement Study (HRS). Both studies are part of a trend toward biosocial surveys in which biological measurement is joined with traditional survey techniques, and a related trend toward greater harmonization across...
Article
Research on variation in cognitive abilities has focused largely on their genetic or experiential sources and on their economic consequences. This article takes a broader look at the consequences of cognitive ability-IQ-across the life course. Contrary to received wisdom, the effects of IQ on economic success are almost entirely mediated by educati...
Article
Full-text available
Prior research suggests that midlife husbands have worse health when they earn less than their wives; however, the mechanism(s) for this relationship have not been evaluated. In this study, the author analyzes 1,319 heterosexual married couples from the Health and Retirement Study to explore three theoretically grounded mechanisms. The author begin...
Article
Many studies have cited the importance of secular changes or "period effects" as causes of the U.S. obesity epidemic. Unfortunately, relatively little attention has been devoted to the possible influence of cohort-related mechanisms. To address this current gap in the scientific literature, this investigation utilized the responses from 1.7 million...
Article
Full-text available
When terminally ill patients become mentally incapacitated, the patient's surrogate often makes treatment decisions in collaboration with health care providers. We examine how surrogates' errors in reporting their spouse's preferences are affected by their gender, status as durable power of attorney for health care (DPAHC), whether the surrogate an...
Article
Several important longitudinal studies in the social sciences have omitted biomarkers that are routinely recorded today, including height and weight. To account for this shortcoming in the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study (WLS), an 11-point scale was developed to code high school senior class yearbook photographs of WLS participants for relative body m...
Article
We examine trends over time in the proportion of children below the modal grade for their age (BMG), a proxy for grade retention, and in the effects of its demographic and socioeconomic correlates. We estimate a logistic regression model with partial constraints predicting BMG using the annual October school enrollment supplements of the Current Po...
Article
This article discusses the use of general mental ability tests in hiring decisions. The premise of this assessment suggests that general mental ability is predictive of an individual's job performance and that the ability-performance relationship is more evident in higher-status jobs. Mental ability tests are also indicative of such factors as doll...
Article
In this paper we reanalyze Robert D. Mare's highly influential work on educational transitions among American men born in the first half of the 20th century. Contrary to previous belief, Mare found that the effects of socioeconomic background variables decline regularly across educational transitions in conditional logistic regression analyses. We...
Article
Springer and Hauser (An Assessment of the Construct Validity of Ryff’s Scales of Psychological Well-Being: Method, Mode, and Measurement Effects. 2006. Social Science Research 35) tested one key aspect of the validity of Ryff’s six-factor model of psychological well-being (RPWB), namely, whether there is substantial independent variation among the...
Article
This study assesses the measurement properties of Ryff’s Scales of Psychological Well-Being (RPWB)—a widely used instrument designed to measure six dimensions of psychological well-being. Analyses of self-administered RPWB data from three major surveys—Midlife in the United States (MIDUS), National Survey of Families and Households II, and the Wisc...
Article
This article reviews the history and design of the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study (WLS), which has successfully followed a sample of more than 10,000 members of Wisconsin’s class of 1957 from high school graduation to the retirement years. It describes methods that have been used to locate the graduates in the 1964, 1975, 1992–1993, and 2003–2005 fol...
Article
Full-text available
Using longitudinal data from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study (WLS, 1993 to 2004) and the National Survey of Families and Households (NSFH, 1992 to 2001), we estimate confirmatory factor models to assess the temporal stability and factorial structure of psychological well-being (of PWB), as assessed using Carol Ryff's six-factor model (Ryff 1989a;...
Article
Large-scale data collection has become the kernel of the growth of knowl- edge in the social sciences. Nowhere is this more evident than in research in the demography of aging and the life course, where scientific progress has been stimulated and sustained by complementary longitudinal studies of aging populations. In this chapter, we review the hi...
Article
Background: The nature of the relationship between cognition and alcohol consumption remains controversial. Studies have reported negative, positive, and nonsignificant effects of alcohol consumption on cognition. Problematic throughout the literature is that baseline cognitive ability has not been adequately controlled in previous studies, and ev...
Article
The authors review the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study (WLS) across its history of more than 40 years. The WLS began as a study of post-secondary aspirations and educational attainment among Wisconsin high school graduates of 1957, but it has become a major, long-term study of the life-course and aging. The most visible contributions of the WLS to dat...
Article
Full-text available
Sociologists frequently study changes across cohorts in the consequences of family background, gender, education, and cognitive ability for occupational outcomes. This study focuses, however, on how the consequences of these variables change within the course of individuals' lives. To appropriately estimate changes across the life course in the det...
Article
Educational attainment is a widely used indicator of socioeconomic status (SES) in health studies. However, little is known about its relationship to health relative to measures of occupational standing. This study directly compared education with an array of occupational measures-including social class-in relation to health. The Wisconsin Longitud...
Article
PURPOSE: Educational attainment is a widely used indicator of socioeconomic status (SES) in health studies. However, little is known about its relationship to health relative to measures of occupational standing. This study directly compared education with an array of occupational measures—including social class—in relation to health.METHODS: The W...
Article
High school students who work intensively at paid jobs tend to have lower grades in academic courses. Prior research has not properly tested theories about the source of the relationship between student employment and grades (or other outcomes), and has not explicitly modeled the potentially reciprocal nature of this relationship. We focus on both...
Article
Full-text available
About 8,500 graduates of Wisconsin high schools and a randomly selected brother or sister have been followed from 1957 through the early 1990s. Data include multiple measures of social background, cognitive ability, schooling, and occupations held from career entry to midlife. The authors have analyzed occupational standing across the life course,...
Article
Full-text available
Does the choice of measure of occupational standing affect inferences about gender differences in occupational attainment? The authors use data from the 1994 General Social Survey and the 1986-1988 Survey of Income and Program Participation to analyze the role of gender in the process of occupational attainment IS times, each time using a different...
Article
Data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, the November 1989 Current Population Survey, and the National Longitudinal Study of Women suggest that women with sisters may have completed less schooling than women without sisters. This hypothesis follows a long tradition of theories about the effects of sibling number and configuration. There is rel...
Article
Along with other recent analyses of American social structure, Herrnstein and Murray'sThe Bell Curveoffers several hypotheses about the increasing centrality of cognitive ability in social stratification during the 20th century. These include growing cognitive sorting in education, occupational standing, and income and—by implication—increasing str...
Article
While two-generation studies provide important insights into how social and economic advantages and disadvantages are passed from one generation to the next, much less attention has been paid to stratification over three or more generations. In a regression analysis of several thousand parents who graduated from Wisconsin high schools in 1957, we f...
Article
Using data from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study for full sibships of sizes two to five, we estimate models of the effects of social background, size of sibship, and gender on sibling resemblance in educational attainment. We find no differences in educational attainment by gender composition within those family sizes. Smaller sibships obtain more...
Article
Following a brief review of the concept of occupational status, we review trends in occupational standing, using data from the 1962 and 1973 Occupational Changes in a Generation Surveys (OCG), the 1986-88 Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP), and the 1972 to 1990 NORC General Social Surveys (GSS). Next, we examine trends and differenti...
Article
A comprehensive model of family influences on educational resemblance of siblings expands the traditional sibling pair model to a full sibship model in order to investigate how gender, gender composition of sibships, and a measure of ordinal position moderate the effect of social origins on educational attainments of siblings. One common family fac...
Article
Among Black and White men born from 1907 to 1946, family background accounts for at least half the variance in educational attainment. Parental schooling, father's occupational status, size of sibship, intact family, farm background, and southern birth account for no more than half this common family effect. Family background has smaller effects on...
Article
Income is more difficult to measure fully and accurately than occupation. Detailed occupational codes may be mapped into standard socioeconomic scales, and occupational status is related to other variables in much the same way as repeated or long-term measures of income. For these reasons, whether or not an attempt has been made to measure income,...
Article
Income is more difficult to measure fully and accurately than occupation. Detailed occupational codes may be mapped into standard socioeconomic scales, and occupational status is related to other variables in much the same way as repeated or long-term measures of income. For these reasons, whether or not an attempt has been made to measure income,...
Article
Sociologists have long been interested in the impact of social, economic, and political changes on societal openness. Among other questions, they have asked whether the transition from a preindustrial agrarian society to an industrial socialist state creates more opportunity and equality. Using recent developments in loglinear modeling, this paper...
Article
Full-text available
The Wisconsin Longitudinal Study: Adults As Parents And Children At Age 50
Article
Using a new time series of cross-sections from October Current Population Surveys, a fresh look is taken at trends in college entry over the 1972-1988 period for White, Black, and Hispanic American men and women, asking to what degree group differences and social and economic background have affected these trends. From 1972 to 1988, Blacks and Hisp...
Article
Full-text available
Measurement error in independent variables produces biased estimates of the coefficients in linear models. These biases can be reduced by obtaining repeated measurements of the variables and then estimating structural equation models with multiple indicators of latent variables. Remeasurement is usually costly, however, raising the question of whet...
Article
Is there reciprocal influence between siblings' educational attainments or a predominant influence of older on younger siblings? A reanalysis of Benin and Johnson's (1984) Nebraska data shows no unusually high level of resemblance between brothers, but there is an unusually low similarity between older sisters and younger brothers. We model recipro...
Article
Our purpose is to bridge the criminal justice and stratification research literatures and to pursue the argument that homologous structural principles stratify allocation processes across central institutions of American society. The principle observed here in the making of bail decisions, as in earlier studies of the allocation of earnings, is tha...
Article
Among fraternal pairs from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study_(1980), the authors model the effects of measured and unmeasured family back ground factors, mental ability, and schooling on occupational status and earnings. The models are estimated from incomplete data with corrections for measurement error, and they permit direct comparisons of within...
Article
The idea that birth order influences intellectual development and social success has recently been revived, despite the accumulated evidence that birth order effects are often negligible or artifactual. In this paper, the association of birth order with educational attainment (as measured by years of schooling completed) is examined among 9,000 Wis...
Article
It is a truism of research on social stratification that the effects of socioeconomic or family background on educational attainment and adult success lead to biases in the simple regressions of occupational status (or other putative outcomes of schooling) on educational attainment. The present analysis compares findings of family bias in the effec...
Article
This paper presents new findings about English, French, and Swedish mobility tables from the early 1970s that were previously analyzed by Enkson, Gold thorpe & Portocarero and by Hope. The former analysis focused on nonvertical aspects of mobility, while the latter gave priority to vertical mobility. The reanalysis shows that the vertical dimension...
Article
This study uses measurements of social background variables, mental ability, educational attainment, occupational status, and earnings among male, Wisconsin high school graduates and a random sample of their brothers to develop and interpret simple models of socioeconomic achievement. The study was designed to contribute to the data on the influenc...
Article
Measures used by the U.S. Bureau of the Census to assay misclassification and correct marginal distributions—the net difference rate and the index of inconsistency—may produce misleading results and do not fully use information about inconsistency in repeated measurements. We show how multiplicative models of classifications of repeated measurement...
Article
In a 1973 Australian survey, Broom et al. located two distinct subsamples of men in which fathers and sons reported their own status characteristics and those of their sons and fathers, respectively. Inconsistencies between these two subsamples led Broom et al. to infer that "respondents report (perhaps unconsciously) their socioeconomic careers an...
Article
The well-known Wisconsin model of achievement posits that the influence of socioeconomic origins on educational, occupational and economic attainment is largely mediated by academic performance, social influences and aspirations in secondary schooling. The model has been widely replicated, elaborated and criticized. The present analysis asks how po...
Article
Longitudinal data from a large sample of Wisconsin men and women are used to examine the effects on fertility of religious and secular socialization, including farm upbringing. Analyses of children ever born (CEB) and of parity progression show that current religious choice is more important in explaining fertility than is religion of orientation o...
Article
Macdonald's criticism of structural models of mobility is empty because it denies ideas or theories a place in model construction. Specifically, the equivalent models proposed by Macdonald do not meet the criterion of minimal asymmetry that was applied in the selection of models for British and American mobility tables. Under certain conditions, eq...
Article
Based on data from an 18-year follow-up of Wisconsin high school seniors, this paper describes the process of occupational achievement among men and women from labor market entry to mid-life. In contrast to several earlier studies, there are marked sex differences in the acquisition and maintenance of occupational status. The effect of post high sc...