Robert J. Sternberg's research while affiliated with Universität Heidelberg and other places

Publications (533)

Article
In this exchange, the authors each address five questions about creativity, and then provide a final synthesizing response. The five questions they address are: (1) What is creativity? Are there different processes, types, or kinds of creativity, and if so, what are they? (2) What are the major obstacles to people thinking and acting creatively? (3...
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Criterion-referenced testing is usually applied to the assessment of achievement. In this article, we suggest how it can also be applied to the assessment of adaptive intelligence, that is, intelligence as adaptation to the environment. In the era of the Anthropocene, we argue that adaptive intelligence is what is most important not only for indivi...
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We administered both maximum-performance and typical-performance assessments of cultural intelligence to 114 undergraduates in a selective university in the Northeast of the United States. We found that cultural intelligence could be measured by both maximum-performance and typical-performance tests of cultural intelligence. Cultural intelligence a...
Chapter
The Psychology of Wisdom: An Introduction is the first comprehensive coursebook on wisdom, providing an engaging, balanced, and expert introduction to the psychology of wisdom. It provides a comprehensive and up-to-date account of the psychological science of wisdom, covering wide-ranging perspectives. Each chapter includes extensive pedagogy, incl...
Chapter
The Psychology of Wisdom: An Introduction is the first comprehensive coursebook on wisdom, providing an engaging, balanced, and expert introduction to the psychology of wisdom. It provides a comprehensive and up-to-date account of the psychological science of wisdom, covering wide-ranging perspectives. Each chapter includes extensive pedagogy, incl...
Article
The field of giftedness—including educators, theorists, and researchers--needs to show more cognizance of a phenomenon that is rearing its ugly head in more and more visible ways, namely, dark giftedness. Dark giftedness is giftedness used for bad and even toxic ends. Being gifted provides little, if any protection against the dark deployment of th...
Article
In this study, we performed a first assessment of the construct validity of a theory and measure of love for music students’ musical instruments. In all, 288 undergraduates at a large and selective Northeastern university in the United States completed measures of their love of their musical instrument with respect to intimacy, passion, and commitm...
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Existing theories and frameworks generally have regarded creativity as inhering in a person, a task, a situation, or a combination of 2 of these 3 elements. After reviewing these approaches, and frameworks that are based on the interaction of more than 2 components, we propose a Person × Task × Situation synergistic paradigm, according to which cre...
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This article discusses the issues of the basic processes underlying intelligence, considering both historical and contemporary perspectives. The attempt to elucidate basic processes has had, at best, mixed success. There are some problems with pinpointing the underlying basic processes of intelligence, both in theory and as tested, such as what con...
Article
This article introduces the construct of personal talent curation. Personal talent curation is one’s assessment of one’s talents—of one’s strengths and weaknesses—but also the building of an adaptive match in life between those talents and both one’s career pursuits and one’s personal lifestyle. Sometimes, this match means pursuing a lifelong passi...
Chapter
This chapter summarizes the main points in this book. First, non-verbal communication is important in close relationships. Second, non-verbal communication is not only important, often it is more important than verbal communication; when non-verbal signals belie verbal ones, people often believe the non-verbal ones over the verbal ones. Third, nonv...
Article
Creativity sometimes has been viewed as fixed or absolutist over time and space and other times has been viewed as flexible or relativistic over time and space. The psychometric view has tended toward the absolutist model, the sociocultural view toward the relativistic model. It is proposed that these two views roughly represent a thesis and an ant...
Article
This article introduces the concept of adaptive intelligence—the intelligence one needs to adapt to current problems and anticipate future problems of real-world environments—and discusses its implications for education. Adaptive intelligence involves not only promoting one’s own ability to survive and thrive, but also that of others in one’s own g...
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This article explores the advantages of viewing intelligence not as a fixed trait residing within an individual, but rather as a person × task × situation interaction. The emphasis in the article is on the role of persons solving tasks embedded in situations involving learning, intellectual abilities, and competencies. The article opens with a cons...
Article
This article describes how a theory of musical intelligence can be applied to the teaching of music whereby musical learning is viewed as a form of problem-solving. We first introduce basic concepts and then describe the steps in a problem-solving cycle for musical learning. In particular, these steps involve recognizing the existence of a problem,...
Article
Gifts can be individually, dyadically, or collectively chosen and oriented. Society, in its identification of the gifted, has chosen to focus on individual and sometimes dyadic goods. This practice represents a culture of individualism, but it has become solipsistic. We argue that identification instead should focus on those most likely to help to...
Article
This article proposes a theory (AWOKE) of mental representation and process in the functioning of intelligence as adaptation. It opens with some background, considering alternative metaphors of mind that have been used in the psychological literature to characterize intelligence. It then considers the epistemological underpinnings of the proposed t...
Book
The world is simultaneously facing many crises that humanity is failing to solve. Yet, at the same time, humans are smarter (with IQs on average thirty points higher than a century ago) and more knowledgeable (with the world's knowledge base at our fingertips), and scientific advances are accelerating. However, intelligence and knowledge are not en...
Article
The field of gifted education, historically and contemporarily, is not well-known for being equitable for underrepresented students, specifically, Black, Hispanic, Native American, among others. In this article, we present a short history of gifted education with attention to key historical figures who have significantly shaped the field; their inf...
Article
This chapter defines wisdom and discusses its relevance to life. In particular, it highlights wisdom as the search for a common good, by balancing one’s own, others’, and larger interests over the long- as well as the short-term through the infusion of positive ethical values. The chapter gives an extended example of how this definition applies in...
Article
This chapter reviews how psychologists’ ideas of wisdom have evolved over time. There was virtually no research on wisdom until the 1970s. As psychologists became more interested in aging, wisdom, as a positive quality associated with old age, became a field of interest. The first psychological research programs on wisdom took a cognitive perspecti...
Article
This chapter reviews theoretical models and empirical evidence about the development of wisdom. Wisdom does not automatically come with age: many people grow very old without becoming very wise! Studies show that the relationship between wisdom and ages varies somewhat between different measures of wisdom, but there seems to be a growing consensus...
Article
The world is simultaneously facing many crises that humanity is failing to solve. Yet, at the same time, humans are smarter (with IQs on average thirty points higher than a century ago) and more knowledgeable (with the world's knowledge base at our fingertips), and scientific advances are accelerating. However, intelligence and knowledge are not en...
Article
This chapter discusses how to cultivate wisdom. First, it discusses why people are not wise, mainly, because they are susceptible to foolishness through eight fallacies. • 1. The fallacy of unrealistic optimism. • 2. The fallacy of egocentrism. • 3. The fallacy of false omniscience. • 4. The fallacy of false omnipotence. • 5. The fallacy of false...
Article
This chapter discusses why wisdom is so important to the world. In particular, it states: • 1. Most important problems cannot be solved by knowledge + intelligence (IQ) alone. This formula has failed. • 2. Analytical thinking untempered by wisdom can be risky and dangerous. • 3. Creativity untempered by wisdom can be risky or downright dangerous....
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This chapter reviews theoretical and empirical relationships between wisdom and aspects of intelligence, personality, emotions and well-being, and value orientations. Relationships between wisdom and other psychological characteristics vary considerably by wisdom measure. On average, wise people tend to be somewhat more intelligent than not-so-wise...
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This chapter reviews the methods that psychologists have devised for measuring wisdom. There are two classical types of measures: self-report scales, where people rate themselves with respect to characteristics of wisdom, and performance measures, where people respond to descriptions of problems that require wisdom. Both types of measures have thei...
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Cultural intelligence is one’s ability to adapt when confronted with problems arising in interactions with people or artifacts of diverse cultures. In this study, we conduct an initial construct-validation and assessment of a maximum-performance test of cultural intelligence. We assess the psychometric properties of the test and also correlate the...
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This article introduces the concept of transformational creativity, which is creativity that is deployed to make a positive, meaningful, and potentially enduring difference to the world. Transformational creativity is compared to transactional creativity, which is creativity deployed in search of a reward, whether externally or internally generated...
Article
This article presents an 8P theoretical framework for understanding creativity and theories of creativity. The 8Ps are purpose, press, person, problem, process, product, propulsion, and public. The article opens by distinguishing between a theory and a model, on the one hand, and a theoretical framework, on the other. It then considers briefly some...
Article
We propose that wisdom should be considered in understanding, identifying, and developing skills of thought translated into action in gifted children and adults. First, we review some of the history of the gifted field and conclude that ideas about understanding, identification, and instruction are largely obsolete and based on assumptions that mig...
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This article introduces a 6P framework for understanding intelligence, as well as the theories and tests that are derived from it. The 6Ps in the framework are purpose, press, problems, persons, processes, and products underlying intelligence. Each of the 6Ps is considered in turn. We argue that although the purpose of intelligence is culturally un...
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Positive creativity is creativity that makes the world a better place—that makes a positive, meaningful, and potentially enduring difference to the world. Positive creativity can be a bit of a slippery concept in that, what is positive to one person or one group may be neutral or even negative to another group. Much of teaching young people for pos...
Article
Ian Deary and Robert Sternberg have been writing about intelligence differences since 1982 and 1977, respectively. As Deary was retiring at the end of 2020, they discussed an idea for their first joint paper. They composed five questions related to research on intelligence differences, about: attempts to find cognitive components of intelligence; t...
Article
The focus of the field of giftedness is on the wrong thing. Instead of focusing on identifying who is gifted, the field should identify how people will deploy their gifts and educate students to deploy their gifts in ways that will make the world a better place. In this article, I present at least a partial taxonomy of how gifts can be deployed and...
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Citation: Sternberg, R.J.; Chowkase, A.; Desmet, O.; Karami, S.; Landy, J.; Lu, J. Beyond Transformational Giftedness. Abstract: This article discusses kinds of transformational giftedness, or giftedness that makes a positive, meaningful, and possibly enduring difference to the world. We extend previous work by suggesting that there are two kinds o...
Chapter
This chapter considers the contemporary problem of bad leadership. It opens with a consideration of why, in recent times, leadership has declined in quality. Several reasons are presented: forgetting the lessons of the World Wars, the Internet, social media, surveillance, and discouragement of good candidates for entering positions of leadership. T...
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A deeper understanding of the processes leading to problem framing and behind finding solutions to problems should help explain variability in the quality of the solutions to those problems. Using Sternberg’s WICS model as the conceptual basis of problem solving, this article discusses the relations between creative, analytical, practical, and wisd...
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The late James Flynn, to whom this Special Issue is dedicated, suggested that what will matter most to the future of the world is not levels of intelligence but rather how intelligence is deployed. In this article, I argue that we can distinguish between transactional and transformational deployments of intelligence. Loosely following Flynn, I sugg...
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This textbook is a systematic and straightforward introduction to the interdisciplinary study of creativity. Each chapter is written by one or more of the world's experts and features the latest research developments, alongside foundational knowledge. Each chapter also includes an introduction, key terms, and critical thought questions to promote a...
Article
In this article, we propose a “6P” unified framework for understanding wisdom and accounts of wisdom: purpose, press, problems, persons, processes, products. We discuss wisdom in terms of these 6Ps, which expand and elaborate upon 4Ps originally suggested for models of creativity. We open the article with a discussion of the importance of wisdom. T...
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This chapter reviews the previous chapters in the book and identifies points of agreement and disagreement among authors. The greatest point of agreement is that those wishing to identify and develop giftedness in young people need to go beyond IQ in their conception of what it means to be gifted.
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In this chapter, I present a theory of giftedness that emphasizes that giftedness should be defined not just in terms of general-intellectual skills, as it has been in the past, but in terms of adaptive-intellectual skills—a person’s ability to make a positive, meaningful, and potentially enduring difference to the world. People who are adaptively...
Book
This book brings together eminent and emerging scholars to present cutting-edge research on diverse conceptions of giftedness and talent from a range of international perspectives. It covers classical views, emphasizing IQ, but also seeks to move the academic debate on from the common exclusive emphasis on IQ-based skills. In each chapter the cont...
Book
In this Element, I first introduce intelligence in terms of historical definitions. I show that intelligence, as conceived even by the originators of the first intelligence tests, Alfred Binet and David Wechsler, is a much broader construct than just scores on narrow tests of intelligence and their proxies. I then review the major approaches to und...
Article
This article presents an application of a triangular theory of love as it applies to love for musical instruments. The triangular theory comprises three components: intimacy, passion, and commitment. Intimacy, which is primarily emotional, refers to feelings of closeness, connectedness, warmth, communication, and emotional support. Passion, which i...
Article
This article presents an effort toward a theory of musical intelligence through a somewhat novel combination of Howard Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligences with Robert J. Sternberg’s theory of successful intelligence. In particular, musical intelligence involves creative, analytical, practical, and wisdom-based aspects. These components apply...
Article
In this article, I discuss two kinds of giftedness, transactional and transformational. Transformational giftedness is giftedness that is transformative. Transformationally gifted individuals seek positively to change the world at some level—in their own way, to make the world a better place. Transactional giftedness is giftedness that is based on...
Article
I present a theory of adaptive intelligence and discuss why I believe adaptive intelligence, rather than general intelligence, is the kind of intelligence upon which we should focus in today's world. Adaptive intelligence is the ability to adapt to, shape, and select real-world environments in ways that result in positive outcomes not only for ones...
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The Triangular Theory of Love (measured with Sternberg’s Triangular Love Scale – STLS) is a prominent theoretical concept in empirical research on love. To expand the culturally homogeneous body of previous psychometric research regarding the STLS, we conducted a large-scale cross-cultural study with the use of this scale. In total, we examined mor...
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Although early-life adversity can undermine healthy development, children growing up in harsh environments may develop intact, or even enhanced , skills for solving problems in high-adversity contexts (i.e., “hidden talents”). Here we situate the hidden talents model within a larger interdisciplinary framework. Summarizing theory and research on hi...
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In many nations, grades and standardized test scores are used to select students for programs of scientific study. We suggest that the skills that these assessments measure are related to success in science, but only peripherally in comparison with two other skills, scientific creativity and recognition of scientific impact. In three studies, we in...
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David Geary (2019) has written a summary of his fascinating Psychological Review article on the purported role of the mitochondria in the development of intelligence (Geary 2018) [...]
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Critical Thinking in Psychology - edited by Robert J. Sternberg January 2020
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Critical Thinking in Psychology - edited by Robert J. Sternberg January 2020
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In this chapter, we discuss social intelligence and why it is of crucial importance to the world today. We open by defining social intelligence. Then we discuss whether social intelligence should be separated from general intelligence. Then we discuss the role of nonverbal communication in social intelligence. Finally, we discuss how social intelli...
Chapter
I propose an extension to existing paradigms for studying social intelligence. This extension moves beyond the study of what cues, and with what accuracy, people use in social situations to the study of how and why the exact same cues can lead to radically different constructions of social reality. These differences are tearing the world apart. Soc...
Chapter
Robert Sternberg provides an overview of the work by Teresa Amabile as it relates to creativity. He notes that Teresa’s work transformed the field of creativity, and discusses a number major contribution to the study of creativity. First, the new focus on the social psychology of creativity, and the integration of creativity into the wider field of...
Book
“This book on people's wisdom in using and understanding nonverbal communication marks a new level of maturity in the nonverbal field. First we figured out how to measure such ability, then we asked about its correlates, and finally we are asking what it's actually good for. Kudos to the field and to these talented authors!” - Judith Hall, Universi...
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In the interview with Robert J. Sternberg, one of most prolific creativity researchers, we discuss his career, main areas of research interest, chosen research methods and share his thoughts about the future of research on creativity and effectiveness in scientific work.
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The tall-poppy syndrome (TPS) is a pattern of behaviour whereby people who excel in some respect are cut down to size by those around them. People are often uncomfortable with those who excel and therefore, in effect, seek to put them in their place. I argue in this article that the TPS is, in some respects, getting worse, even in the creative prof...
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Intelligence typically is defined as consisting of “adaptation to the environment” or in related terms. Yet, it is not clear that “general intelligence” or g, traditionally conceptualized in terms of a general factor in a psychometrically-based hierarchical model of intelligence, provides an optimal way of defining intelligence as adaptation to the...
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Este manifiesto, discutido por 20 académicos y académicas que representan diversas líneas de investigación sobre la creatividad, marca un cambio conceptual dentro de los estudios de este campo. Los enfoques socioculturales han hecho contribuciones sustanciales al concepto de creatividad en las últimas décadas y hoy pueden proporcionar un conjunto d...
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We conducted two studies to replicate and extend, as well as test, the limits of previous findings regarding an apparent disconnect between scientific-reasoning skills in psychological science, on the one hand, and scores on standardized tests of general intelligence, on the other. In Study 1, we examined whether this disconnect would extend beyond...
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Gifted children are an extremely precious resource. But what does it mean to be gifted? Ellen Winner has devoted much of her career to addressing this question. In this essay, I argue that our society misdefines giftedness, placing undue emphasis on analytical skills. Moreover, the problem is getting worse. Amplifying factors in society are narrowi...
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The Psychologist's Companion for Undergraduates - by Robert J. Sternberg January 2017
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The Psychologist's Companion for Undergraduates - by Robert J. Sternberg January 2017
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The Psychologist's Companion for Undergraduates - by Robert J. Sternberg January 2017
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The Psychologist's Companion for Undergraduates - by Robert J. Sternberg January 2017
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The Psychologist's Companion for Undergraduates - by Robert J. Sternberg January 2017
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The Psychologist's Companion for Undergraduates - by Robert J. Sternberg January 2017
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The Psychologist's Companion for Undergraduates - by Robert J. Sternberg January 2017
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The Psychologist's Companion for Undergraduates - by Robert J. Sternberg January 2017
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The Psychologist's Companion for Undergraduates - by Robert J. Sternberg January 2017
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The Psychologist's Companion for Undergraduates - by Robert J. Sternberg January 2017
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The Psychologist's Companion for Undergraduates - by Robert J. Sternberg January 2017
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The Psychologist's Companion for Undergraduates - by Robert J. Sternberg January 2017
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The Psychologist's Companion for Undergraduates - by Robert J. Sternberg January 2017
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The Psychologist's Companion for Undergraduates - by Robert J. Sternberg January 2017
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The Psychologist's Companion for Undergraduates - by Robert J. Sternberg January 2017
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The Psychologist's Companion for Undergraduates - by Robert J. Sternberg January 2017
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Wisdom is increasingly important in the world. Yet schools are ill-preparing students for a world in which it is of such great importance. Wisdom-based problems, unlike school problems, are ill-defined, not susceptible to being answered in multiple-choice format, and almost always involve competing human interests. I analyzed elementary-school read...
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One hundred percent. That is the percentage of authors of this volume who believe that the world would be a better place if people more frequently applied wisdom to their interactions with other people and with the world in general. Zero percent. That is the percentage scaled likelihood that people will apply such wisdom, on a regular basis, any ti...
Chapter
The Psychology of Wisdom: An Introduction is the first comprehensive coursebook on wisdom, providing an engaging, balanced, and expert introduction to the psychology of wisdom. It provides a comprehensive and up-to-date account of the psychological science of wisdom, covering wide-ranging perspectives. Each chapter includes extensive pedagogy, incl...
Book
This book presents perspectives from world experts in the field of wisdom studies to propose how wisdom can provide the foundation upon which solutions to social and global problems can be grounded. The authors argue that where society has come to rely on leaders with skills relating to knowledge and intelligence; instead we should focus on wisdom-...
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Tests of creativity can meaningfully predict academic and other outcomes in schooling, over and above the prediction provided by standardized tests. However, for such prediction to occur, the tests must measure creativity in a meaningful way and success in school must in some way be linked to creative performance. We should change our tests and sch...
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Cambridge Core - Social Psychology - The New Psychology of Love - edited by Robert J. Sternberg

Citations

... Another way to explain the equivocal results to date is to view the relationship between constraints and creativity as an interaction rather than a main effect (Tromp & Sternberg, 2022b). This latter framework aligns with a broader paradigm that views creativity as dynamic rather than static (Corazza & Lubart, 2020) and as resulting from the interaction of persons, tasks, and situations (Tromp & Sternberg, 2022a). ...
... One way in which these conflicting findings could be explained is via an inverted U-shaped relationship between creativity and constraints, where too many or too few constraints are not ideal for creativity (Acar et al., 2019;Biskjaer et al., 2020). Another way to explain the equivocal results to date is to view the relationship between constraints and creativity as an interaction rather than a main effect (Tromp & Sternberg, 2022b). This latter framework aligns with a broader paradigm that views creativity as dynamic rather than static (Corazza & Lubart, 2020) and as resulting from the interaction of persons, tasks, and situations (Tromp & Sternberg, 2022a). ...
... As I was reading the commentary by Garces-Bacsal and Elhoweris (2022), I could not help but wonder if the lack of such culturally specific gifted services is a perfect example of the typical centering of Whiteness that they described. Perhaps if there were more agriculture-or automotivefocused gifted and talented programs in rural Wisconsin, we would not only have more gifted students in rural areas of this country, but we would also have more of the kinds of transformational farmers (Sternberg, 2022) that we need to address 21st-century problems. ...
... In order to provide the best actual performance, the balance of metacognitive and nonmetacognitive components can vary according to several factors. These factors have been enlisted (and empirically validated) in research on adaptive expertise in elementary mathematics (Verschaffel et al. 2007(Verschaffel et al. , 2009) and were proposed as general factors of adaptive intelligence by Sternberg (2021). ...
... It involves going through the basic steps of a series of problem-solving cycles, using the right resources and strategies. American researchers Sternberg and Kibelsbeck (2021) define the process of music education as a form of implementing solutions to basic tasks: mastering the theoretical base, performing practice, etc. ...
... On the other hand, even nonverbal tests, which are supposed to be "culture fair", have been heavily criticised due to their tendency to fail to equitably identify students from all populations, especially ethnic minorities (Carman & Taylor, 2010;Gentry et al., 2019). Moreover, traditional measures have deep limitations to represent the complexity of giftedness and to provide information about students' potential abilities, that could have a meaningful role in real-life settings (MacRae & Lupart, 1991;McCluskey, 2017;Sternberg & Karami, 2021), as well as on predicting success in adulthood or in domain-specific areas. ...
... Lewis Terman (1916Terman ( , 1925) created a linguistic and conceptual legacy of viewing "gifted" individuals in terms of their IQ, and that use of the term "gifted" stuck (Sternberg et al., 2021). Although there have been attempts over time to view giftedness more broadly (see, e.g., essays in Heller et al., 2000;Pfeiffer, 2018;Renzulli et al., 2009;Sternberg & Ambrose, 2021;Sternberg & Davidson, 1986), the work of Terman and his associates has had a tremendous effect on the terminology used in the field of gifted education, starting with the strong association of IQ with giftedness. ...
... An individual's actions, no matter how small, can have huge impacts on other individuals, societies and nature (Chowkase, 2022). Current studies, research and practices in the field of gifted education focus on supporting gifted students' socio-emotional development (Cash & Lin, 2021;Cavilla, 2019;Cross, 2021;Hebert, 2020;Hebert & Smith, 2018;Wallace & Shaughnessy, 2012), and then being social capital by supporting their moral development (Renzulli, 2020;Renzulli & D'Souza, 2014;Renzulli & Reis, 2021), being wise people (Stenberg, 2021;Stenberg et al. 2021;Sternberg & Glück, 2022). ...
... In recent work, I have emphasized the effects on society of creative work (Sternberg, 2021c(Sternberg, , 2021d. Are these effects positive, neutral, or negative? ...
... In response, we would argue that broader constructs of intelligence likely have similar within-individual conceptualisations. For instance, if one were to consider intelligence constructs such as Practical Intelligence (Sternberg et al. 2000), Cultural Intelligence (Sternberg et al. 2021), or even Emotional Intelligence (Mayer and Salovey 1993), the notion of within-individual, contingent adaptation is central to their conceptualisation. In fact, the cognitive notion of relational integration extends quite naturally to meaning making from adaptive contingencies (i.e., relational bindings) between goals however defined in a given context and non-cognitive content (emotions, affect), possibly filtered through individual differences in personality dispositions, self-concepts, attitudes and value, and the like (as described in Section 5.1). ...