Robert Eisenberger's research while affiliated with University of Houston and other places

Publications (98)

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Numerous organizational scandals have implicated leaders in encouraging employees to advance organizational objectives through unethical means. However, leadership research has not examined leaders' encouragement of unethical behaviors. We define leader immorality encouragement (LIE) as an employee's perception that their leader encourages unethica...
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Although the importance of perceived organizational support on organizational outcomes has been highlighted in the literature, research is lacking concerning how organization-wide perceptions of support by employees (organizational-level perceived support [OPS]) may contribute to organizational performance. To address this critical deficiency in th...
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Employees’ may view prohibitive voice—that is, expressing concerns about harmful practices in the workplace—as a moral yet interpersonally risky behavior. We, thus, predict that prohibitive voice is likely to be influenced by variables associated with moral and relational qualities. Specifically, we hypothesize that employees’ moral identity intern...
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The authors meta-analyze relationships of perceived organizational support (POS) with attitudinal and behavioral outcomes in Western (i.e., horizontal-individualistic) and Eastern (i.e., vertical-collectivistic) cultures. The social-exchange perspective suggests that POS effects are stronger in Western cultures because employees are more likely to...
Article
According to organizational support theory (OST), employees develop a general perception concerning the extent to which their work organization values their contribution and cares about their well-being (perceived organizational support, or POS). We explain OST and review empirical POS findings relevant to OST's main propositions, including new fin...
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There is controversy concerning whether, in recent years, organizational failures to act benevolently toward employees have lessened employees' social-exchange relationship (SER) with their work organization or whether, on the contrary, organizations' more favorable treatment of employees has strengthened the SER. With samples of U.S. employees, we...
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Purpose The purpose of this paper is to promote a wider understanding of the importance of distinguishing between presenteeism behavior and its motivation and between the avoidance and approach dimensions of motivation, and to rectify the neglect of presenteeism’s antecedents (in particular, situational ones). It develops a theoretical model that...
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Timesizing, i.e. reduced work hours, has emerged as a less problematic alternative to layoffs. However, timesizing carries problems in terms of employee stress, attitudes, and performance. Based on the transactional theory of stress and the job demands-resources model, the authors proposed that timesizing proximity and perceived organizational supp...
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Gratitude and anger represent 2 fundamental moral emotions in response to help or harm. Research suggests that individuals perceive organizations to have humanlike qualities and thus hold them responsible for helpful or harmful treatment. Given this line of reasoning, we hypothesized that workers direct gratitude toward their organizations in respo...
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Although much is known about the antecedents and consequences of abusive supervision, scant attention has been paid to investigating procedures to reduce its frequency. We conducted a quasiexperiment to examine the effects of supervisor support training on subordinate perceptions of abusive supervision and supervisor support. Supervisors (n = 23) i...
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We surveyed 198 graduating college seniors at four points before and after they began a new job to examine the relationship between anticipated organizational support (AOS) and leader–member exchange (LMX) as mediated by information seeking. We found that AOS, assessed before the first day of work, was associated with subsequent LMX 3 months after...
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Perceived organizational support (POS), involving employees' perception that the organization values their contributions and cares about their well-being, has been found to be the work experience most strongly linked to their emotional bond to the organization (affective organizational commitment, or AC). We suggest that employees' perception conce...
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Organizational support theory (OST) proposes that employees form a generalized perception concerning the extent to which the organization values their contributions and cares about their well-being (perceived organizational support, or POS). Based on hypotheses involving social exchange, attribution, and self-enhancement, we carried out a meta-anal...
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The present study examined the moderating role of reciprocation wariness in the association of employees' psychological contract fulfillment with psychosomatic strain and voluntary turnover, as mediated by perceived organizational support. To study these relationships longitudinally, 169 graduating college seniors were surveyed upon job acceptance...
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Leadership plays a key role in understanding perceptions of organizational support (POS) because followers tend to identify leaders with the organization they represent. Thus supportive treatment received from leaders should make a major contribution to employees’ perceptions that their work organization cares about their wellbeing and values their...
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We present three studies providing an increased understanding of the interdependence between perceived organizational support (POS) and leader–member exchange (LMX). Using employees from a social service agency and new hires from a variety of organizations, we report evidence for a relational chain leading from supervisors' perceptions of support b...
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Purpose – The aim of this paper was to investigate the role of perceived organizational support (POS) for employee risk-taking through its association with greater trust among supervisors and subordinates that the organization will take into account the individual's intent to be helpful in the case of failure (failure-related trust). Design/method...
Article
A four-wave longitudinal study was conducted to examine the development of LMX and its subsequent outcomes among organizational newcomers. Information seeking, instigated by organizational socialization tactics and anticipated perceived organizational support appears to contribute to newcomers’ formation of high quality LMX relationships with super...
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Why do employees who experience abusive supervision retaliate against the organization? We apply organizational support theory to propose that employees hold the organization partly responsible for abusive supervision. Depending on the extent to which employees identify the supervisor with the organization (i.e., supervisor's organizational embodim...
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This study used a cross-lagged panel design to examine the temporal relationship between management communication and perceived organizational support (POS), and its consequences for performance. We assessed management communication and POS 2 times, separated by a 3-year interval, in a social services organization (N = 236). Our findings suggest th...
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We examined the role of social embeddedness in creating positive perceptions of organizational support among managerial and staff employees (n = 72) of a large manufacturing firm. We operationalized social embeddedness as the size, density, and quality of employees' networks of multiplex, reciprocated exchange relationships with colleagues. After c...
Book
Using organizational support theory and evidence gathered from hundreds of studies, Eisenberger and Stinglhamber demonstrate how perceived organizational support affects employees' well-being, the positivity of their orientation toward the organization and work, and behavioral outcomes favorable to the organization. The authors illustrate these fin...
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In order to account for wide variation in the relationship between leader-member exchange and employees' affective organizational commitment, we propose a concept termed supervisor's organizational embodiment (SOE), which involves the extent to which employees identify their supervisor with the organization. With samples of 251 social service emplo...
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Eight studies assessed the motive for sensory pleasure (MSP) involving a general disposition to enjoy and pursue pleasant nature-related experiences and avoid unpleasant nature-related experiences. The stated enjoyment of pleasant sights, smells, sounds, and tactile sensations formed a unitary construct that was distinct from sensation seeking, nov...
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L. Rhoades and R. Eisenberger (2002) reported the meta-analytic finding of a highly statistically significant relation between perceived organizational support (POS) and performance but concluded that the reviewed studies' methodology allowed no conclusion concerning the direction of the association. To investigate this issue, the authors assessed...
Article
Two field studies and a laboratory study examined the influence of reward for high performance on experienced performance pressure, intrinsic interest and creativity. Study 1 found that employees' expected reward for high performance was positively related to performance pressure which, in turn, was positively associated with the employees' interes...
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When employees' coworkers exhibit higher levels of withdrawal, individual employees are more likely to withdraw from their own work. The authors explored whether this relation would be curbed by a positive exchange relationship with one's organization, as suggested by organizational support theory (Eisenberger, Huntington, Hutchison, & Sowa, 1986)....
Article
The authors surveyed full-time retail employees and their supervisors to investigate relationships of supervisors' perceived organizational support (POS) with subordinates' perceptions of support from their supervisors (perceived supervisor support [PSS]), POS, and in-role and extra-role performance. The authors found that supervisors' POS was posi...
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RESEARCHERS ON FAIRNESS in the last two decades have devoted much attention to the issue of procedural fairness, that is, the decision-making procedures used by authorities to arrive at allocation outcomes. However, recently Replications and Refinements Under this heading are brief reports of studies providing data that substantiate , disprove, or...
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Applying Csikszentmihalyi's (1990) flow theory of optimal experience to the workplace, two studies examined the relationships of employees' perceived skill and challenge at work and need for achievement with their positive mood, intrinsic task interest, and extra-role performance. Among achievement-oriented employees only, high skill and challenge...
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The authors report that beliefs favoring the reciprocation of unfavorable treatment form a unitary factor that is distinct from beliefs favoring the reciprocation of favorable treatment. Individual differences in endorsement of this negative reciprocity norm were related to (a) beliefs that people are generally malevolent; (b) inclination toward an...
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Summary Although organizational support theory and psychological contract theory both stress social exchange processes in the establishment and maintenance of the employee-employer rela- tionship, they have focused on different aspects of this relationship. We suggest that, far from being independent, the different parts of the employee-employer as...
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Three decades of research have failed to produce general agreement concerning the effects of reward on creativity. We believe that the problem stems not from any great complexity of research findings, but primarily from the clash between romantic and behav- iorist worldviews concerning basic human nature. Iso- lation of these research camps has pro...
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The authors reviewed more than 70 studies concerning employees' general belief that their work organization values their contribution and cares about their well-being (perceived organizational support; POS). A meta-analysis indicated that 3 major categories of beneficial treatment received by employees (i.e., fairness, supervisor support, and organ...
Article
The authors reviewed more than 70 studies concerning employees' general belief that their work organization values their contribution and cares about their well-being (perceived organizational support; POS). A meta-analysis indicated that 3 major categories of beneficial treatment received by employees (i.e., fairness, supervisor support, and organ...
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Three studies investigated the relationships among employees' perception of supervisor support (PSS), perceived organizational support (POS), and employee turnover. Study 1 found, with 314 employees drawn from a variety of organizations, that PSS was positively related to temporal change in POS, suggesting that PSS leads to POS. Study 2 established...
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The authors examined 2 ways reward might increase creativity. First, reward contingent on creativity might increase extrinsic motivation. Studies 1 and 2 found that repeatedly giving preadolescent students reward for creative performance in 1 task increased their creativity in subsequent tasks. Study 3 reported that reward promised for creativity i...
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Three studies examined the interrelationships among work experiences, perceived organizational support (POS), affective commitment (AC), and employee turnover. Using a diverse sample of 367 employees drawn from a variety of organizations, Study 1 found that POS mediated positive associations of organizational rewards, procedural justice, and superv...
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The authors examined 2 ways reward might increase creativity. First, reward contingent on creativity might increase extrinsic motivation. Studies 1 and 2 found that repeatedly giving preadolescent students reward for creative performance in 1 task increased their creativity in subsequent tasks. Study 3 reported that reward promised for creativity i...
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We reviewed over 70 studies concerning employees' general belief that their workorganization values their contribution and cares about their well-being (perceivedorganizational support or POS). A meta-analysis indicated that three major categories of beneficial treatment received by employees (fairness, favorable organizational rewards and job cond...
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Four hundred thirteen postal employees were surveyed to investigate reciprocation's role in the relationships of perceived organizational support (POS) with employees' affective organizational commitment and job performance. The authors found that (a) POS was positively related to employees' felt obligation to care about the organization's welfare...
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Four hundred thirteen postal employees were surveyed to investigate reciprocation's role in the relationships of perceived organizational support (POS) with employees' affective organizational commitment and job performance. The authors found that (a) POS was positively related to employees' felt obligation to care about the organization's welfare...
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Meta-analyses indicated that rewards increase perceived self-determination and that rewards' effects on intrinsic motivation depend on the performance requirement. Reward for meeting vague performance standards reduced the subsequent choice to carry out the task and did not affect self-reported interest. Reward for meeting absolute performance stan...
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Laboratory and field studies examined the relationships of reward for high performance with perceived self-determination and intrinsic motivation. Study 1 found that pay for meeting a performance standard had positive effects on college students' perceived self-determination and competence, expressed task enjoyment, and free time spent performing t...
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Retail employees in Study 1 and employees from multiple organizations in Study 2 completed a questionnaire investigating the moderating effect of perceived organizational support (POS) on the relationship of employees' fear of exploitation in exchange relationships (reciprocation wariness) and their in-role and extra-role job performance. When POS...
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An experiment involving 283 preadolescent schoolchildren investigated how divergent-thinking training affected subsequent creativity for promised reward in a new task administered by a different individual. The promise of reward for picture drawing increased creativity if children had previously generated novel uses for physical objects with or wit...
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The emphasis on innate talent as the basis for outstanding achievement underestimates the importance of hard work. Learned industriousness helps supply the sustained effort required for superior achievement. The goal of having a productive, well-educated citizenry can be furthered by rewarding students for high effort and attending carefully t...
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Replies to comments by C. Sansone and J. M. Harackiewicz, B. A. Hennessey and T. M. Amabile, and Mark R. Lepper (see records 1998-02607-008, 1998-02607-009, and 1998-02607-010, respectively) regarding the original article by Eisenberger and Cameron (see record 1996-06440-007) that discussed the effects of reward on intrinsic task interest and c...
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Police patrol officers were surveyed to investigate how the strength of socioemotional needs affects the relationship between perceived organizational support (POS) and work performance. The association of POS with driving-under-the-influence arrests and speeding citations generally increased with strength of the needs for esteem, affiliation, emot...
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Two experiments, involving 436 preadolescent schoolchildren, investigated how the explicitness of promised reward affects creativity. In the first study, the nonspecific promise of reward increased the creativity of picture drawing if children had previously received divergent-thinking training (generating novel uses for physical objects). In the s...
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A diverse sample of 295 employees drawn from a variety of organizations was surveyed to investigate (a) whether the relationship between the favorableness of job conditions and perceived organizational support (POS) depends on employee perceptions concerning the organization's freedom of action and (b) whether POS and overall job satisfaction are d...
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Two experiments, involving 416 preadolescent school children, investigated the effects of monetary reward on generalized creative performance and intrinsic creative interest. In Experiment 1, the explicit requirement of novel performance in 1 task (generating unusual uses for physical objects) produced greater subsequent creative performance in an...
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Based on seemingly overwhelming empirical evidence of the decremental effects of reward on intrinsic task interest and creativity, the use of reward to alter human behavior has been challenged in literature reviews, textbooks, and the popular media. An analysis of a quarter century of research on intrinsic task interest and creativity revealed, how...
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Rachlin's hyperbolic-discounting model captures basic features of the subtlety of human impulsiveness and self-control and has received convincing experimental support. His distinction between self-control patterns and impulsive acts expands his earlier work to a greater range of self-control behaviors. Possible mechanisms that may weaken or streng...
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Reports an error in "Does reward increase or decrease creativity" by Robert Eisenberger and Michael Selbst (Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1994[Jun], Vol 66[6], 1116-1127). In the aforementioned article, Figures 1 and 2 were interchanged. The figures appear with their correct captions in the erratum. (The following abstract of the or...
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[Correction Notice: An erratum for this article was reported in Vol 67(1) of Journal of Personality and Social Psychology (see record 2008-10477-001). In the aforementioned article, Figures 1 and 2 were interchanged. The figures appear with their correct captions in the erratum.] Two studies involving 504 school children investigated why behavior...
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A study to examine how learned industriousness, social values, and cooperative-versus-competitive goal structures interact to influence task persistence was carried out. The relative strengths of college students' cooperativeness, individualism, and competitiveness were assessed with an experimental game. The students later solved easy or difficult...
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Extensive research with animals and humans indicates that rewarded effort contributes to durable individual differences in industriousness. It is proposed that reinforcement for increased physical or cognitive performance, or for the toleration of aversive stimulation, conditions rewards value to the sensation of high effort and thereby reduces eff...
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Students with high reciprocation wariness, a general fear of exploitation in interpersonal relationships, showed (1) a markedly reduced positive response to cooperative communication in a Prisoner's Dilemma bargaining task, (2) a greater negative response to uncooperative communication, and (3) an increased positive response to the prospect of long...
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Two studies report a positive relationship of employees' perception of being valued and cared about by the organization with (a) conscientiousness in carrying out conventional job responsibilities, (b) expressed affective and calculative involvements in the organization, and (c) innovation on behalf of the organization in the absence of anticipated...
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Three experiments investigated the effects of FR reinforcement on generalized self-control involving high effort and punishment. In Experiment 1, rats received food in a runway for the completion of each round trip (continuous-reinforcement group) or every fifth round trip (FR group). Control rats received food at the same temporal intervals as the...
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Frick in 1986, writing in this journal, suggested that experiments purporting to demonstrate the shaping of response force by reinforcement lacked critical controls. He argued instead that such procedures create a mental schema concerning the response topography which influences force indirectly. Although Frick's methodological criticisms are well...
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A questionnaire was used to assess college students' ideologies concerning the use of reciprocation for self-gain. Two independent dimensions were found involving beliefs that (a) returning greater help than previously received will result in generous repayments (creditor ideology) and (b) caution in returning help is required to avoid being taken...
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Studied the effects of delayed reward and rewarded effort on subsequent generalized self-control involving delay and effort in 88 2nd and 3rd graders. Different groups of Ss received immediate reward or delayed reward for low effort or for high effort on a combination of tasks that involved object counting, picture memory, and shape matching. Self-...
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Evidence is presented that (a) employees in an organization form global beliefs concerning the extent to which the organization values their contributions and cares about their well-being, (b) such perceived organizational support reduces absenteeism, and (c) the relation between perceived organizational support and absenteeism is greater for emplo...
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Noting that the self-control required to choose the larger of 2 available rewards usually commits a person to expend more effort than does the choice of the smaller reward, the present authors investigated 46 2nd- and 3rd-grade children's receipt of reward for low effort vs high effort as a cause of individual differences in the tendency toward gen...
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Assessed in 357 undergraduates the personal work ethic, an individual's general interest and satisfaction in performing tasks industriously, using a survey of work values (SWV). On the basis of the median SWV score, the high work-ethic Ss were separated from the low work-ethic Ss. Some Ss first were tested for cheating; others, before being tested...
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Reinforcement of effortful performance in a given academic task has been found to increase the subsequent performance of other academic tasks. The learned-effort hypothesis assumes that individuals learn which dimensions of task performance are correlated with reinforcement of high effort, and generalize across tasks. Therefore, reinforcement of in...
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Two experiments examined the effect of the degree of effort required in preliminary tasks on the persistence and cheating in subsequent tasks. Undergraduates ( N = 276) were administered mathematics problems and perceptual identifications requiring high effort for one group and low effort for another group. A control group received neither of these...
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Increasing the degree of effort required for the successful performance of one behavior has been found to heighten the subsequent performance of other behaviors. The present research tested whether discriminative stimuli for effort control the quantity and quality of transfer performance. Two experimenters administered alternately a perceptual task...
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The effort required of rats to obtain food, employing standard maintenance-feeding procedures, can affect the effort subsequently expended in an instrumental-learning task. Rats received 43 food-rewarded runway trials followed by access to food (a) on the home-cage floor, or (b) from a hopper attached to the home-cage's wiremesh front wall. Hopper...
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Two experiments investigated the effects of learning and motivational variables upon rats' degree of impulsiveness (choice of a small, immediate reward versus a large, delayed reward). In Experiment 1, food was presented in one of four ways for 24 sessions: fixed-ratio lever pressing requirement, continuous-reinforcement lever-pressing requirement,...
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96 female undergraduates were given a training task involving easy or difficult anagrams, mathematics problems, perceptual identifications, or a combination of all 3 problems. To test for the generalization of effort across tasks, all Ss were next asked to write a short essay. The use of a single task throughout training failed to produce an effect...
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Deprivation shifts, using conditions analogous to those which produce strong incentive contrast when reward quantity is changed (extended preshift training, short interval from the last preshift trial to the first postshift trial, large preshift differences in deprivation) resulted in contrast of runway speed and choice behavior. In the first exper...
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A set of experiments tested whether the degree of effort rewarded in a conceptual task would affect subsequent persistence in a perceptual task. College students were presented with complex, simple, or unsolvable anagrams or, in a control group, merely read the anagram target words; the perceptual task requiring the identification of subtle or none...
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Rats barpressed for food on a variable-interval schedule and then received food in a runway for one of three degrees of effort. Finally, all animals again barpressed for food. Requiring five runway shuttles per food pellet produced a greater subsequent rate of barpressing than reward for each shuttle, which, in turn, yielded more barpressing than f...