Robert E. Mann's research while affiliated with Dalhousie University and other places

Publications (328)

Article
Background Comparisons of individuals using cannabis for medical versus recreational purposes have identified differences in health status, alcohol and drug use, and perceived risk of drug use. All of these factors are associated with aggressive and impaired driving and collision risk. Yet, few studies comparing medical and recreational cannabis us...
Article
Full-text available
This study identified the social determinants of health (SDoH) associated with psychological distress in adults with and without a self-reported history of traumatic brain injury (TBI), stratified by sex. Data from the 2014–2017 cycles of the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health Monitor Survey, a representative survey of adults ≥18 years in Ontar...
Article
Full-text available
Rationale With alcohol and cannabis remaining the most commonly detected drugs in seriously and fatally injured drivers, there is a need to understand their combined effects on driving. Objectives The present study examined the effects of combinations of smoked cannabis (12.5% THC) and alcohol (target BrAC 0.08%) on simulated driving performance,...
Article
Co-use of alcohol and cannabis is associated with increased frequency and intensity of use and related problems. This study examined acute effects of alcohol and cannabis on mood, subjective experience, cognition, and psychomotor performance. Twenty-eight healthy cannabis users aged 19–29 years with recent history of binge drinking completed this w...
Article
Alcohol and cannabis are the two most commonly found intoxicating substances in fatally injured drivers. Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that the use of alcohol or cannabis can lead to an increase in the risk of a motor vehicle collision. Reducing the risks associated with driving under the influence of alcohol or cannabis is achieved par...
Article
Full-text available
The mu-opioid receptor (MOR) mediates the rewarding properties of many psychoactive drugs and is an important target in the treatment of addictions. Functional interactions between the opioid and endocannabinoid systems are established and have been hypothesized to contribute to the effects of cannabis. We investigated associations between three si...
Article
Background The effect of cannabis legalization in Canada (in October 2018) on the prevalence of injured drivers testing positive for tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is unclear. Methods Download a PDF of the Research Summary. We studied drivers treated after a motor vehicle collision in four British Columbia trauma centers, with data from January 2013 t...
Article
Objective In response to the opioid crisis, health practitioners and patients are seeking effective non-opioid analgesic alternatives for treatment of non-cancer pain. Cannabis is being considered as an alternative to opioids for this purpose. This shift may result in an increase in combined use of these drugs, which may have important health impli...
Article
Driving under the influence of cannabis (DUIC) is detrimental to road safety. Risk perception is a strong determinant of DUIC behaviour, yet little is known about the factors influencing DUIC risk perception in the general population. The objective of this study was to identify factors associated with risk perceptions of motor vehicle collision and...
Article
Aims In recent years, many jurisdictions have legalized medicinal and/or recreational cannabis. Yet, limited information is available on the effects of cannabis commercialization (provision of legal supply of cannabis to adults through licensed retail outlets) on adverse outcomes, such as traffic fatalities. The purpose of this study was to systema...
Article
Background: Cannabis is one of the drugs most often found in drivers involved in serious motor vehicle collisions. Validity and reliability of roadside cannabis detection strategies are questioned. This pilot study aimed to investigate the relationship between eye characteristics and cannabis effects in simulated driving to inform potential develop...
Article
Full-text available
The road safety impact of cannabis has been a topic of much discussion and debate over the years. These discussions have been revitalized in recent years by initiatives in several jurisdictions to legalize non-medical cannabis. Canada became the second country to legalize non-medical cannabis use in October, 2018, preceded by Uruguay in December 20...
Article
A recent study of the impact of smoked cannabis on simulated driver behavior demonstrated a reduction in mean speed after smoked cannabis. Previous research identified an association between personality and individual differences and acute drug effects. The present study examined the impact of personality on the reduction in mean speed after smokin...
Article
Full-text available
As many jurisdictions consider relaxing cannabis legislation and usage is increasing in North America and other parts of the world, there is a need to explore the possible genetic differences underlying the subjective effects of cannabis. This pilot study investigated specific genetic variations within the cannabinoid receptor 1 (CNR1) gene for ass...
Article
Objective: The prevalence of co-use of alcohol and cannabis is increasing, particularly among young adults. Sex differences in the effects of alcohol alone and cannabis alone have been observed in animals and humans. However, sex differences in the acute pharmacological effects of cannabis combined with alcohol have not yet been studied. In young a...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose of Review The purpose of this review was to identify possible sources of bias in the study of gambling among older adults. These sources of bias included social desirability bias including issues of increased stigmatization of gambling behaviors in older adults, recall bias including deficits in the recall of negative experiences, and selec...
Article
Considering the widespread use of cannabis and opioids, examining the use of cannabis, opioids and their combination with serious psychological distress (SPD) is important. A total of N=12,358 adults participating in the Monitor surveillance study between 2014 and 2019 were included. Cannabis and opioid use reflected any use of the substances in th...
Article
Recognition of ADHD in the adult population is relatively recent. Epidemiological research examining the mental health impact of ADHD in adulthood is thus limited. The objective of this study was to examine whether adult ADHD symptoms are associated with psychological distress, hazardous drinking, and problem gambling, after controlling for traumat...
Article
Background: Understanding risk factors for driving under the influence of alcohol (DUIA) informs development of effective interventions. This study examined the association between ethnicity, immigration status, and DUIA, exploring psychological distress and hazardous drinking as additional contributors. Method: Data were derived from the 2003-2...
Article
There is growing evidence of correlations between the amount of time spent using electronic devices in leisure and negative health outcomes. However, studies often lack indicators of problematic technology use, rarely investigate relationships between such problem use patterns and indicators of poor mental health, and use samples that are unreprese...
Article
Introduction: Effective alcohol control measures can prevent and reduce alcohol-related harms at the population level. This study aims to evaluate implementation of alcohol policies across 11 evidence-based domains in Canada's 13 jurisdictions. Methods: The Canadian Alcohol Policy Evaluation project assessed all provinces and territories on 11 e...
Article
Full-text available
Youth and young adults who previously experienced foster care are prone to negative life events, such as physical injuries, and adverse childhood experiences (ACE), such as abuse, neglect, and household dysfunction. The purpose of the present study was to identify the prevalence of traumatic brain injury (TBI), ACE, and poor sustained attention and...
Article
Objective The objective of the current research was to examine the association between time spent on social media and serious psychological distress between 2013 and 2017, a period when the rates of both were trending upward. Methods The current study analyzed population-based data from 3 waves of the Ontario Student Drug Use and Health Survey ( N...
Article
Introduction Policy changes may contribute to increased alcohol‐related risks to populations. These include privatisation of alcohol retailing, which influences density of alcohol outlets, location of outlets, hours of sale and prevention of alcohol sales to minors or intoxicated customers. Meta‐analyses, reviews and original research indicate enha...
Article
Full-text available
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is characterized by a change in brain function after an external force or sudden movement to the head. TBI is associated with risk-taking, impulsivity, psychological distress, substance abuse, and violent crime. Previous studies have also linked problem gambling to TBI, but these studies have not controlled for possible...
Article
In March 2020, the World Health Organization declared COVID-19 a world-wide pandemic. Countries introduced public health measures to contain and reduce its spread. These measures included closures of educational institutions, non-essential businesses, events and activities, as well as working from and staying at home requirements. These measures ha...
Article
Full-text available
Mental health issues affect a third of prostate cancer (PCa) survivors. Here, we describe the development and preliminary evaluation of a unique multifaceted intervention, the Prostate Cancer–Patient Empowerment Program (PC-PEP), designed to improve mental health and quality of life among survivors. The 28-day pilot PC-PEP Intervention was develope...
Article
Purpose Prior studies of medicinal cannabis use (MCU) have focused primarily on adults. This study examined the prevalence and correlates of self-reported MCU among adolescents. Methods Secondary school students (grades 9–12; N = 3,221) completed a cross-sectional survey in classrooms across Ontario, Canada, in 2016–2017. Participants reported on...
Article
Introduction Nous avons mené une évaluation pilote sur la faisabilité de la mise en œuvre de l’étude internationale sur le contrôle de l’alcool (IAC, pour International Alcohol Control) en Ontario (Canada) afin de pouvoir comparer les répercussions des politiques sur le contrôle de l’alcool dans différents pays. Méthodologie Le questionnaire de l’...
Article
Introduction We conducted a pilot assessment of the feasibility of implementing the International Alcohol Control (IAC) Study in Ontario, Canada, to allow for future comparisons on the impacts of alcohol control policies with a number of countries. Methods The IAC Study questionnaire was adapted for use in the province of Ontario, and a split-samp...
Article
Full-text available
Background Existing studies of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), conduct disorder (CD), and substance use or substance use disorders have produced mixed results, with some identifying a direct link between ADHD and general or disordered substance use and others suggesting that comorbid CD may explain this relationship. Insufficient r...
Article
We present the findings from a one-day, multidisciplinary meeting to gather feedback for an integrated knowledge translation research project addressing the integration of health services and supports for individuals with traumatic brain injury, mental health, and/or addictions; especially those who experience homelessness/vulnerably housed, inters...
Article
Objectives To examine acute and residual mood and cognitive performance in young adult regular cannabis users following smoked cannabis. Methods Ninety-one healthy young adults completed this double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-groups study. Participants were randomized to receive active (12.5% THC) or placebo cannabis with a 2:1 allocation...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Although medical cannabis has been available to Canadians since 2001, there is little research on the effects of cannabis on driving in individuals who use cannabis medically. This pilot study sought to determine the effects of therapeutic cannabis use on simulated driving. Methods: Eligible participants reported daily use of cannabis f...
Article
Objective: Texting while driving (TWD) is considered a particularly hazardous form of distracted driving. It is highly prevalent among young drivers, but fewer studies of TWD among adult drivers exist and these prevalence rates may approach those of younger drivers. The effectiveness of measures to prevent distracted driving, and TWD specifically,...
Article
Full-text available
Background Traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) in adolescence are associated with adverse outcomes, but whether the timing of the onset of TBIs leads to greater deficits has not been determined. We evaluate the relationship between the first and most recent TBI, and current academic performance and medically treated physical injuries. Methods Data wer...
Article
Full-text available
Rationale Animal studies have found robust sex differences in the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of Δ⁹-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). However, the human evidence remains equivocal, despite findings that women may experience more severe consequences of cannabis use than men. Objectives The objective of this secondary analysis was to examine sex...
Article
Full-text available
This report assesses sociodemographic correlates of cannabis routes of administration (ROAs) among adolescents in 2017, one year prior to legalization of cannabis in Canada. We analyze a subsample of 809 students (Grades 9–12) from the Ontario Student Drug Use and Health Survey (OSDUHS) who used cannabis in the previous year. Pipes/bongs/waterpipes...
Article
Full-text available
The increasing popularity of gambling as a leisure activity among older adults (+ 55) coupled with the rapid aging of the population makes it increasingly important to understand what divides problem and non-problem gambling for this age group. This study investigated the association of different types of motivations to visit a gambling venue with...
Article
Background: Although driving under the influence of cannabis is increasingly common among young adults, little is known about residual effects on driver behavior. This study examined acute and residual effects of smoked cannabis on simulated driving performance of young cannabis users. Methods: In this double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this paper is to explore the differences in adolescent problem video gaming in a large urban area (Toronto) compared to a non-urban region of Ontario (Northern Ontario). The results of this study showed that 76.6% of adolescents in the urban region and 80.3% of adolescents in the non-urban region played video games in the past year (...
Article
Full-text available
Cannabis use is common among postsecondary students. With increasing numbers of jurisdictions legalizing recreational cannabis for those who reach a legal age that is likely to occur during postsecondary years, it is important to identify effective ways to ameliorate cannabis-related problems in this group. A systematic review of brief intervention...
Article
Full-text available
This study examined the associations of cannabis use, alcohol use and alcohol problems with probable anxiety and mood disorders (AMD) in young, middle-aged and older adults. Method: Data are based on the CAMH Monitor, an ongoing cross-sectional telephone survey of Ontario adults aged 18 years and older. For the purposes of the current study, a merg...
Article
Full-text available
Aim: We conducted a responsibility analysis to determine whether drivers injured in motor vehicle collisions who test positive for Δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) or other drugs are more likely to have contributed to the crash than those who test negative. Design: Prospective case-control study. Setting: Trauma centres in British Columbia, Cana...
Article
Cue-induced craving among smokers is a well-documented phenomenon. Conditioning theory is used to explain how stimuli elicit cravings. Attachment theory may explain additional influences on cue-induced craving. This study tested the effects of cigarette cues and attachment figure cues on craving and affect. Cue-reactivity as a function of cue type...
Article
As numerous jurisdictions worldwide are liberalizing cannabis laws, there is increasing need to understand the social contexts and individual perceptions involved in driving under the influence of cannabis (DUIC). We conducted 20 one-to-one interviews with adult participants recruited from a remedial program for drivers convicted of or suspended fo...
Article
The objective of this study was to examine debt stress and its association with psychological distress and overall health. Data were derived from the 2014–2016 annual cycles of a cross-sectional telephone survey of the general population of adults 18 years of age and older within the province of Ontario, Canada. The present analyses focused on a po...
Article
Introduction and Aims While the perceived risks of driving under the influence of cannabis (DUIC) have been a focus of recent drug‐driving research, relevant concepts from the social cognition literature have rarely been applied to inform understanding of DUIC. This study aims to expand knowledge of perceived collision risk and social influences as...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: Despite limited research, existing evidence suggests that there is an association between conduct disorder (CD) and various risky driver behaviours, such as driver aggression and driving after drinking. The current study sought to estimate the association between probable CD during childhood and past-year collision risk. Methods: Dat...
Article
As provincial and territorial governments across Canada adjust to the federal legalization of cannabis for non-medical use, strategies to deter driving under the influence of cannabis (DUIC) are increasingly attracting attention. Development and evaluation of legal and other measures designed to deter DUIC would benefit from improved understanding...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: to determine the prevalence of use in life and in the last three months of alcohol, marijuana and cocaine among university students from the social and health Sciences areas of Ribeirão Preto, Brazil and to evaluate the association between use in life and in the last three months of alcohol, marijuana and cocaine and the variables gender...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: to analyze the relationship between risk perception and behaviors related to driving a motor vehicle under the influence of cannabis. Method: The research was carried out through a cross-sectional survey. 382 undergraduate students between the ages of 17 and 29 were interviewed at a private higher educational institution in the Federal D...
Preprint
Full-text available
Cannabis use is common among postsecondary students. With increasing numbers of jurisdictions legalizing recreational cannabis for those who reach a legal age that is likely to occur during postsecondary years, it is important to identify effective ways to ameliorate cannabis-related problems in this group. A systematic review of brief intervention...
Article
Full-text available
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a common injury characterized by a change in brain function after an external blow to the head and is associated with substance abuse, psychological distress, risk-taking, and impulsivity. Convenience and clinical samples have also linked TBI to problem gambling, but have not ruled out confounding variables such as h...
Article
Full-text available
Research has shown that tobacco users have an increased risk of collisions compared to nonsmokers. Studies from 1967 through 2013 documented a crude relative risk of collision involvement of about 1.5 among smokers compared to nonsmokers. In January 2009, in response to concerns about the health risks associated with potentially high concentrations...
Article
This study describes the association among lifetime traumatic brain injury (TBI) and past year hazardous/harmful drinking, as well as their unique and synergistic effects, on mental health problems and roadway aggression among Canadian adults. A cross-sectional sample of 6074 Ontario adults aged 18 years or older were surveyed between 2011 and 2013...
Article
Objectives To examine co-occurring mental health problems among a population-based sample of high school students in Ontario, Canada, to understand their prevalence, associated risk factors, and relationship with mental health service access and utilization. Methods The data were derived from the 2013 Ontario Student Drug Use and Health Survey, a...
Article
This study examined the rate of gambling problems among Ontario older adults at gambling venues. Herein we describe an intercept survey that took place at casinos and horse racing tracks with slot machines or other forms of casino games (racinos) in southwestern Ontario, Canada. This method provided a significant opportunity to obtain a large sampl...
Article
As the proportion of Canadians over the age of 55 continues to rise, it accordingly becomes increasingly important to understand the implications that their leisure activities have for their physical and mental health. Gambling is a form of leisure that presents relatively high risk for its participants and remains a popular leisure pursuit among o...
Article
Full-text available
Whereas the proportion of older adults who experience gambling problems appears relatively small, factors such as cognitive changes with age, social isolation and maintaining fixed incomes can make older adults particularly susceptible to gambling problems, increasing the severity of the consequences they may experience. Relatively few resources ar...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this research and development project was to describe the complete gambling experience and to develop best practices for the prevention of problem gambling among older adults (55 years and over) in Ontario. The challenging task of developing best practices involved integrated research and development, as well as knowledge translation...
Article
Background: Motor vehicle collisions are an important contributor to prescription opioid use-related morbidity and mortality. The purpose of the current study was to estimate the prevalence of driving under the influence of prescription opioids (DUIPO) in Ontario, Canada, and to measure the association between this behaviour and the risk of a moto...
Article
Gambling is a popular leisure activity for older adults (55+), and existing research suggests that overall older adults are less prone to problem gambling compared to younger cohorts. People born after World War II are now beginning to reach retirement age. The purpose of this article was to explore age-related cohort differences between people bor...
Article
Objective: Texting while driving (TWD) has a deleterious impact on driving performance, and may pose a significant challenge to traffic safety. This challenge may be particularly relevant for young and inexperienced drivers. This study examined the prevalence and risk factors of writing text messages or emails while driving during the past twelve m...
Article
RÉSUMÉ Les personnes âgées constituent, en proportion, la population la plus importante parmi les joueurs (Ontario Lottery and Gaming Corporation [OLG], 2012). Les joueurs célibataires seraient plus isolés socialement et solitaires (Dykstra & de Jong Gierveld, 2004), et plus susceptibles de s’engager dans le jeu, présentant ainsi des risques accrus...
Article
Full-text available
Remedial programs for impaired driving offenders have proved valuable in reducing subsequent alcohol and other drug use and preventing recidivism in this population. Many of these programs are based on a severity-based assignment scheme, where individuals assessed to have greater problems or be at higher risk are assigned to longer, more intensive...
Article
Full-text available
Back on Track (BOT) is Ontario’s remedial measures programme for convicted drinking drivers. Based on a pre-workshop assessment, individuals are assigned to complete either an 8-h Education workshop or a 16-h Treatment workshop. Six months later, participants are required to complete a 30-min follow-up interview by telephone. This report presents a...
Article
Full-text available
This paper reports on the cross validation of the Gambling Problem Severity Subscale of the Canadian Adolescent Gambling Index (CAGI/GPSS). The CAGI/GPSS was included in a large school based drug use and health survey conducted in 2015. Data from students in grades 9–12 (ages 13–20 years) derived from the (N = 3369 students). The CAGI/GPSS produced...