Robert Cervero's research while affiliated with University of California, Berkeley and other places

Publications (156)

Article
Compared with many developing cities, urban travel choices are rather restricted in the United States, prompting most people to drive. Recently retired from the urban planning faculty at the University of California, Berkeley, Cervero draws from both personal experiences and 3-plus decades of research in making a case for opening America’s mobility...
Chapter
This book advances the idea of moving beyond mobility as a platform for achieving more sustainable urban futures. The first chapter adopted the term urban recalibration as a framework for doing so. Rather than sweeping reforms or a Kuhnian paradigm shift, urban recalibration calls for a series of calculated steps aimed at a strategic longer-range v...
Chapter
The transformation of the core city is a global phenomenon found in virtually every major postindustrial city in the United States and Europe, parallel with back-to-city migration. Chapter 9 focuses on urban and suburban transformations of the Global South; its fundamentally different conditions merit a separate chapter. The projects discussed in t...
Chapter
Suburbanization is a truly global phenomenon, fueled over the past half-century by modernization, motorization, and growing affluence of cities and their inhabitants. Also at play are the location-liberating effects of information technologies, the desire to escape central-city crime and congestion, and a general preference for more spacious, large...
Chapter
We opted for the somewhat broad term contraction in this chapter’s title because it best captures what this chapter is about: shrinking the footprint of channel-ways given over to private cars and trucks and reassigning this space to other, less disruptive, more people-oriented uses, such as greenways, pedestrian zones, bike lanes, and public parks...
Chapter
The United Nations Conference on Housing and Sustainable Urban Development met in Quito, Ecuador, in October 2016 to launch a new global commitment to sustainable urban development. Habitat III, as the conference is called, resulted in the adoption of the New Urban Agenda, which prioritizes the relationship between urbanization and sustainable deve...
Book
Cities across the globe have been designed with a primary goal of moving people around quickly—and the costs are becoming ever more apparent. The consequences are measured in smoggy air basins, sprawling suburbs, unsafe pedestrian environments, and despite hundreds of billions of dollars in investments, a failure to stem traffic congestion. Every y...
Chapter
The digital revolution is giving way to a robotics revolution that is likely to touch nearly every aspect of human life. Scientists and enthusiasts are working to perfect the three-dimensional printing of meat, machine guns, and nearly everything in between. Medical advances are leading to longer, more active lives. Virtual reality goggles are not...
Chapter
The transportation sector’s environmental footprint is immense and growing. To gain political traction and public acceptance, making places that are attractive, accessible, and highly livable must also meaningfully contribute to better environments. By better environments we mean fewer emissions from cars and buildings but also reduced fossil fuel...
Chapter
Connections between and within cities are vital to the inner workings of a community. People need convenient access to schools, offices, and shopping areas to go about their lives. Unfortunately, much of twentieth-century transportation infrastructure has had damaging effects on communities. Dangerous and difficult-to-cross intersections and multil...
Chapter
Beyond Mobility is about reordering priorities. In the planning and design of cities, far more attention must go toward serving the needs and aspirations of people and the creation of great places as opposed to expediting movement. Historically it has been the opposite. In the United States and increasingly elsewhere, investments in motorways and u...
Chapter
Public transport is touted worldwide not only for its ability to relieve traffic congestion, reduce energy consumption, and cleanse the air but also for its ability to support sustainable patterns of urban development.¹ One would be hard-pressed to find a policy document today on climate change, smart growth, or social inclusion that did not enthus...
Chapter
Connections—between and within cities—are vital to sustained economic growth, prosperity, and healthy living. Country roads connect farmers to markets and agricultural extension services, allowing the sale of crop surpluses and increasing food security. Metro lines connect skilled labor to good-paying downtown jobs. Bikeways also have utilitarian v...
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Full-text available
This paper explores the respective roles of local and regional characteristics of urban form on vehicle travel. We hypothesize that the effects of urban form on vehicle use at the local and regional levels are complementary, and we introduce the concept of local and regional action spaces, which are defined based on the accessibility of alternative...
Article
This paper explores the extent to which people identify an acceptable travel time for each trip they want to make and investigates the primary characteristics of this behavioural threshold. We assume that an acceptable travel time is defined through utilitarian processes that are related to cognitive and affective evaluations of travel that develop...
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Full-text available
Abstrak. Integrasi infrastruktur transportasi dan perkembangan kota harus ditingkatkan kepentingannya. Di banyak kota di belahan bumi bagian selatan, investasi pada Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) memberikan kesempatan untuk peningkatan tersebut. Akan tetapi, sampai saat ini, sistem BRT telah gagal dalam menciptakan pembangunan yang kompak dan multi-guna b...
Article
Bus rapid transit (BRT) systems have gained prominence worldwide as a cost-effective alternative to urban rail investments. However, some question the city-shaping potential of BRT, in part due to a belief it delivers fewer regional accessibility benefits than rail, but also to the social stigma some assign to bus-based forms of mass mobility. Notw...
Article
The second phase of Active Living Research (ALR-2, 2007-2012) focused on advancing the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation (RWJF)'s goal of reversing the childhood obesity epidemic. The mission was to stimulate and support research to identify environmental factors and policies that influence physical activity for children and families to inform effecti...
Article
Converting park-and-ride to bike-and-ride trips could yield important environmental, energy conservation, and public-health benefits. While cycling in general is becoming increasingly popular in the United States, it still makes up a miniscule portion of access trips to most rail transit stations. At several rail stations of the Bay Area Rapid Tran...
Article
The mobility challenges of the developing world are considerably different than those in wealthier, advanced countries, and so are the challenges of coordinating transportation and land use. Rapid population growth, poverty and income disparities, overcrowded urban cores, poorly designed road networks, spatial mismatches between housing and jobs, d...
Article
The raising of bridge tolls in the peak period on the San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge in California in mid-2010 provides a rare opportunity to assess traffic impacts. Carpoolers who previously traveled for free during peak hours were charged an electronic toll under this variable pricing scheme. On the basis of 29 months of time series data, the i...
Article
Can the climate problem be framed as an urban development and transport problem where CO2 reduction is understood as a co-benefit of good development and transport?The third largest source of greenhouse emissions in Australia is transport, and road transport accounts for 88% of transport emissions. A move towards sustainable urbanism, matched with...
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Full-text available
Current methods of traffic impact analysis, which rely on rates and adjustments from the Institute of Transportation Engineers, are believed to understate the traffic benefits of mixed-use developments (MXDs), leading to higher impact fees, exactions, and negotiated payments than should be the case and discouraging development of otherwise desirabl...
Article
Problem: High costs and low ridership are the bane of fixed-guideway transit investments. The net capital and operating cost per passenger mile of recent investments ranged from $0.22 to over $10 in 2008. A better understanding of characteristics of the most successful transit investments can help inform future investment policy and improve the per...
Article
Transit-oriented development (TOD) and green urbanism have gained attention as development models for charting a more sustainable urban future. These two built forms, however, are often dealt with separately, as distinct topics. This paper explores synergies that are created when neighbourhoods are designed as both green and transit-oriented and ho...
Article
The debate over the costs and benefits of rail passenger transit is lively, deep, and often ideological. As with most polemical debates, the truth probably lies somewhere in the middle of extreme views. Some rail systems have benefits that outweigh their costs, while others do not. Applying a commonly used transit-fare price elasticity to 24 of the...
Article
Freeway “deconstruction” marks an abrupt shift in urban policy. Priorities are shifting away from designing cities to enhance mobility toward promoting livability. This paper investigates the neighborhood, traffic, and housing price impacts of replacing elevated freeways with surface boulevards in two corridors of San Francisco in California, USA:...
Article
Could the 3Ds of sustainable urbanism (density, diversity and design) forwarded by Cervero, be combined with Schipper's ASIF identity (Emissions = Activity x Mode Shares x Energy Intensity of each Mdoe x CO2 Content of each Energy source) to estimate the components of travel that yield emissions and the more recent ASIF2 paradigm (avoid, shift, imp...
Article
Bus rapid transit (BRT) has gained popularity as a cost-effective alternative to urban rail investments; however, relatively little is known about its impacts on land-use changes and land values. This paper examines the land-market effects of converting regular bus operations to median-lane bus services in Seoul, Korea, one of the densest, most con...
Article
The cost of building rail transit facilities in the United States has skyrocketed in recent decades. Sections of Los Angeles’s Red Line subway cost more than $750 million per mile to build and even less pricey light-rail systems can cost more than $200 million per mile. Soaring capital investment costs are today’s biggest deterrent, both politi...
Article
Governments support urban mass transport services worldwide under the guise of helping the poor and improving the environment. With more and more governments cash-strapped and facing budgetary shortfalls in other vital areas, the fiscal burdens of underwriting public transport have prompted some observers to question such rationales. This paper rev...
Article
One-half mile has become the accepted distance for gauging a transit station’s catchment area in the U.S. It is the de facto standard for planning TODs (transit oriented developments) in America. Planners and researchers use transit catchment areas not only to make predictions about transit ridership and the land use and socioeconomic impacts of...
Article
Over the past three decades, China's cities have undergone massive spatial restructuring in the wake of market reforms and economic growth. One consequence has been a rapid migration of urban residents to the periphery. Some movers have been forced out either by rising urban rents or government reclamation of their residences. Others have relocated...
Article
Using hedonic price models, appreciable land-value premiums were found for multiple land uses in different rail corridors of San Diego County. The most appreciable benefits were for condominiums and single-family housing near commuter-rail stations in the north county, multifamily housing near light-rail stations, and commercial properties near dow...
Article
Even though there is increasing evidence that the built environment (BE) has an influence on leisure-time physical activity (LTPA), little is known about this relationship in developing countries. The objective of this study was to assess the associations between objective built environment characteristics and LTPA. A cross-sectional multilevel stu...
Article
Problem: Localities and states are turning to land planning and urban design for help in reducing automobile use and related social and environmental costs. The effects of such strategies on travel demand have not been generalized in recent years from the multitude of available studies.Purpose: We conducted a meta-analysis of the built environment-...
Article
A survey of 31 multi-family housing complexes near rail stations in the San Francisco Bay Area and Portland, Oregon, show peak parking demand is 25-30 percent below supplies and, for most projects, falls below national standards. Peak parking demand is generally less for less expansive projects with short walking distances to rail stations that enj...
Chapter
Few sectors of urban infrastructure have experienced as strong a push to privatize in recent decades as the public transit sector. In the developed world, spiraling operating deficits and falling ridership prompted many public transit agencies to competitively contract out bus- and rail-passenger services to the private sector in the 1980s and 1990...
Chapter
Since the turn of the twenty-first century, Seoul, South Korea, pur sued a bold new experiment in urban regeneration. This has principally involved reclaiming urban space given to the automobile in the post-Korean War era. Through the leadership of Myung-Bak Lee, former mayor of Seoul and now president of South Korea, the city has sought to strike...
Article
In 2003—04, the Cheong Gye Cheon elevated freeway in Seoul, Korea, was torn down and replaced by an urban stream and linear park. This bold initiative aimed to enhance the quality of central-city living by replacing a mobility asset that was also a nuisance with an attractive urban amenity. This research analyses the impacts of the freeway-to-green...
Article
In the United States, public infrastructure has been a necessary, though not sufficient, catalyst to economic growth and expansion, particularly in urban areas. However, infrastructure investments, and particularly highway construction, absent much in the way of proactive planning and farsighted land-use management, have for the most part also been...
Article
Full-text available
Hong Kong has aggressively pursued transit value capture to finance railway infrastructure through its ‘Rail + Property’ development programme, or R+P. More than half of all income to the railway operators comes from property development. Most R+P projects focus on housing although all have some commercial development. Recent generation R+P project...
Article
Full-text available
Bogotá, Colombia, is well known for its sustainable urban transport systems, including an extensive network of bike lanes and set-aside street space for recreational cyclists and pedestrians on Sundays and holidays, called Ciclovia (cycleway). This paper examines how such facilities along with other attributes of the built environmenturban densitie...
Article
Changes in policies and built environments are advocated as part of efforts to increase physical activity, but in 2001 the knowledge base to inform these changes was limited. The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation addressed this deficit by initiating Active Living Research (ALR). The mission of ALR was to stimulate and support research that could guide...
Article
This study empirically investigates the proposition that TOD, and specifically housing near suburban rail stops, is “over-parked†in the U.S. This is done by comparing parking generation rates for 31 housing complexes near rail stops in the San Francisco Bay Area and Portland, Oregon with on-site parking supplies and with ITE parking generation...
Article
The suburbanization of large Chinese cities has placed many residents in locations that are far less accessible than their prior residences, requiring motorized travel. This paper examines the impacts of relocation to outlying areas on job accessibility, commuting mode choice, and commuting durations based on a current-day and retrospective survey...
Article
A survey of 17 transit-oriented developments (TOD) in five U.S. metropolitan areas showed that vehicle trips per dwelling unit were substantially below what the Insti-tute of Transportation Engineer's Trip Generation manual estimates. Over a typical weekday period, the surveyed TOD housing projects averaged 44 percent fewer vehi-cle trips than that...
Article
This paper examines the effects of residential relocation to Shanghai’s suburbs on job accessibility and commuting, focusing on the influences of proximity to metrorail services and neighborhood environments on commute behavior and choices. The policy implications of the research findings on the planning and design of suburban communities in larg...
Conference Paper
Background: Despite the importance of Built Environment (BE) characteristics and physical activity (PA) on individual wellbeing, studies exploring the association between health-related quality of life with (HR-QOL) with PA and BE characteristics are very limited especially in developing countries. Methods: A cross-sectional survey of 1315 adults f...
Article
Informal transport services—paratransit-type services provided without official sanction—can often be difficult to rationalize from a public policy perspective. While these systems provide benefits including on-demand mobility for the transit-dependent, jobs for low-skilled workers, and service coverage in areas devoid of formal transit supply, the...
Article
Southeast Asia's paratransit sector has become a vital source of mobility in many cities. Run by private operators, generally under free market conditions, paratransit vehicles maneuver into areas that standard buses cannot serve and provide frequent door-to-door service, at a profit. Yet despite past successes, pressure is mounting to greatly rest...
Article
Rising incomes and rapid growth require better approaches to organizing and delivering solid waste management services in developing countries. This paper uses Indonesia as a case context for exploring organizational options to urban waste management, including provision by municipal agencies, semi-commercial enterprises, private firms, and neighbo...
Article
Road and transport service improvements are widely recognized as important catalysts to economic development in most third world countries. When integrated with other programs which create new employment opportunities, roads and bus services enable subsistence farmers to seek off-farm salary-earning jobs. This paper examines the relationship betwee...
Article
Transit-oriented development is shown to produce an appreciable ridership bonus in California. This is partly due to residential self-selection—that is, a lifestyle preference for transit-oriented living—as well as factors like employer-based policies that reduce free parking and automobile subsidies. Half-mile catchments of station areas appear to...
Article
In 2005, 10 million electric bikes were produced in China. Strong domestic sales are projected for coming years, raising concerns about the sustainability and potential regulation of this fairly new mode. Policy makers are wrestling with developing policy on electric bikes with little information about who uses them, why they are used, and what fac...
Article
Full-text available
Four years after the introduction of City CarShare in the San Francisco, Bay area in California, 29% of carshare members had gotten rid of one or more cars, and 4.8% of members’ trips and 5.4% of their vehicle miles traveled were in carshare vehicles. Matched-pair comparisons with a statistical control group suggest that, over time, members have re...
Article
Decentralized employment growth has cut into transit ridership across the United States. In California, about 20 percent of those working in office buildings near rail stations regularly commute by transit, nearly three times transit’s modal share among those working away from rail stations. Mode choice models reveal that office workers are most li...
Article
Four-step travel demand forecasting models were never meant to estimate the travel impacts of neighborhood-level smart growth initiatives like transit villages, but rather to guide regional highway and transit investments. While progress has been made in enhancing large-scale models, some analysts have turned to post-processing and direct models to...
Article
Transit oriented development (TOD) is a viable model for transportation and land-use integration in many rapidly developing cities of the world, including those in Asia. TOD is a straightforward concept: concentrate a mix of moderately dense and pedestrian-friendly development around transit stations to promote transit riding, increased walk and bi...
Article
Books reviewed: Meric S. Gertler. Manufacturing Culture: The Institutional Geography of Industrial Practice Jamie Peck and Henry Waichung Yeung. Remaking the Global Economy: Economic-Geographical Perspectives Ake E. Andersson, Borje Johansson, and William P. Anderson. The Economics of Disappearing Distance Priscilla Pue Ho Chu. The Making of Women...
Article
Two years into the introduction of City CarShare in San Francisco, California, nearly 30% of members have gotten rid of one or more cars, and two-thirds stated that they opted not to purchase another car. By City CarShare's second anniversary, 6.5% of members' trips and 10% of their vehicle miles traveled were in carshare vehicles. Matched-pair com...
Article
Claims that roadway investments spur new travel, known as induced demand, and thus fail to relieve traffic congestion have thwarted road development in the United States. Past studies point to a significant induced demand effect. This research employs a path model to causally sort out the links between freeway investments and traffic increases, usi...
Article
If travel distances, traffic congestion and traffic pollutions are to be reduced there must be coordination between transportation, housing and land-use programmes. Urban development should be managed so as to reduce future traffic loads and promote growth travel efficiencies. Here using California - and particularly the San Francisco Bay Area - as...
Article
Full-text available
A wide array of initiatives supporting job access and reverse commuting has been introduced in California over the past 5 years. Experiences were reviewed in five areas: schedule extensions, new fixed bus routes, shuttle services, user-side assistance, and automobile loan programs. Schedule extensions have provided much-valued mobility for the poor...
Article
Nine months into the introduction of car sharing in San Francisco, California, an estimated 7% of members' trips and more than 20% of vehicle miles traveled were by shared-use vehicles. Evidence suggests that access to shared cars is stimulating motorized travel. Most members do not own cars, and many appear to be leasing vehicles in lieu of walkin...
Article
This paper explores multiple dimensions of complexity in a U.S. transportation-policy context, discusses the implications of these dimensions for policy change, and to the degree appropriate, suggests strategies that might be pursued to overcome, or at least better "manage", complexity. Three major spheres of complexity that are addressed relate to...
Article
This paper presents simultaneous models that predict induced travel demand and induced road investment using an array of instrument variables reflecting political, environmental, and demographic influences. From a panel data set consisting of 22 years of observations for 34 California urban counties, short-run elasticities are estimated. Both the V...
Article
Claims of induced travel demand have seemingly paralyzed the ability to rationalize road development in the United States. Methodological issues related to resolution of analysis, measurement, specification, and normative significance are raised in this article. Five types of empirical studies— facility specific, model forecasts, area studies using...
Article
Compact, mixed-use, and walk-friendly urban development, many contend, can significantly influence the modes people choose to travel. Despite a voluminous empirical literature, most past studies have failed to adequately specify relationships for purposes of drawing inferences about the importance of built-environment factors in shaping mode choice...
Article
Full-text available
Some nine months into the introduction of car-sharing in the City of San Francisco, an estimated 7 percent of members' trips were by City CarShare vehicles, up from around 2 percent just six months earlier. At the nine-month mark, more than 20 percent of members' vehicle miles traveled (VMT) was by car-share vehicles, a substantial jump from what i...
Article
In this report, the short-term travel-behavior impacts of car-sharing in the city of San Francisco are evaluated. San Francisco's program, City CarShare, was launched in early- March 2001 and has steadily gained popularity as more and more residents as well as non-residents have voluntarily joined the program. For purposes of studying "before-and-...
Conference Paper
The potential to moderate travel demand through changes in the built environment is the subject of more than 50 recent empirical studies. The majority of recent studies are summarized. Elasticities of travel demand with respect to density, diversity, design, and regional accessibility are then derived from selected studies. These elasticity values...
Article
The influences of urban form and transport infrastructure on economic performance show up in several contemporary policy debates, notably 'sprawl versus compact city' and in the developing world, the future of mega-cities. This paper probes these relationships using two scales of analysis. At the macro scale, an econometric analysis using data acro...
Article
At the risk of appearing fashionable, I decided to stick “smart growth†in the title of my talk. I confess this is because I find smart growth to be a nice shorthand for “transport and land-use integrationâ€. Stripped to its essentials, smart growth is mainly about better coordinating and integrating transportation and land development. “Sma...
Article
Using Jakarta, Indonesia as a case study, we evaluate the degree to which proximity to freeway interchanges gets capitalized into office rents, controlling for factors like regional accessibility. The research shows strong capitalization effects, with rent premiums decaying exponentially with distances from freeway access points. It also shows that...
Article
Shifts in job accessibility reflect, in part, the degree to whichland use and transportation decisions help bring job opportunities closer to labor forces. In this paper we argue for the wider use of accessibility indicators as part of the long-range transportation planning process. As a case example, changes in job accessibility indices are traced...
Article
Assessed the market potential of transit villages using visual simulation techniques. The hypothesis was tested that people will accept higher densities in return for more amenities in a transit village setting. Photoslide images were created to simulate a walk through 4 neighborhoods with different density and amenity mixes. Based on the survey re...
Article
Like many large US metropolitan areas, the San Francisco Bay Area has experienced rapid suburban employment growth since 1980, much of it concentrated in sub-centres. This paper shows that, contrary to the co-location hypothesis, employment decentralisation has not been associated with shorter average commute distances or durations in the Bay Area....
Article
The built environment is thought to influence travel demand along three principal dimensions —density, diversity, and design. This paper tests this proposition by examining how the ‘3Ds’ affect trip rates and mode choice of residents in the San Francisco Bay Area. Using 1990 travel diary data and land-use records obtained from the U.S. census, regi...

Citations

... Generally, land use models attempt to project future land use patterns based on historical trends, however, could potentially lead to biases or inaccuracies in the resulting land use and travel demand forecasts (Lemp et al., 2008). Because of this deficiency, scenario-based planning is increasingly applied since the late 1980s (Hickman et al., 2012;Jantz et al., 2004;Layman and Horner, 2010;Outwater et al., 2014;Shiftan et al., 2003;Waddell, 2011;Waddell, 2002;Wei et al., 2017). In a land use-transportation scenario planning, a set of land use scenarios that have certain probabilities of developing in the future or that are desired by planners is constructed first. ...
... This topic is well-documented in the bicycling literature. Land use mix, whereby people can reach a variety of amenities within a distance that is comfortable to cycle, influences travel by bicycle (Cervero et al. 2019;Sallis et al. 2013;Winters et al. 2010;Zhao 2014). For instance, Heesch et al. (2015) found that shorter distances to destinations, including a business district with jobs and a river where there are bicycle paths, increased the odds of bicycling in Brisbane, Australia. ...
... of the locations only have a SAP score of 0.5 or less. Additionally, because all scales distributions are right skewed (Figure 7.47a]), more than 54% of the locations have an SAP score of less than or equal to the mean value for the respective scale (10- (Belzer and Autler, 2002;Sung and Oh, 2011) and is especially prominent within the Hong Kong landscape (Cervero et al., 2017;Lau et al., 2005). ...
... Such decisions eventually resulted in the insurgence of an informal transit system. The informal transit has become a gap-filler, a self-managed practice to provide socio-spatial justice (Cervero et al., 2017;Sheller, 2018) after a wartime divided city (Cammett, 2011) and to show resilience (Scott, 1989;Bayat 1997) to the apparent chaos in transport and the absence of adequate public transit (Baaj, 2008) within a "laisser-faire" milieu. However, "the politics of everyday mobility have trapped this system as quasi-inaccessible, unsafe, and irregular for non-habituated riders and non-transparent for riders and operators" (Nakkash, interview, 1 Mar. ...