Robert C. Barnet's research while affiliated with State University of New York and other places

Publications (22)

Article
Conditioned inhibition is a fundamental component of contemporary learning theory. Our selective review of the literature defines the termconditioned inhibitionon three levels—operational, behavioral, and theoretical—in order to evaluate the utility of the construct. Although consensus definitions are found at the operational and behavioral levels,...
Article
The Hall-Pearce (1979) negative transfer effect in rats was used to examine whether temporal relationships are coded as part of the informational content of associations that results from CS-US pairings. The transfer effect consists of a deficit in conditioned responding following CS-USstrong pairings in Phase 2 that results from prior CS-USweak pa...
Article
Demonstrated empirical conditioned inhibition using R. A. Rescorla's (1969) two-test strategy for diagnosing conditioned inhibition. In Exp 1, using 48 rats, a summation test was administered in accord with Rescorla's two-test strategy for determining the inhibitory properties of a stimulus. Two different chambers were used in which the procedures...
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Lick suppression experiments with rats revealed that the magnitude of both second-order conditioning (Experiment 1) and sensory preconditioning (Experiment 2) was superior when that conditioning was based on backward (US→CS) relative to forward (CS→US) first-order pairings of a CS and US. The superiority of backward relative to forward first-order...
Article
Conditioned suppression studies with rats explored the informational content of a backward conditioned inhibitor. Pairings of an unconditioned stimulus (US) and Stimulus 1 (US-->S1) established S1 as an inhibitor in Experiment 1. Pairing the inhibitor S1 with a novel S2 (S2-->S1) promoted excitatory second-order conditioning (SOC) to S2, which sugg...
Article
This research examined whether the effect of relative stimulus validity (A.R. Wagner, F.A. Logan, K. Haberlandt, & T. Price, 1968) is a deficit of acquisition or performance. Experiment 1 demonstrated the relative validity effect using rats in a conditioned lick suppression. task. A target cue trained in the presence of another cue that was a more...
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Two conditioned lick-suppression experiments with rats were conducted in order to replicate and extend findings by Ewing, Larew, and Wagner (1985). Ewing et al. observed that excitatory responding to a CS paired with a footshock US was attenuated when the ITIs thatpreceded each CS-US trial were short (60 sec) relative to when they were long (600 se...
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Conditioned lick suppression in rats was used to explore the role of timing in trace conditioning. In Experiment 1, two groups of rats were exposed to pairings of a CS (CS1) with a US, under conditions in which the interstimulus interval (ISI) that separated CS1 offset and US onset was either 0 or 5 sec. Two additional groups were also exposed to t...
Article
The Rescorla-Wagner model has been the most influential theory of associative learning to emerge from the study of animal behavior over the last 25 years. Recently, equivalence to this model has become a benchmark in assessing connectionist models, with such equivalence often achieved by incorporating the Widrow-Hoff delta rule. This article presen...
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Treatments that attenuate latent inhibition (LI) were examined using conditioned suppression in rats. In Experiment 1, retarded conditioned responding was produced by nonreinforced exposure to the CS prior to the CS-US pairings used to assess retardation (i.e., conventional LI). In Experiment la, retarded conditioned responding was induced by preex...
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Procedures for establishing second-order excitation (conditioned stimulus [CS] 1-unconditioned stimulus [US] trials followed by CS2-CS1 trials) are highly similar to those for Pavlovian conditioned inhibition (CS1-US trials interspersed with CS2-CS1 trials). Conditioned suppression in rats was used to identify the critical operational differences t...
Article
A potential basis for trial spacing and trial distribution effects was investigated in rats. In Experiment 1, a conditioned stimulus (e.g., CS A) was trained with either massed (e.g., A---->A---->A) or spaced (e.g., A-->A-->A) trials. When trials were massed, brief exposure to the training context (a condition typical of massed training) impaired r...
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Prior research has demonstrated renewal, which is the ability of contextual cues to modulate excitatory responding to a Pavlovian conditioned stimulus (CS). In the present research, conditioned lick suppression in rats was used to examine similar contextual modulation of Pavlovian conditioned inhibition. After Pavlovian conditioned inhibition train...
Article
A blocking paradigm with rats was used to evaluate whether different temporal information is encoded in simultaneous rather than forward associations. During Phase 1, the blocking conditioned stimulus (CS) was simultaneously or forward paired with an unconditioned stimulus (US). During Phase 2, the pretrained CS occurred in compound with a novel ta...
Article
Responding to a conditioned stimulus (CS) is impaired if the CS is trained in the presence of excitatory local context cues. Four lick suppression experiments with rats explored whether this local context effect arises from the influence of excitatory cues that precede or that follow a reinforced target CS. Pretrained nontarget stimuli served as lo...
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“Comparator” accounts of associative conditioning (e.g., Gibbon & Balsam, 1981; Miller & Matzel, 1988) suggest that performance to a Pavlovian CS is determined, by a comparison of the US expectancy of the CS with the US expectancy of general background cues. Recent research indicates that variation in the excitatory value of cues in the local tempo...
Article
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Water-deprived rats were used to investigate the effects of training a CS in more than one context on conditioned lick suppression. In each experiment, partial reinforcement of the CS was intermingled with unsignaled presentations of the US. In Experiment 1, subjects were either trained in one context alone, trained consecutively in two contexts (s...
Article
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48 water-deprived rats served in a conditioned lick suppression experiment to examine a prediction of the comparator hypothesis (R. R. Miller and L. D. Matzel, 1988). Ss received treatment analogous to Pavlovian conditioned-inhibition training, but without reinforcement. They then received reinforcement, that is, inflation, of Stimulus A. According...
Article
The comparator hypothesis is a response rule stating that responding to a Pavlovian conditioned stimulus (CS) reflects the associative strength of the CS relative to that of other cues (comparator stimuli) that were present during CS training. Thus, modulation of the associative strength of a CS's comparator stimulus should alter responding to that...
Article
A second-order conditioning procedure was used to evaluate the associative consequences of forward versus simultaneous pairings of the first-order CS and US with water-deprived rats as subjects in a conditioned lick suppression task. In Phase 1, a tone was presented in a forward, simultaneous, or explicitly unpaired relationship to shock. In order...
Article
Full-text available
Water-deprived rats served in a conditioned lick-suppression experiment designed to test the hypothesis that 2nd-order conditioning (SOC) is more robust than sensory preconditioning (SPC) with equivalent parameters. The SOC and SPC paradigms were identical except for the ordering of Phase 1 and Phase 2. In SOC, S1 (an initial neutral stimulus event...

Citations

... Alternately, representations that preserve metrical timing, such as channel-latency and temporal pattern codes, could also incorporate temporal context (Eichenbaum, 2017) and whole timelines of events. From conditioning studies, it has long been appreciated that brains have general mechanisms for reward prediction that assemble coherent timelines of unrewarded and rewarded events, even if only pairwise fragments of event sequences are presented (Miller and Barnet, 1993). Constructed timelines then can support prediction not only that a reward will occur, but also when in future time ( Figure 2E). ...
... By this test, FN training has been shown to reliably produce condition inhibition in nonhuman animals (see Savastano, Cole, Barnet & Miller, 1999 for a review). However, the results in human causal learning are modest at best, with transfer of inhibitory control to another excitor often being incomplete (Karazinov & Boakes, 2007;Lee & Livesey, 2012). ...
... If so, the SÀ would not have affected responding controlled by the excitatory stimuli on the compound test trials. Indeed, the negative summation test is considered one of the preferred tests of conditioned inhibition precisely because it rules out inattention to the inhibitor as an alternative explanation (Cole et al., 1997;Rescorla, 1969). There were two goals for Experiment 2. First, we wished to replicate the summation test for conditioned inhibition after pigeons had received training on the full suboptimal choice procedure. ...
... This effect, known as backward conditioned inhibition, has been found in a number of studies with human causal learning protocols (e.g., Chapman, 1991;Larkin, Aitken, & Dickinson, 1998;Urcelay, Perelmuter, & Miller, 2008;Williams & Docking, 1995). However, as with companion inflation effects, an early attempt to explore this possibility with nonhuman animals failed to observe the effect (Grahame, Barnet, & Miller, 1992). To our knowledge, no further studies have explicitly tested this phenomenon with nonhumans. ...
... The lower panels of Figure 4 show output values for simulations of second-order conditioning, generated with the same parameters as sensory preconditioning, and after the same number of trials in the first and second stages (10 X→US trials and 2 A→X 7 ). Comparing first the upper and lower panels (noting their different scales), R A and R X output values were relatively similar during A (and X) for simulations of sensory preconditioning and second-order conditioning (see Barnet et al., 1991). However, R US values were far lower for second-order conditioning than for sensory preconditioning. ...
... A few examples will suffice to illustrate this fact. Barnet et al. (1997) trained rats with either forward conditioning (cue1 → outcome) or backward conditioning (outcome → cue1). Consistent with previous studies, they found weaker responding to the cue in the backward condition. ...
... Indeed, it is likely that the function, when properly evaluated, has the form of an inverted U and this seems to be the case for both contexts and cues. Thus, there is nothing special about context in terms of spatial learning and exposure/responding functions, rather these results seem to be found under extreme parametric variations that, when properly assessed, show that both context and cues display similar functions (Barnet, Grahame, & Miller, 1993a;1993b;1995). ...
... O ITI tem papel fundamental na eficiência do condicionamento respondente e, dada a semelhança entre os procedimentos, também pode ser importante para o SSP. Na pesquisa básica com não-humanos, ITIs mais longos (e.g., 600s) quando comparados aos mais curtos (e.g., 60s) tendem a ser mais eficientes para produzir supressão de respostas condicionadas (Barnet et al., 1995). Além disso, ITIs mais longos aceleram a aquisição da resposta e resultam em condicionamentos mais fortes no autoshaping (Rescorla & Durlach, 1987). ...
... In a similar vein, Cole et al. (1995) used a trace conditioning procedure in which the outcome occurred 5 seconds after the offset of cue1. They then exposed animals to cue1 → cue2 pairings. ...
... Alternatively, NMR conditioning to the tone CS in our paradigm may have been strong enough to withstand any effects of context exposure. There are also some reports of context exposure after conditioning actually enhancing rather than reducing CRs to a discrete CS in other learning paradigms (Chang, Stout, & Miller, 2004;Grahame, Barnet, & Miller, 1992). ...