Robert B. Zajonc's research while affiliated with Stanford University and other places

Publications (93)

Article
The confluence model explains birth-order differences in intellectual performance by quantifying the changing dynamics within the family. Wichman, Rodgers, and MacCallum (2006) claimed that these differences are a between-family phenomenon--and hence are not directly related to birth order itself. The study design and analyses presented by Wichman...
Article
: The theories of balance and dissonance which assume that balance, congruity, and consonance are the normal, expected, and desired state, and that it is easier to learn a balanced structure than an unbalanced one were tested on twelve volunteer college students. Six structures, three balanced and three unbalanced, were employed. Each structure inv...
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Beliefs about birth rank reflect what the society regards as social reality, and they may also influence that reality. Three studies found that people believe those with different birth ranks differ in their personalities, that higher birth ranks are likely to attain higher occupational prestige, and that the personality characteristics attributed...
Article
In the mere-repeated-exposure paradigm, an individual is repeatedly exposed to a particular stimulus object, and the researcher records the individual's emerging preference for that object. Vast literature on the mere-repeated-exposure effect shows it to be a robust phenomenon that cannot be explained by an appeal to recognition memory or perceptua...
Article
The mere repeated exposure paradigm involves repeated exposures of a particular stimulus object and observes the emerging preference for that object. It is claimed here that the resulting preferences are direct and unmediated. Vast literature on the mere repeated exposure effects shows it to be a robust phenomenon that cannot be explained by an app...
Article
Birth order effects on intellectual performance show both positive and negative results. The confluence model reconciles these conflicting data by proving that these effects interact with the age of participants at testing, such that young children should show negative or no effects, whereas older individuals (past age 11 +/- 2 years) should show p...
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The mere exposure effect refers to the development of an emotional preference for previously unfamiliar material because of frequent exposure to that material. This study compared schizophrenia subjects (n = 20) to normal controls (n = 21) to determine whether implicit memory, as demonstrated by the mere exposure effect, was intact. Patients with s...
Article
The present research examined the possibility that repeated exposure may simultaneously produce specific and diffuse effects. In Study 1, participants were presented with 5-ms exposures of 25 stimuli each shown once (single-exposure condition) or with five repetitions of 5 stimuli (repeated-exposure condition). Participants in the repeated-exposure...
Article
Secular trends in test scores are accurately predicted by trends in aggregate birth orders. The trend data contradict individual-difference analyses that show birth order as a poor predictor of individual test scores. This article demonstrates why the 2 formulations of the problem—the individually distributed birth order analysis and aggregate-patt...
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The vascular theory of emotional efference (VTEE) states that facial action can alter the volume of air inhaled though the nose, which in turn influences brain temperature and affective states. Cooling enhances positive affect, whereas warming depresses it. Three studies assessed this hypothesised series of effects. Study 1 found that when subjects...
Article
Affect deriving from 2 independent sources--repeated exposure and affective priming--was induced, and the combined effects were examined. In each of 4 studies, participants were first shown 72 Chinese ideographs in which the frequency of exposure was varied (0, 1, or 3). In the second phase participants rated ideographs that were primed either posi...
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The affective primacy hypothesis (R. B. Zajonc, 1980) asserts that positive and negative affective reactions can be evoked with minimal stimulus input and virtually no cognitive processing. The present work tested this hypothesis by comparing the effects of affective and cognitive priming under extremely brief (suboptimal) and longer (optimal) expo...
Article
The perceived attractiveness of stimuli to humans has been modulated by changes in cephalic blood temperature. Can similar effects be produced in animals by manipulation of hypothalamic temperature? This study examined the attractiveness and pleasure of food to rats during hypothalamic cooling or hypothalamic heating, by measuring feeding and hedon...
Article
Retherford and Sewell claim that the confluence model of intellectual development is fatally flawed because: (1) mathematical simulations of that model generate numerical values that do not coincide with data they were claimed to fit, once those data are converted to mental age values; (2) the simulations of the confluence model also fail to fit ag...
Article
This article examines some stylistic differences in social psychological explanations. Described are different styles in formulating problems, in constructing theories, and gathering evidence. Styles are not to be confused with method since a given method — say, factor analysis — can reveal itself in contrasting stylistic approaches. Comparisons ar...
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Is facial muscular movement capable of altering emotional state? Facial feedback theories answer this question in the affirmative but do not specify the intervening process. Cognitive appraisal theories do not address this question at all. The vascular theory of emotional efference (VTEE) holds that facial muscular movement, by its action on the ca...
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This study attempted to determine whether people who live with each other for a long period of time grow physically similar in their facial features. Photographs of couples when they were first married and 25 years later were judged for physical similarity and for the likelihood that they were married. The results showed that there is indeed an inc...
Article
Discusses the application of a mathematical constant (known as the golden section), generated by V. A. Lefebvre (see record 1988-19112-001), in the understanding of interpersonal relationships and subjective feelings. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The history of research and theory on communication and cognition is a history of missed opportunities, to study the one process concurrently with the study of the other. The following missed opportunities are discussed: (1) Greek philosophers; (2) associationists and early psychologists' symbolic interaction; (3) research on persuasion; (4) commun...
Article
Argues against the contention of G. G. Price et al (see record 1984-27746-001) that the confluence model is invalid on grounds that (a) the assumptions of the age-range correlation formula were not met in the within-family samples cited and hence the formula was misapplied, (b) the confluence model has successfully predicted family configuration e...
Article
Argues that the confluence model, a theory that describes the influence of family factors on intellectual growth, explains the decline of Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) scores by relating them to changing family patterns. According to the confluence model, intellectual growth is attenuated for children with many siblings, and especially so for chil...
Article
A theory of emotional expression, ignored since 1906, holds that facial muscles act as ligatures on facial blood vessels and thereby regulate cerebral blood flow, which, in turn, influences subjective feeling. The theory, developed by Israel Waynbaum, a French physician, hypothesizes the subjective experience of emotions as following facial express...
Article
Discusses R. S. Lazarus's (see PA, Vols 69:11728 and 25:2812) challenge of the view that there are circumstances under which affect precedes cognition and that affective arousal that does not entail prior cognitive appraisal exists. His argument, however, is based entirely on an arbitrary definition of emotion that requires cognitive appraisal as a...
Article
Some studies that claimed to have tested the confluence model concluded the model invalid and the data unreliable. The present paper shows these "tests" to be inappropriate because, among other things, they substitute simple linear regression equations for quite different nonlinear equations of the confluence model. The disparity between the amount...
Article
Affective factors play an important role in the development and maintenance of preferences. The representation of affect can take a variety of forms, including motor responses and somatic reactions. This explains why cognitive methods of preference change that are directed at only one form of representation have seldom been effective.
Article
Two experiments explored the relationship between familiarity, similarity, and attraction. In the first experiment, subjects viewed photographs of faces at various exposure frequencies and then rated them for likeableness and similarity. Familiar people were regarded by the subjects as both more likeable and more similar to themselves. The effects...
Article
Responds to comments by R. C. Galbraith (see record 1982-11821-001) on the mathematical properties and empirical basis of R. B. Zajonc and G. B. Markus's (see record 1975-09290-001) confluence model of sibling spacing and intellectual development. The present authors contest Galbraith's critique of the model's internal consistency and predictive...
Article
Theoretical predictions, based on the confluence model, were made for data from six national surveys of intellectual performance. All six surveys relate intellectual performance scores to family configuration variables. Widely divergent patterns of relationships between the major family factors, such as birth order and family size, and intellectual...
Article
Animal and human subjects readily develop strong preferences for objects that have become familiar through repeated exposures. Experimental evidence is presented that these preferences can develop even when the exposures are so degraded that recognition is precluded.
Article
Affect is considered by most contemporary theories to be postcognitive, that is, to occur only after considerable cognitive operations have been accomplished. Yet a number of experimental results on preferences, attitudes, impression formation, and decision making, as well as some clinical phenomena, suggest that affective judgments may be fairly i...
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Studies relating intellectual performance to birth order report conflicting results, some finding intellectual scores to increase, others to decrease with birth order. In contrast, the relationship between intellectual performance and family size is stable and consistently replicable. Why do these two highly related variables generate such divergen...
Article
Compared the applicability of M. H. Birnbaum and B. A. Mellers' (see PA, Vol 64:00000) 1-factor (subjective recognition) model with the present author's (see record 1979-23525-001) 2-factor model to data on the role of stimulus recognition in the mere exposure phenomenon. Results of a series of linear structural equation analyses show that the 2-f...
Article
Many theories of exposure effects involve the operation of psychological processes that depend on some form of stimulus recognition. Two experiments investigated the role of stimulus recognition in the mere exposure phenomenon. Female subjects viewed novel stimuli at various exposure frequencies, then measures of stimulul recognition and effect wer...
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A simulation based on the recently published confluence model is described. Within this model, family configuration variables –family size, order of birth, and length of birth intervals –play an important role in influencing intellectual development. The simulation is shown to achieve a close fit with national aggregate patterns of intelligence tes...
Article
In this paper however the focus is entirely on one set of such factors those associated with changing family patterns. I shall try to show generally that variations in aggregate intelligence scores are closely associated with variations in patterns of family configuration and that these aggregate family factors are deeply implicated in the declinin...
Article
Argues that variations in aggregate intelligence scores are closely associated with variations in patterns of family configuration, and that these aggregate family factors are deeply implicated in the declining Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) scores as a special case of a general phenomenon that manifests itself also in a variety of national, ethnic...
Article
A strong test of exposure effects was made by eliminating confounding demand characteristics through the use of a between-subject design. Each subject viewed novel stimuli at a single frequency level, and then rated them on several affective scales. Frequency of stimulus exposure was systematically varied across subjects. Stimuli were rated more po...
Article
Discrimination between individual strangers and companions was examined in day-old domestic chicks. In one experiment, pecking rates at companions and strangers were observed in pairwise bouts after 16 hr of cohabitation. The discriminability of strangers and companions was varied by means of pre-hatch colouring. Reliable discriminations between in...
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Full-text available
Describes a confluence model that explains the effects of birth order and family size on intelligence. Intellectual development within the family context is conceived of as depending on the cumulative effects of the intellectual environment, which consists primarily of the siblings' and parents' intelligence. Mutual influences, through time, on the...
Article
The contributions of initial stimulus affect and of associative learning to the effects of repeated stimulus exposures were examined in two experiments. Stimuli that were initially positive and stimuli that were initially negative were presented for different number of times, and subjects rated these stimuli afterward on a number of affective dimen...
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Two experiments examined the effects of extreme number of exposures on reactions to stimuli rated on several dimensions. The first experiment gave a positive monotone relationship between affective ratings on the GOOD-BAD scale and the frequency of stimulus exposure, with frequencies as high as 243. The second experiment obtained ratings for the sa...
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Explored the effects of repeated stimulus exposure on the gradual formation of attachment in 35 White Leghorn chicks, using the distress call as a measure of attachment. Ss were exposed to several objects for different numbers of times. They were then placed in a novel situation with the temperature lowered to a stressful level. Distress behavior w...
Article
Determined whether early attachment in chicks is formed gradually or whether the chicks become attached to the 1st object they encounter at the onset of the critical period. In Exp. I, 24 1-day-old Leghorn chicks were exposed to 3 different objects for varying numbers of 30-min trials. Object-preference tests of 4 objects, 3 of which were previousl...
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Full-text available
Examined the effects of mere exposure and positive and negative contexts on interpersonal attraction in 2 experiments with undergraduate women (N = 112). In both experiments, exposure was manipulated by varying the number of encounters; context was varied by having Ss taste either pleasant or noxious solutions during the encounters. Attraction vari...
Article
Conducted 4 experiments with undergraduates (N = 176) in order to clarify the curvilinear relationship found between the frequency of stimulus exposure and affective ratings. The inverted-U function was suggestive of satiation effects. Preliminary experiments indicated that stimulus discriminability may work to attenuate the relationship between ex...
Article
This study examined individual choice behavior when it occurs in groups engaged in joint decision-making. Ninety-six subjects made binary choices between "risky" and "conservative" alternatives acting alone and acting as members of three-man groups in a series of 360 trials. The groups operated under the majority rule, unanimity, and the so-called...
Article
Studied some conditions which may modify the relationship between frequency of stimulus exposure and attitude. Exp. I and II, with a total of 39 male and 45 female undergraduates, utilized a within-Ss design. Significant exposure effects when the maximum number of exposures was 9, 27, or 81 were demonstrated. There was no tendency toward satiation,...
Article
The role of social facilitation and imitation in group risk-taking was explored in two experiments. The first experiment tried to determine if individual risk preferences can be changed by the mere presence of others and if these changes can account for shifts toward risk. Subjects predicted which of two differentially probable stimulus events woul...
Article
A field experiment was carried out to test the hypothesis that the mere repeated exposure of a stimulus is a sufficient condition for the enhancement of the S’s attitude toward it. The utilization of a series of display advertisements in the newspapers of two universities made it possible to specify that a set of five Turkish words was exposed at v...
Article
Reports an error in the original article by Margaret W. Matlin and Robert B. Zajonc (Journal of Personality & Social Psychology. 10(4) 1968, 455-460. American Psychological Assn, US). The last three sentences of the fourth paragraph in the second column on page 458 should be replaced by the following two: "The difference between these groups (6.66...
Article
In an attempt to determine if individual risk preferences change under group conditions, individuals and groups were observed when making binary decisions. The expected values of the outcomes were held constant while the probabilities of the two events varied across conditions. As previously, it was found that when the probabilities of the two even...
Article
Hypothesized that the presence of an audience serves as a drive energizer, leading to an increased probability of a dominant response and to a decreased latency of its emission. 40 male undergraduate Ss supplied associations to 184 words both alone and in the presence of an audience. 1/2 of the Ss worked 1st alone and then in the presence of an aud...
Chapter
HYPOTHESIZES THAT MERE REPEATED EXPOSURE OF THE INDIVIDUAL TO A STIMULUS OBJECT ENHANCES HIS ATTITUDE TOWARD IT. BY "MERE" EXPOSURE IS MEANT A CONDITION MAKING THE STIMULUS ACCESSIBLE TO PERCEPTION. SUPPORT FOR THE HYPOTHESIS CONSISTS OF 4 TYPES OF EVIDENCE, PRESENTED AND REVIEWED: (1) THE CORRELATION BETWEEN AFFECTIVE CONNOTATION OF WORDS AND WORD...
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Individual and group decision making under uncertainty was explored in an attempt to determine whether individual risk preferences change under group conditions. Subjects predicted which of two differentially probable stimulus events would occur, and were paid for correct anticipations in a series of 360 trials. The expected value of the choices wa...
Article
Two pigeons were trained to peck at different keys. each associated with a different tone Intensity. Although the test tones were of the same Intensity as those used during training, simultaneous presentation of a light With the tone altered the probability of correct key choice In the same manner as increasing the intensity of the tone.
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: Two experiments in which subjects learned hypothetical influence structures were conducted to examine cognitive biases in the representation of influence relationships. In Experiment I it was found that the degree of hierarchization of the structures does not affect learning, and hence is not a source of bias. However, hierarchial positions with...
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The hypothesis was examined that, because it is drive-producing, the presence of an audience enhances the emission of dominant responses and inhibits the emission of subordinate responses. Thirty-nine subjects performed a pseudo-recognition task in which their guessing responses were based on dominant and subordinate habits, previously established...
Article
Over a large number of trials observations were made to determine the rapidity with which a group responds to status incongruences and how such responses are influenced by its history of successes and failures. Two dimensions of status are examined: the apparent task ability of a member (performance status) and his influence over the group product...
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A solution is suggested for an old unresolved social psychological problem.
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6 pigeons reduced to 70% and 6 reduced to 90% of their body weight were trained to discriminate a 10-mm. circular spot from 4- and 16-mm. spots. Following training, Ss in the 1st group were raised to 90% and Ss in the 2nd dropped to 70% of their body weight. All birds were tested for generalization to spots 6, 8, 10, 12, and 14 mm. in diameter. Fol...
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This study deals with the relationship between changes in status and task performance involving simple reaction time responses. Status is manipulated by assigning to group members different degrees of control over the group product and by subsequently creating conditions which require that control be reallocated. The degree of control members have...
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Peer Reviewed http://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/32060/1/0000104.pdf
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The role of perceptual variables in Behavior Theory was examined in terms of their implications for stimulus-intensity generalization and discrimination learning. Examination of the so-called sensory-interaction effects seriously questioned the validity of the afferent stimulus-interaction postulate. The postulate predicts a greater generalization...
Article
Two groups of pigeons, one given high shock and the other low shock, were trained to peck at a key for food reinforcement. Responses were reinforced in the presence of a tone and extinguished in its absence. Following training, Ss were given the opposite shock intensity and tested for generalization under conditions of extinction to a series of sev...
Article
The concept of consistency in man, a special case of a concept of universal consistency, has in recent years been productive of systematic theories and programs of research. Attitude change has been a focal area in this theoretical development. Consistency doctrines, however, lack specification of the conditions under which their predictions will h...
Article
The problem of combining abilities of group members to maximize the performance of the group as a whole is examined in terms of redundancy in task assignments. In particular, ways of distributing a given number of items of information among a given number of individuals to obtain the maximum probability of each item being recalled by at least one i...

Citations

... These may be as trivial as developing a greater probability of liking a certain type of eyeglasses or black clothes due to one's mere repeated exposure to them(Zajonc 2004). This mere exposure effect occurs only as long as there is absence of aversive consequences following the presentation(Zajonc 2004).18 ...
... Nevertheless, intergroup contact is likely to reduce negative attitudes towards outgroup members. Quantity of contact allows a "mere exposure" effect that has repeatedly been shown to improve the appreciation of other religious groups (Pettigrew & Tropp, 2006;Zajonc & Rajecki, 1969), while quality of contact (i.e. closeness, equality, and cooperativeness) provides conditions for the improvement of favorable attitudes towards outgroup members (Kanas et al., 2015). ...
... Ryeo with a perfect positive correlation between apparent performance and status, group success may still decline If the absolute levels of performance of a certain number of members are below the standard of minimal competence. Burnstein, -2- Zajonc, and Taylor (1963) demonstrated that intermittent group success markedly inhibits structural reorganization and, thus, delays the reduction of incongruities. ...
... The effects can occur not only when there is explicit communication with others, but also when people are nearby, so that they are simply aware of each other. The latter effect is defined as social facilitation or inhibition, depending on the positivity or negativity of its effect 1,2 . Previous studies have reported that whether the presence of others facilitates or inhibits task execution depends on the characteristics of the task 3 : typically, the presence of others causes social facilitation in low-load tasks and social inhibition in high-load tasks. ...
... This research along with studies conducted worldwide (Kaklauskas et al., 2019(Kaklauskas et al., , 2020 indicate a dependent interrelationship between happiness, sadness, valence and temperature. Other studies (McIntosh et al., 1997;Robinson et al., 2012;Hahn et al., 2012) as well as this research indicate a cyclical nature of happiness, sadness, valence and temperature over the course of a day. This became the basis for raising the first hypothesis for this research that diurnal happiness, sadness, valence and temperature have statistical interrelationships among passersby in Vilnius. ...
... The confluence model [8] is linked with the resource dilution hypothesis and suggests that the intellectual development of a child is dependent on the intellectual environment in which they grow. Given that intellectual growth is a function of age, the intellectual milieu, the average intellectual levels of all members in a child's family, is relatively high for the first-born child but decreases with increasing sibling numbers [5]. ...
... Therefore, CP in the form of interaction behaviors between customers and service employees provides a platform for cultivating IPA. Harrison and Zajonc (1970) offer a tentative explanation for this exposure effect, suggesting that when a perceiver confronts a novel stimulus (e.g., participation task), antagonistic response tendencies get tenuously elicited, producing a state of tension, also known as response competition. Response competition produces dislike of the stimulus and motivates exploratory behaviors to eliminate it. ...
... Task structure can be measured in different ways using representations such as complexity, difficulty and similarity based on the characteristics of the structure. The ability to quantify and compare the structural characteristics remains a difficult and challenging task due to the varied nature of problem situations (Zajonc and Taylor, 1963). ...
... Previous research reports have established that during the normative goal condition, which is susceptible to affective influences [55], it is expected that students' self-regulation processes would be disrupted. Furthermore, affective experiences can moderate cognitive performance, as suggested by several theoretical frameworks [56][57][58][59]. Thus, cusp modeling is a potential candidate for modeling these behavioral modes. ...
... Theories in consumer behavior talk of the action of stimuli and obtaining meaningful information via cognitive explanation or an evaluative assessment (Ajzen and Fishbein 1975;Calder and Sternthal 1980). Zajonc and Markus (1982) have argued that traditionally, the affective factors are influenced by a cognitive factor and in turn, impact consumer preferences. Market practitioners have supposed that the dimensions of product evaluations are fundamentally cognitively oriented for rational consumers (Dodds et al. 1991). ...