Robert A. Wicklund's research while affiliated with Bielefeld University and other places

Publications (88)

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Certainly the issue of “what is self” could be handled easily by taking a conservative, somewhat classical approach to theorizing and defining. The use of “self” could be constrained to those instances in which we have firm, reliable evidence of a definite behavioral potential.
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This book stems from a workshop on the self, held in January of 1994 in Chersonnisos, Greece. The idea behind the workshop was that of opening up the notion of self: How diverse or potentially overlapping are the numerous self-models, self-theories, and directions of self-research? It has become clear that the processes associated with the self are...
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A quasi-experimental study examined the effects of self-focused attention on acknowledging or ignoring others’ perspectives. University students scoring high vs. low in private and public self-focus estimated the opinion of a fellow student. For these estimates, a relevant cue for the fellow student’s most probable opinion was provided or not. The...
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Much of human social behavior in modern societies entails symbolic contributions. According to the concept introduced here, symbolic contributions serve a substitute function, allowing individuals to continue to be accepted by society even when they are incapable of direct, or so-called "actual" contributions (e.g., math skills, language skills, so...
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The present field experiment examines the effect of self-awareness on adult perspective-taking and on prosocial behavior. University students at an Italian university were interviewed briefly on their campus, and for half of them self-awareness was induced by asking them to hold a mirror before their faces. In the same context they then had to choo...
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One of the longest standing problems in social psychology and personahty research is the inconsistency between self-reports and behavior (Liska, 1975). A classic example of inaccurate reporting of past behavior is found in La Piere's (1934) study of the relationship between verbal and behavioral indices of prejudice among hotel-restaurant managers....
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Solidarity in the classic sense pertains to a cohesion among humans that entails physical contact, shared emotions, and common goals or projects. Characteristic cases are to be found among families, close friends, or co-workers. The present paper, in contrast, treats a phenomenon of the solidarity of distance, a solidarity based in fear of certain...
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In numerous research programs based on the concept of cognitive dissonance, participants play a role that is ostensibly in conflict with their pre-existing values. A strict reading of dissonance theory (Festinger, 1957) leads us to suppose that these role-playing, or 'forced compliance', procedures generally create results that are not implied by t...
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Supported by several theoretical perspectives on motivation, we based an experiment on the idea that threat motivates people to become defensive and to choose that which is familiar and unequivocal in a given situation. The present field experiment confirmed that a general relevant threat can motivate people in a linguistic multiculture to conform...
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This article introduces the idea of performance gains in groups in the sense of each group member's readiness to perceive, tolerate, and represent more than one point of view within the group or societal context. For this purpose we refer to enhanced performance as the furthering of "multiple perspectives." Active participation enables perspective-...
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The theoretical kernel of this treatment of person perception is the perceiver's use of multiple perspectives, which entails acknowledging others' states, motives and perceptions, and which involves recognizing several different points of view. Active contact in heterogeneous social contexts is viewed as basic to employing multiple perspectives. Th...
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According to Piaget (1924), egocentrism is defined as the complementary process of perspective-taking. The topic of the present research concerns the investigation of facilitating conditions of perspective-taking. Different approaches with respect to such facilitating conditions of perspective-taking in social-developmental and clinical psychology...
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Terror management theory posits that cultural worldviews function to provide protection against anxiety concerning human vulnerability and mortality and that their effectiveness as buffers against such anxiety is maintained through a process of consensual validation. Two field experiments were conducted to test the hypothesis that incidental remind...
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Perspective-taking and its opposite (egocentric perceptions of others) are studied here on the basis of the quality of the relationship between the perceiving person and the target person being perceived. It is assumed that subjectively experienced press (Murray, 1938), defined as participants' feeling impelled to deal with another, will be a centr...
Book
How diverse or potentially overlapping are the numerous self-models, self-theories, and directions of self-research? It has become clear that the processes associated with the self are complex and diverse, and that many of the approaches associated with the self have been pursued in isolation. Moreover, the fact of there being different traditions...
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The introduction innumerated several categories that referred to effects, phenomena, and explanations associated with the multifaceted self schools. Now that the authors have presented their positions and effects, it has become apparent once more that there are distinctly different schools, not just in terms of the empirical effects that are demons...
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What is the relation between the smoothness of performance within a specific realm and interest in person descriptors pertinent to that realm? Although it would be reasonable to think that competent people are also actively interested in the ‘personalities’ of their competence realms, the present pair of studies shows just the opposite. Study I, ex...
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To what extent is a competently-functioning person also interested in the person descriptors associated with that competence? A thesis by Wicklund (1986a, b ) charges that a dwelling on static person qualities (overt appearance; superficial traits) is often to be found among individuals who are themselves incompetent in the performance area in ques...
Article
Three studies were conducted in order to investigate antecedents of individuals' preoccupation with person descriptors, such as personality traits, physical-ethnic characteristics, or external characteristics, In Studies 1 and 2 subjects had to rate, for a given list of traits, how important each of the traits was as a prerequisite for performance...
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Presents a critical review of the literature on perspective-taking (PT). Most of the research on this concept has been based on a developmental approach, focusing on the acquisition of PT skills. These studies have lacked congruence among the various aspects of PT (visuospatial, cognitive, and affective) and have confused PT with empathy, altruism,...
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Tajfel and Turner's (1979, 1986) social identity theory, the minimal group paradigm with which the theory is associated and two core findings stemming from that paradigm are the focus of this paper. The development of the social identity concept is reviewed, and particular detail is devoted to the empirical basis of the theory, given that the theor...
Chapter
Once again turning to the self-knower school, we are led to imagine that self-knowledge is of unquestionable value both to society and to the individual who is in possession of it. Self-knowledge and other concepts closely allied to it point to the autonomous, self-determined individual, whose democratic thinking, tolerance, altruism, and consisten...
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Why “self-knower”? This term refers to a type of person, to individuals who have allegedly gained insight or a cognitive view into the self. These are presumably the persons whose self is no longer a mystery and who can communicate with clarity about the inner workings and components of their own being. What brings about this insight or knowledge?...
Chapter
In making the jump from the self-knowledge school to the present chapter, we are shifting gears in two important respects. In everything that is reported here, the self and knowledge of the self entail components of the person, not the person as a total self-knowing unit. In this sense, we are returning to the line of thinking begun by James (1890)...
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Let us try to take self-knowledge out of the realm of everyday parlance and ask whether it can be studied scientifically, as a psychological event. That is, does self-knowledge have causes, do certain events set it in gear, and do we know how to recognize it, measure it, and examine its consequences? How should we proceed in exploring such an all-e...
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The researcher, the therapist, or any other person who wants to recognize someone’s self-knowledge must rely on some indication of self-knowledge. This point is obvious enough. What is not so easily decipherable is the kind of indicator that the researcher or therapist should use. For example, one might want to argue that people who have come a lon...
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The initial focus of this chapter is on the influence of one’s group or society on applying labels to oneself, such as “I am sociable” or “I am a capable conversationalist.” Our present context treats such self-descriptions as elements of knowledge that stem from outside. Not postulating a core internal self or a kernel of one’s essence to be disco...
Chapter
The previous chapter was devoted to the self-reports of those who ostensibly have self-knowledge. Our focus was on the research subject or the patient or the observed person in general. And we tried to demonstrate how different psychological events taking place within the “self-knower” can influence self-reports in such a way that the person appear...
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From our perspective, it would appear that self and knowledge of the self are characteristically rolled into a unit, following this simple formula: If a person possesses a certain desired characteristic, such as tolerance, others then conclude that the person is aware of that tolerance. Or if a person appears to manifest patience, it is further ass...
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This chapter points us in a third direction for coming to terms with self-knowledge. The idea here is, in a sense, simpler than that in the preceding chapter: Self-directed cognitions (or self-directed attention) will be removed from their introspective mystique and placed in a field that we can study empirically. Interestingly, the systematic stud...
Article
The studies reported here bridge two research areas that have traditionally been handled by means of separate empirical paradigms and separate theoretical orientations. The one area is constituted by the issue of the individual's consistency in responding to a trait-list; the second area is the realm of consistency theory, in which the primary inte...
Article
Five studies are presented that address the application of consistency-theory notions to the problem of within-individual consistency in responding to trait lists. Three central points are necessary to build this bridge from consistency theory to consistency in responding to trait items: (1) First, it was assumed (on the basis of a thesis by Wicklu...
Article
Are the background and context of complex social behaviour neglected in theory-building? This sweeping question is handled here in a highly specific way. First, the character of the everyday ‘explainer's’ theories is examined, and it is found that the explainer's accounts of social behaviour can go in different directions. These directions, which a...
Article
An experiment was conducted to examine the effects of a threat to a person's self-definition on the subsequent rating of a target person and on the person's distancing from a associating with that target person. Devaluation of the target and dissociation from the target were found, given the following theoretical preconditions: (a) The subjects wer...
Chapter
Wildly extrapolating, one could say that the research just summarized, which hints at reasons for a Case A mode of explaining, applies to scientists as well as to the everyday on-the-street scientist. One could start with the potential theorist with a graduate education in the social sciences, and then analyze the person’s ongoing psychological tra...
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In a comprehensive analysis of the nature of explanation, Cassirer (1910) had something to say about the relationship between the explanation and the object being explained. He noted that certain classes of explanations—“Aristotelian” explanations—employed the character of the objects being explained in order to account for those objects’ behavior...
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There are several ways for an observer, scientist, or other individual to control behavior. The one route, emphasized by Lewin (1931) under the rubric of Galilean thinking, is to investigate or examine the multiplicity of perspectives offered by the individual being studied, drawing on information about perceptions, motives, needs, chronic orientat...
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Lewin (1931) observed that the Aristotelian version of theorizing was inevitably fraught with value judgments, or value-laden concepts. For instance, the dividing up of people into higher and lower IQs cannot be separated from value judgments, as witnessed in the way the IQ concept has been treated through history (Kamin, 1974). And in the older “s...
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When we read about a “type” theory we seldom ask about its exact formulation. We are led instead to ask “What does the type do?” and “Is the type reliably different from other types?” However, if we were even minimally faithful to the philosophy of science introduction sections of our own text books, we would ask, “What are the interrelations among...
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The zero-variable theories touched on thus far have been regarded as set entities, as systems that have not yet been modified. On the other hand, one can regard a theory, no matter how Galilean or Aristotelian, as a step in a direction, as a member of a theory-chain, in which numerous theorists participate. Such a chain of theory-building takes pla...
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The kernel of the zero-variable theory is a set of behaviors. In and of itself, there is nothing very problematic or objectionable about making a set of behaviors central in one’s theorizing; it is what the theorist does with these sets of behaviors that is crucial. In the present context we focus on the classes of behaviors that are generally of i...
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We are two steps along toward the complete zero-variable theory: First, a behavioral catalog is put together in which the several behavioral forms are said to hang tightly together; second, the respondent’s category membership is viewed as the single cause of these behaviors. But now we reach a point that is much more decisive for the scientijic ac...
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The explainer, the central topic of this and the following chapters, is not necessarily the person who creates a hierarchical explanatory system, out of interwoven concepts drawn from different levels of abstraction, in the manner of idealized theory; the explainer here is the observer of behavior, particularly complex human behavior, and is define...
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The completed zero-variable theory, as we have witnessed the course of its formualtion, is an egocentric product. The respondent’s background perspective is shoved aside as the theorist attempts, through discriminance analysis, to win a unique place in the field of verbal description of complex human behavior. A further element now enters the antii...
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The major defining steps in the development of a zero-variable theory have been outlined in the previous chapters. But what next? Does development of the theory come to a halt with the demonstration of quasi-discriminance and external validity analyses, or can further steps be taken?
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The concept of a scientific hypothesis implies that the scientist is dealing with a questionable idea, thus one that needs to be tried out. The idea might read, “increased drive will enhance performance of dominant responses,” or “response persistence will be enhanced by intermittent reinforcement,” or “high achievement motivation produces a prefer...
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This is the point at which the technical-psychological skills of the theoristinvestigator must come to the fore. Two groups of people need to be created, thus two categories, with the one category always showing the one batch of tendencies (e.g., tending to think; enjoying thinking) while the other category always shows the opposite (i.e., not thin...
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Lest the reader be immediately misled, individual differences, as treated by Lewin (1931), must be associated with the Galilean mode of inquiry—with the psychology that treats constructs and variables. Lewin charged that the Aristotelian approach neglected the uniqueness of the individual, reasoning as follows. As soon as all members of a populatio...
Article
Theoretical views and research surrounding the concept of self-knowledge have eschewed a causal-process model of self-knowledge. It is difficult, if not impossible, to find a theoretical treatment of the acquisition of or access to self-knowledge. Rather than asking such questions as "How does the social milieu become incorporated into one's self-k...
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The study reported here examines conditions under which the logic basic to discounting effects is suppressed or neglected. Given that an individual has a success experience and is helped along the way by a person or an instrument, it is clear from attribution theory that self-estimates of ability will drop to the extent that the person or instrumen...
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Congruent with microeconomic utility theory, one can often observe a negative relation between a product's price and the consumer's demand for the product. But in the case of Veblen (1899/1979. conspicuous consumption) the opposite is true: the higher the price the more attractive is the product, because the price is taken as an indicator of the pr...
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Two studies address the question of the conditions under which individuals preoccupy themselves with person descriptors (as indicated by traits or related types of behavioral dispositions). In an experiment university students were given anagram problems of varying difficulty. The difficulty variable was crosscut by a manipulation of the amount of...
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Two experiments were conducted to examine certain effects of subjects’ directing activity toward critical target ideas or concepts. In the first experiment, the critical ideas were modem concepts for handling patients; the activity consisted of subjects’ translating the ideas. In the second experiment, the critical ideas were psychological concepts...
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The studies reported here examined the effect of thinking about one's identity on the manner in which the bases for one's own actions are analyzed. In each of the studies the starting point was the determination of an identity which subjects were motivated to pursue; these identities included manager/economist and lawyer. In Studies 1 and 2 cogniti...
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ABSTRACT Taking the distinction between Aristotelian and Galilean modes of thought (Lewin, 1931) as a background, the bifurcation of the self-focus concept into “private” and “public” types of self-focus is discussed critically A theoretical connection between the private-public distinction and other central concepts within the self-awareness liter...
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ABSTRACT A simple parable is introduced that serves as an analogy to the private/public self-focus distinction The analogy elucidates that the reliability of the effects observed by the private/public research direction is not the focus of the Wicklund and Gollwitzer critique Rather, the critique questions the validity of the explanations offered M...
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In characteristic research on the trait–behavior relation, the respondent is given a set number of trait dimensions in which to respond, and in turn, the extremity and direction of ratings are correlated with particular behavioral tendencies. These four studies deal with whether the respondent is even concerned with trait dimensions and with other...
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In the present pair of studies interpersonal cues were set up, prompting self-descriptions that would be in potential conflict with subjects' self-definitional needs. It was hypothesized that self-definitional needs would hinder subjects' responding to the interpersonal aspects of the situation. In both studies subjects committed to a certain self-...
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The cognition-behavior relation central here is the human pursuit of self-definitions. The striving after such self-definitions as child-rearer, parent, musician, or humanitarian is treated as a goal-oriented enterprise, such that the cognized goal (e. g., to be a humanitarian) brings forth numerous behaviors directed toward the individual’s trying...
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Tested the hypothesis, suggested by C. H. Cooley (1902) and others, that the self-focused state of one person in a dyad triggers self-focus in the other dyad member. A corollary hypothesis concerned perspective-taking performance as a function of self-focused attention within the dyad. 62 female undergraduates interacted with a confederate whose os...
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A series of experiments was conducted to assess the influence of self-directed attention on the ability to take another's perspective. In Experiment 1 subjects who listened to a recording of their own voice were better able to orient themselves to the perspective of another than were subjects in a control group. However, the presence of concern abo...
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A male's decision to approach a physically attractive female stranger may be fraught with ambivalence. He is drawn by her beauty but he may fear rejection. The conflict lessens, however, if approach can occur under the guise of a motive other than desire to be with the attractive woman. This is because keeping one's true approach motive ambiguous m...
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A model is proposed to account for the effects of a target person's salience on judgments of that target. It is argued that salience leads to more extreme inferences in the direction implied by prior knowledge that is relevant to the judgment. This knowledge may include both specific information about the target being rated and general information...
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Conducted 4 experiments that examined the role of self-directed attention in prosocial behavior. In the 1st 2 experiments, in which only focus of attention was varied, self-awareness had a debilitating impact on prosocial behavior. In subsequent research, conditions were created under which self-focus enhanced prosocial behavior. Two such condition...
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Determined, in a preliminary study with 174 undergraduates, that there are conditions under which the readiness to deprecate oneself is positively related to that person's strengths within the domain where self-descriptions are relevant. In 2 experiments, 74 male undergraduates undertook self-relevant actions within the context of particular self-d...
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The alternative to self-awareness theory proposed by J. G. Hull and A. S. Levy (see record 1980-27166-001) is based on an encoding of self-relevant information. This alternative conception, unfortunately, does not appear to have the number of psychological variables or the requisite specificity to deal with the range of phenomena studied under the...
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A concept of symbolic self-completion states that people define themselves as musicians, athletes, etc. by use of indicators of attainment in those activity realms, such as possessing a prestige job, having extensive education, or whatever is recognized by others as indicating progress toward completing the self-definition. The self-completion idea...
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Selective exposure as a reaction to cognitive dissonance has long eluded researchers working in the realm of dissonance theory. It is proposed here that the difficulties in selective exposure paradigms have resulted from inadequate designs, and more particularly, it is likely that many of the previous findings are due to confoundings. The present e...
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Two experiments were conducted to investigate a modification of the Jones and Davis (1965) analysis of attribution. Subjects were confronted with a situation in which there were two possible causes for an event, and differential information about these causes was provided such that subjects were much more informed about the nature of one potential...
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A communication that contains a particularly strong intent to influence caneasily lose persuasive impact or even bring about a “boomerang” effect. Such “boomerang” phenomena have often been attributed to “psychological reactance”, a motivational state created when freedoms are threatened or usurped. The first experiment reported here examined two f...
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Male undergraduates received either an accepting or unaccepting communication from a coed. Then each subject had the opportunity to listen to his own voice or the voice of another male, and it was found that preference for listening to one's own voice was higher among subjects who had received positive feedback from the coed. There was also evidenc...
Chapter
This chapter focuses on the theory of objective self-awareness. It presents the theory of objective self-awareness as it stands presently: Conscious attention is viewed as dichotomous, having the property of being directed either toward the self or toward the environment. The direction of attention is guided by events that force attention inward, s...
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In the context of an experiment that shows enhanced cigarette smoking due to the presence of a mirror, Liebling, Seiler, and Shaver (1974) argue that drive theory has been pitted successfully against self-awareness theory. This reply notes that their experimental conditions did not allow for an unambiguous application of either theory, and conclude...
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Based on a theory of objective self awareness three experiments were conducted with undergraduates to test the hypothesis that self-focused attention can alter self esteem levels. In Experiments I and II subjects were exposed either to the sound of their own voices or to the sound of another's voice, and while listening to the tape-recording they f...
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Two experiments were conducted to test the proposition that attribution of causality will be determined by the focus of attention. In Expt I Ss responded to 10 hypothetical situations, each presenting the possibility that either the S or someone else might be the cause of a negative consequence. After each situation was presented, the S was asked t...
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Joint predictions of choice certainty theory and objective self-awareness theory were tested in an experiment that used female undergraduates as Ss. Ss were presented with either an easy or difficult decision, then their desire for information relevant to the decision was measured prior to the choice point. A second variable was self-awareness: whi...
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Considers the conditions which cause the consciousness to focus on the self as an object. The theory that self-awareness has motivational properties deriving from social feedback is discussed and considered with relation to conformity, attitude-behavior discrepancies, and communication sets. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserv...
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Three experiments were designed to demonstrate that objective self-awareness, a state in which the individual evaluates himself and attempts to attain correctness and consistency in his beliefs and behaviors, can mediate both opinion change and performance facilitation. In Experiment I, objective self-awareness was increased for some Ss when they h...
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If an individual has the option of choosing one of several alternatives or none at all and is asked to examine and rate the alternatives predecisionally in the presence of a bystander, how are his ratings affected if he knows that the bystander has a vested interest in his choosing an alternative? The following predictions were derived from a theor...
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Social Cognition und das Paradigma der Informationsverarbeitung "Social Cognition" 2 ist ein Schlagwort, das dem Sozialpsychologen in den letzten Jahren an den verschiedensten Stellen begegnet ist: im Journal of Personality and Social Psychology als Überschrift der Sektion "Attitudes and Social Cognition", als Titel einer der erfolgreichen neuen Ze...
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purpose of this chapter is that of explicating a hypothesis which, very abstractly stated, says that acting on an idea results in the appropriation of that idea the idea: the raw material for appropriation / acting on the idea / appropriation: the psychological outcome of acting on the idea / a look at appropriation in concrete instances / acting...
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what (who) is the person in person perception / person perception via inferences / is there a "motive" to put together constructs about others / what are the characteristics of inference and construct building / press, conflict, and control motivation / how to recognize perceptual reduction / an illustration of the movement from construct building...

Citations

... At least in contemporary societies, it is specific for different social domains [36][37][38]]. An example is the self-story: a stabilized knowledge structure that influences a person's identification and decisions [39][40][41][42][43]. In most parts, it is shared with others (among members of one's group or society). ...
... This speaks to the confidence of these women in their new roles as mothers. Previous studies have found that consumers who are less secure about their key roles are more likely to use mainstream products and stereotypical symbols to improve their role performance (Solomon 1983;Wicklund and Gollwitzer 1983;Wicks, Nairn, and Griffin 2007). Environmentally conscious mothers, however, are confident in their ability to find credible information, which allows them to find the most suitable products for their babies based on the knowledge they accumulate from scientific searches. ...
... In particular, the presence of BWCs is thought to increase the perceived certainty of apprehension for norm violations (Ariel et al. 2015). The idea is further underpinned by social psychological studies suggesting that people being observed alter their behavior to coincide with socially accepted norms, rules, and standards, as part of a "self-awareness effect" (Ariel et al. 2015;Duval and Wicklund 1972;Munger and Harris 1989;Wedekind and Braithwaite 2002;Wicklund 1975). In practical terms, BWCs may cool down potentially aggressive suspects and officers (described as a "civilizing effect" [White 2014]) preventing encounters escalating to the point where officers use force, including deadly force (Ariel et al. 2015), and perhaps showing more restraint when they do. ...
... This is because any stimulus that directs attention back on the self can induce a state of self-awareness (Gibbons, 1990). Such self-awareness inducing stimuli could be goalrelated stimuli such as difficulties and action crises because personal goals are closely related to the self (Wicklund & Gollwitzer, 1982). In other words, experiencing goal-related difficulties might induce self-awareness which then leads to problem-solving in order to solve these difficulties and prevent action crisis' experience. ...
... The processes underlying this construction of reality are the core issue of social psychology. In the 1970s, the emerging field of social cognition turned to this topic with the conceptual repertoire of the information processing paradigm (Lachman, Lachman, & Butterfield, 1979;Strack, 1988; for a history, see Moskowitz, this volume). Drawing on models of encoding, storage, and retrieval, social cognition researchers highlighted the importance of inferential processes in phenomena that had traditionally been described in terms of social "perception" (Hastie et al., 1980;Wyer & Carlston, 1979). ...
... (Kelley, 1967). Auch hier würde der erste Eindruck stabil bleiben, da neue Information, die mit dem ersten Eindruck in Widerspruch steht nicht auf die Eigenschaften der Person, sondern auf bestimmte Situationen zurückgeführt würde (Bell, Wicklund, Manko, & Larkin, 1976;Jones, Worchel, Goethals, & Grumet, 1971). ...
... Wicklund and colleagues have reported ample evidence for the posited static orientation process. The consistently replicated finding has been that individuals who have difficulties in coping behaviorally with demands in a specific realm name more personal characteristics as a prerequisite for competence in that area than do persons without performance difficulties (e.g., Gendolla, 1999 Gendolla, , 2002 Koller & Wicklund, 1988 Wicklund & Braun, 1987; Wicklund, Braun, & Waibel, 1994; Wicklund & Koller, 1991;). The dynamic orientation is, by contrast, reflected by an orientation to and description of specific actions that reflect behavioral coping (e.g., Koller & Wicklund, 1988; Wicklund et al., 1994). ...
... When unsure of the quality of a product, high price becomes an indicator of quality, and consumers operate according to an "expensive = good" heuristic. Braun and Wicklund (1989) referred to this phenomenon as the "snob effect." This effect refutes traditional economic principles of the relationship between price and demand (i.e., as price decreases, there is an increase in sales), and instead replaces it with a relationship between price and value. ...
... Also, their data is well compatible with the Theory of Symbolic Self-Completion, since they reflect the claim for a 'high-tech' identity. Likewise, Braun and Wicklund (1988) had shown that among students, the striving for a professional identity is reflected in respective claims, which serve as symbols to complete the yet incomplete identity. On the other hand, the item, 'Living on agriculture in a rural, non-industrial area', in third place, can be interpreted as the effect of the counterbalancing idea of a very different lifestyle, contrasting to the industrialised world. ...
... In another study Study 3), we tested the same hypothesis by manipulating time pressure, which also forces responses that are quick and efficient (e.g., Bargh & Thein, 1985;Strack, Erber, & Wicklund, 1982;Wegner & Erber, 1992). Participants indicated the extent to which they agreed with words and phrases that measured liberal (e.g., civil rights, social change) and conservative (e.g., authority, private property) ideology; these terms appeared one at a time on a computer screen. ...