Robert A. Steer's research while affiliated with Rowan University and other places

Publications (226)

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The relationship of low maternal serum adiponectin levels with preterm delivery among a multi-ethnic group has not been extensively investigated. We examined ethnic differences in cytokine/adipokine profiles and whether they contribute to several adverse pregnancy outcomes, particularly preterm delivery. Data and samples were from a large prospecti...
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Although caregivers have been found to be critical to children’s healing, little has been documented about caregivers’ experiences in Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (TF-CBT). The current study describes caregivers’ satisfaction with and perceptions of TF-CBT. Caregivers ( n = 431) of children/adolescents ( n = 496) who completed TF-CBT...
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This pilot study evaluated the effectiveness of Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (TF-CBT) training programs augmented with a systematic “PRACTICE What You Preach” (PWYP) self-care focus, which has trainees personally utilize the coping skills they teach their clients. Participants were 115 clinicians/supervisors who completed a PWYP TF-C...
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Objective We investigated the relationships of maternal circulating individual free fatty acids (FFA) with insulin resistance, insulin secretion and inflammatory biomarkers during mid-pregnancy. Research design and methods The data were drawn from a prospective cohort of generally healthy pregnant women (n=1368, African-American 36%, Hispanic 48%,...
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Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurologic disorder characterized by hyperactivity/impulsivity and/or inattentiveness, with genetic and environmental factors contributing to the disorder. With the growing recognition of the microbiome’s role in many neurological disorders, the authors propose that it may also be implicated in A...
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In order to determine the effectiveness of a Gastrointestinal Severity Index to screen for gastrointestinal disorders, the Gastrointestinal Severity Index was administered to 135 children with autism spectrum disorders and 146 comparisons with and without gastrointestinal disorders. The mean Gastrointestinal Severity Index scores of the groups were...
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This preliminary investigation assessed whether different aspects of personal resiliency improved for youth (7-17 years old) impacted by child sexual abuse (CSA) after completing trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy (TF-CBT). The Resiliency Scales for Children and Adolescents (RSCA; Prince-Embury, 2007) were administered to 157 youth before...
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Prior reports on the association between altered maternal serum lipid levels with preterm delivery are inconsistent. Ethnic differences in serum lipids during pregnancy and their relation to preterm delivery have not been studied. We examined the relationships of six maternal lipids during early pregnancy with the risk of spontaneous preterm delive...
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Objective: The current study examines the predictive validity of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) suicide item for death by suicide and suicide attempts. Method: The study included 2 samples: (1) 5,200 psychiatric outpatients who were evaluated between 1975 and 1995 and followed prospectively for up to 20 years (all psychiatric diagnoses base...
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The etiology of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) is believed to involve genetic and environmental components. This study focused on the plasticizer, Bisphenol-A (BPA). The major pathway for BPA metabolism and excretion is via glucuronidation. To determine whether there was a relationship between BPA exposure and ASD, urine specimens were collected f...
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To determine whether children and adolescents (7-17 years old) who had experienced physical, sexual, or both types of abuse reflected distinct profiles of personal resiliency, we administered the Resiliency Scales for Children and Adolescents (RSCA) to 250 youth. We performed cluster analyses with T scores for the RSCA Self-Mastery, Relatedness, an...
Data
To determine the risk factors for suicide, 6,891 psychiatric outpatients were evaluated in a prospective study. Subsequent deaths for the sample were identified through the National Death Index. Forty-nine (l %) suicides were determined from death certificates obtained from state vital statistics offices. Specific psychological variables that could...
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Parenting may be one mechanism by which depression in nonoffending mothers impacts child emotional and behavioral adjustment after sexual abuse. This study examined the relationship between self-reported maternal depression and parenting behaviors by nonoffending mothers of children who experienced sexual abuse. The participants were 204 nonoffendi...
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The research examined whether youth (6-17 years old) who were referred for treatment due to sexual, physical, or both types of abuse presented with distinct profiles of PTSD DSM-IV-TR symptom clusters. When examining data for the 749 youth participants, five PTSD symptom cluster profiles were identified with each profile representing approximately...
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Exposure to environmental chemicals may precipitate autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in genetically susceptible children. Differences in the efficiency of the glucuronidation process may substantially modulate substrate concentrations and effects. To determine whether the efficiency of this pathway is compromised in children with ASD, we measured th...
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This study presents the findings from 6- and 12-month follow-up assessments of 158 children ages 4-11 years who had experienced sexual abuse and who had been treated with Trauma-Focused Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (TF-CBT) with or without the inclusion of the trauma narrative (TN) treatment module and in 8 or 16 treatment sessions. Follow-up resul...
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Empathy is fundamental to patient care. Research studies of allopathic medical students have found a statistically significant decrease in empathy levels by the third year. Levels of empathy in osteopathic medical students have not been evaluated to determine whether a similar decline occurs in this group. To determine whether there were difference...
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The purpose was to assess the effectiveness of the adult ADHD Module from the MINI International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) and the Conners' Adult ADHD Rating Scales: Screening Version DSM-IV ADHD Symptoms Total Scale (CAARS-S:SV) in screening for attention-deficit/hyperactivity (ADHD) disorder in patients hospitalized for other psychiatric...
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To ascertain whether self-reported inability to cry would be associated with symptoms of anhedonic depression, the 21-item Beck Depression Inventory-II was administered to 1,050 outpatients diagnosed with a DSM-IV-TR major depressive disorder. 219 (21%) patients reported on the BDI-II Crying item that they were unable to cry, and 831 (79%) patients...
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Child sexual abuse (CSA) is associated with the development of a variety of mental health disorders, and Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (TF-CBT) is an established treatment for children who have experienced CSA. However, there are questions about how many TF-CBT sessions should be delivered to achieve clinical efficacy and whether a tr...
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This study determined whether adding cognitive-behavioral therapy to treatment for outpatients with schizophrenia would be more effective than the use of second-generation antipsychotics alone. Thirty-three patients were randomly assigned to receive either second-generation antipsychotics alone (N=18) or second-generation antipsychotics plus cognit...
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Objective: This study determined whether adding cognitive-behavioral therapy to treatment for outpatients with schizophrenia would be more effective than the use of second-generation antipsychotics alone. Thirty-three patients were randomly assigned to receive either second-generation antipsychotics alone (N=18) or second-generation antipsychotics...
Article
Cluster analyses with the three global scores of the Resiliency Scales for Children and Adolescents (TM). (RSCA) were used to determine personal resiliency profiles within normative (641) and outpatient clinical (285) samples of youth aged 9 to 18 years. Normative and clinical profiles were compared with each other and the clinical profiles were th...
Article
To ascertain whether children and adolescents whose ages ranged from 9 to 17 years described distinct profiles of personal resiliency, the Resiliency Scales for Children and Adolescents (RSCA) were administered to 100 youth who were admitted to an inpatient psychiatric unit and were diagnosed with various DSM-IV-TR disorders along with the Beck You...
Article
Individuals with Serious mental illness require psychosocial treatments as adjunct to pharmacotherapy to promote recovery. An ACT team was trained in CBT interventions and charts were reviewed to identify sessions where CBT was utilized. Subjects who received at least 3 sessions of CBT went from 10% before training to 44% after training and 54% in...
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To ascertain the amount of general factor saturation underlying the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI; Beck and Steer 1993) responses of anxious patients, the BAI was administered to 525 outpatients with DSM-IV-TR anxiety disorders. McDonald’s omegahierarchical(ω h) (Zinbarg et al. 2005) was calculated to estimate the amount of general factor saturation;...
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The Beck Self-Concept Inventory for Youth (BYI-S; Beck et al. in Manual for the Beck Youth Inventories of Emotional and Social Impairment, 2001) was administered to 100 adolescents (12–17years old) who experienced sexual abuse. An iterated principal-factor analysis found that the BYI-S represented two highly correlated (r = .53) factors correspondi...
Article
To determine whether self-reported symptoms of depression are differentiated by changes in sleeping patterns or appetite, the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II; Beck et al. 1996) was administered to 1,250 outpatients diagnosed with a major depressive disorder. A series of focused contrasts supported the hypothesis that the mean BDI-II total scor...
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To investigate the common and specific dimensions of anxiety and depression in adolescents, the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI; Beck, A. T., & Steer, R. A. Manual for the Beck Anxiety Inventory. San Antonio, TX: Psychological Corporation 1993a) and Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II; Beck, A. T., Steer, R. A., & Brown, G. K. Manual for Beck Depressi...
Article
The Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II; A. T. Beck, R. A. Steer, & G. K. Brown, 1996) was administered to 164 biological mothers of sexually abused children to determine the psychometric characteristics of the BDI-II and to estimate the prevalence of self-reported depression in this population. The study also sought to ascertain whether the mothe...
Article
To ascertain whether the differential responses that previously have been found between trauma-focused, cognitive-behavioral therapy (TF-CBT), and child-centered therapy (CCT) for treating posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and related problems in children who had been sexually abused would persist following treatment and to examine potential pre...
Article
The Cognitive Checklist for Mania-Revised (CCL-M-R), which measures the severity of maladaptive beliefs and cognitions associated with mania, was administered to 35 inpatients with a major depressive disorder, 20 inpatients with a schizoaffective disorder, and 45 inpatients with a bipolar I disorder to determine whether cognitions associated with m...
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Although empirical evidence suggests that global hopelessness differentiates depression from anxiety, the degree to which depressed and anxious patients endorse hopelessness about specific life events has yet to be investigated. In the present study, outpatients with major depression (n=64), outpatients with generalized anxiety disorder (n=29), and...
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The Beck Cognitive Insight Scale (BCIS; Beck, Baruch, Balter, Steer, & Warman, 2004) was administered to 42 (28%) inpatients with psychotic disorders, 52 (35%) with a bipolar disorder, and 56 (37%) with a major depressive disorder (MDD). The hypotheses were (a) that the mean level of cognitive insight in a psychotic or a bipolar disorder is lower t...
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As the field of genetic medicine advances and more tests for genetic diseases become available, a dilemma of legal and ethical importance will be increasingly encountered by family physicians. Protecting the confidentiality of a patient with a genetic disease when the patient's family is at risk for inheriting the disease is a conflict that more an...
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To ascertain whether the daily hazard risk rate for committing suicide by psychiatric outpatients stabilizes over time, a parametric survival analysis was calculated for the 6891 outpatients who were followed by Brown, Beck, Steer, and Grisham. Approximately 3 1/4 years after a patient's initial evaluation, the daily hazard rate leveled off and dro...
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To investigate the severity of self-reported depression in patients diagnosed with a schizoaffective disorder (SZA), the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II; Beck, Steer, & Brown, 1996) was administered to 75 patients with a SZA. For comparative purposes, the BDI-II was also administered to 75 patients with a major depressive disorder without psyc...
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The Beck Depression Inventory-Fast Screen for Medical Settings (BDI-FS; [Beck, Steer, & Brown, 2000]) and the Mood Module (MM) from the Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders [Spitzer, Williams, Kroenke, Linzer, deGruy, III, Hahn, & Brody, 1995] were used to screen 100 inpatients detoxifying from alcohol, illicit substances, or both for a majo...
Article
The 1996 Beck Depression Inventory-II was administered to 120 outpatients diagnosed with DSM-IV-TR bipolar I disorders who had recently experienced manic, mixed, or depressed episodes. A focused contrast supported the hypothesis that the mean Beck-II total score for the 40 patients with depressed episodes (M=34.1, SD = 13.2) was higher than the mea...
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A prospective study of 1,958 outpatients found that hopelessness, as measured by the Beck Hopelessness Scale, was significantly related to eventual suicide. A scale cutoff score of 9 or above identified 16 (94.2%) of the 17 patients who eventually committed suicide, thus replicating a previous study with hospitalized patients. The high-risk group i...
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The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether self-reported somatic symptoms of depression, as measured by the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), are more frequent in women than in men with major depressive disorder. A sample of 105 male and 105 female adult psychiatric outpatients diagnosed with major depressive disorder was classified acc...
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This study attempted to assess whether an index of the difference between the wish to die and the wish to live constitutes a risk factor for suicide. A study group of 5,814 patients, including 44 who committed suicide (0.8%), were recruited from a psychiatric outpatient clinic. Structured diagnostic interviews and clinician ratings of the wish to l...
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The 25-item Clark-Beck Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory (CBOCI) was developed to assess the frequency and severity of obsessive and compulsive symptoms. The measure uses a graded-response format to assess core symptom features of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) based on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; American Psyc...
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The Anxiety, Depression, Anger, Disruptive Behavior, and Self-Concept Inventories of the Beck Youth Inventories of Emotional and Social Impairment (J. S. Beck, A. S. Beck, & J. Jolly, 2001) were administered to 150 female and 150 male outpatients who were 7–12 years old and matched by sex as to whether they were diagnosed with anxiety, mood, adjust...
Article
Dysfunctional beliefs or cognitions are considered to be fundamental to both the phenomenology and pathogenesis of depression. However, the cognitive aspects of mania have not been as thoroughly investigated. We sought to compare the maladaptive beliefs and cognitions of 23 bipolar manic or hypomanic patients, 28 patients with unipolar major depres...
Article
To ascertain (1) whether male and female adolescent (13-17 years old) psychiatric inpatients endorse comparable reasons for cutting themselves and (2) whether these reasons are correlated with selected psychosocial characteristics of the adolescents, self-reported depression, and hopelessness, the Self-Injury Motivation Scale II (SIMS-II), the Beck...
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The Beck Anxiety (BAI-FS) and Depression (BDI-FS) Inventory-Fast Screens for Medical Settings were administered to 63 HIV-infected outpatients seeking treatment at a chronic pain clinic to evaluate how effectively these 7-item instruments would, respectively, differentiate those who were and were not diagnosed with DSM-IV anxiety, mood, or both dis...
Article
The clinical measurements of insight have focused primarily on patients' unawareness of their having a mental disorder and of their need for treatment ([Acta Psychiatr. Scand. 89 (1994) 62; Am. J. Psychiatry 150 (1993) 873]; etc.). A complementary approach focuses on some of the cognitive processes involved in patients' re-evaluation of their anoma...
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To examine the differential efficacy of trauma-focused cognitive-behavioral therapy (TF-CBT) and child-centered therapy for treating posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and related emotional and behavioral problems in children who have suffered sexual abuse. Two hundred twenty-nine 8- to 14-year-old children and their primary caretakers were rando...
Article
To assess the severity of self-reported anxiety in psychiatric adult outpatients (> or = 18 yr. old) who were diagnosed with psychotic disorders, the Beck Anxiety Inventory was administered to 55 (50%) women and 55 (50%) men who were diagnosed with paranoid schizophrenia, schizoaffective, or delusional disorders. The internal consistency of the sco...
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Among 440 psychiatric outpatients with current suicidal ideation, we examined the empirical distinction between the "plans" vs. "desire" dimensions of suicidality, focusing for conceptual and empirical reasons on a worst-point assessment strategy. Factor analyses were consistent with the distinction, but more importantly, among the current ideators...
Article
The Beck Depression Inventory-II, published in 1996, was administered to 100 adult outpatients (Age M=43.1 yr., SD=15.6) who were diagnosed with a recurrent-episode Major Depressive Disorder and 100 outpatients (Age M=42.8 yr., SD=15.7) who were diagnosed with a Dysthymic Disorder. Each diagnostic group was composed of 50 men and 50 women who did n...
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To examine adolescents' responses to a medical examination, which included the use of video colposcopy, conducted during an investigation of possible child sexual abuse. Girls aged 11 to 18 years, referred for evaluation and treatment of sexual abuse at an academic medical center were eligible to participate. Demographic data and information regard...
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To assess the factorial validity of the 27-item Conners' Parent Rating Scale-Revised: Short Form (CPRS-R:S; Conners, 1997), 100 (50%) male and 100 (50%) female psychiatric outpatients between 5 and 16 years old were rated by a parent. A confirmatory factor analysis of the 18 item ratings from the CPRS-R:S Oppositional, Cognitive Problems, and Hyper...
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To assess whether the mean Beck Depression Inventory-II scores of adolescents who were diagnosed with unipolar depressive disorders differed with respect to age, the inventory was administered to 144 (60%) female and 96 (40%) male outpatients between 13 and 17 yr. who were diagnosed with depressive disorders. The internal consistency of the scores...
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The Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II; Beck, Steer, & Brown, 1996) and the Conners' Adult ADHD Rating Scale-Self-Report: Screening Version (CAARS-S:SV; Conners, Erhardt, & Sparrow, 1999) were administered to 371 (64%) female and 204 (36%) male adult (> 18 years old) outpatients who were diagnosed with various psychiatric disorders to determine w...
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To ascertain how useful the Beck Scale for Suicide Ideation (BSI; Beck & Steer, Manual for Beck Scale for Suicide Ideation (1991)) would be for assessing the severity of suicidal ideation in patients who were diagnosed with schizophrenia, schizoaffective, or bipolar disorders, 142 inpatients were asked to complete the BSI. Eight (6%) patients refus...
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The Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) was administered to 45 male and 55 female psychiatric inpatients who were 12 to 17 years old, and the Mood Module from the Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders (PRIME-MD) was used to determine whether these patients met criteria for a diagnosis of a DSM-IV major depressive disorder (MDD). Binormal re...
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The Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II; Beck, Steer, & Brown, 1996) and the Reynolds Adolescent Depression Scale (RADS; Reynolds, 1987) were administered to 56 female and 44 male psychiatric inpatients whose ages ranged from 12 to 17 years old. The Cronbach coefficient alpha(s) for the BDI-II and RADS were, respectively, .92 and .91 and indicated...
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To provide information about the psychometric properties of the Conners-Wells' Adolescent Self-Report Scale: Short Form (CASS:S; C. K. Conners, 1997), the CASS:S was administered to 110 (46%) female and 130 (54%) male psychiatric outpatients between 13 and 17 years old. The coefficient s for the CASS:S Conduct Problems, Cognitive Problems, Hyperact...
Article
To provide further information about the construct validities of the Beck Youth Inventories of Emotional and Social Impairment, these inventories were administered to 35 female and 65 male outpatients whose ages ranged from 7 to 12 years and who were diagnosed with various psychiatric disorders. The Children's Depression Inventory was also administ...
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The differential efficacies of supportive and cognitive behavioral group therapy models designed for young children (ages 2 to 8) who have experienced sexual abuse and their nonoffending mothers were compared. Forty-four mothers and their respective children participated in either supportive or cognitive behavioral therapy groups with the group for...
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The mood modules from the Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders (PRIME-MD) and the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ) were administered to 17 (52%) female and 16 (48%) male adolescent (13-17 years old) psychiatric inpatients. The internal consistencies of both were good (KR-20 for PRIME-MD=.80, Cronbach coefficient alpha for Patient Health Qu...
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Subtyping depression has been an interest of theorists and clinicians for at least four centuries. In this paper, we examined the validity of the symptom cluster component of the hopelessness theory of depression. We used structural equation modeling analyses on large samples of psychiatric outpatients (N=1604, 844, and 680) and Air Force cadets (N...
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The Beck Depression Inventory-II total scores of 35 (14%) outpatients who were diagnosed with a mild DSM-IV Major Depressive Episode (MDE), 144 (55%) outpatients with a moderate MDE, and 81 (31%) outpatients with a severe MDE were compared. The mean BDI-II total scores were, respectively, 18 (SD = 8, 99% CI 12-23), 27 (SD = 10, 99% CI 24-29), and 3...
Article
To ascertain how effective the seven-item Beck Depression Inventory-FastScreen for medical patients (BDI-FS) was in screening geriatric (> 55 years old) patients for depression, the BDI-FS and the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-S) were administered to 33 (44%) male and 42 (56%) female outpatients who were scheduled for routine office visit...
Article
The psychometric characteristics of the Beck Self-Esteem Scales (BSE) are described for 360 psychiatric outpatients. Patients rated their evaluative beliefs about themselves (Self Scale) and their beliefs about how others evaluate them (Other Scale). Both measures consist of 18 pairs of adjectives, e.g., lovable-unlovable, that are rated using a 10...
Article
Medical directors from 198 inpatient psychiatric facilities in 46 states completed a survey on the use of a durable power of attorney for health care to compel admission of unwilling patients with dementia. About half the facilities had a policy allowing use of a power of attorney for this purpose. Thirty-four percent believed that it was optional...
Article
To ascertain whether the percentage of men who suffer with cluster headaches and are classified as sensing types according to Jung's theory of psychological types was comparable to the percentage (74%) of Sensing types that was found by Gallagher, et al. among women who experience migraine headaches, the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator was administered...
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Full-text available
To determine the risk factors for suicide, 6,891 psychiatric outpatients were evaluated in a prospective study. Subsequent deaths for the sample were identified through the National Death Index. Forty-nine (1%) suicides were determined from death certificates obtained from state vital statistics offices. Specific psychological variables that could...
Article
To provide information about the clinical utility of the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) [Beck, A.T., Steer, R.A., & Brown, G.K. (1996b). Manual for the Beck Depression Inventory-II. San Antonio, TX: Psychological Corporation] with geriatric inpatients, the BDI-II was administered to 130 psychiatric inpatients who were 55 years old or above a...
Article
The present study sought to determine whether the 12-session pre- to posttest therapeutic gains that had been found by Deblinger, Lippmann. and Steer (1996) for an initial sample of 100 sexually abused children suffering posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms would be sustained 2 years after treatment. These sexually abused children, along w...
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are greatly appreciated. The author is also grateful to the authors of the assessment measures in this review who provided assistance.
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Objective: The present study sought to determine whether the 12-session pre- to posttest therapeutic gains that had been found by Deblinger, Lippmann. and Steer (1996) for an initial sample of 100 sexually abused children suffering posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms would be sustained 2 years after treatment. Method: These sexually ab...
Article
The MMPI-2, L, F, and K validity scales were administered to 21 (42%) suicide attempters and 29 (58%) ideators who had been hospitalized as being at risk for committing suicide. These inpatients were also asked to rate anonymously how much they had "exaggerated on purpose or lied about being suicidal to a staff member" during their current hospital...
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To ascertain the psychometric characteristics of the Beck Depression Inventory for Primary Care (BDI-PC) among adolescents (12-17 years old) scheduled for health maintenance examinations, and to determine the effectiveness of the BDI-PC in screening the adolescents for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, major dep...
Article
Physiological hyperarousal (PH) is an understudied component of the tripartite model of depression and anxiety. This study contributes to the literature on PH, the tripartite model, and anxiety and its disorders, using data from psychotherapy outpatients ( n = 2,448), air force cadets ( n = 1,335), and undergraduates ( n = 284). Psychometrics and e...