Robert A. Koeppe's research while affiliated with Concordia University–Ann Arbor and other places

Publications (560)

Article
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For optimal design of anti-amyloid-β (Aβ) and anti-tau clinical trials, we need to better understand the pathophysiological cascade of Aβ- and tau-related processes. Therefore, we set out to investigate how Aβ and soluble phosphorylated tau (p-tau) relate to the accumulation of tau aggregates assessed with PET and subsequent cognitive decline acros...
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Prior studies indicate more severe brainstem cholinergic deficits in Progressive Supranuclear Palsy (PSP) compared to Parkinson’s disease (PD), but the extent and topography of subcortical deficits remains poorly understood. The objective of this study is to investigate differential cholinergic systems changes in progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP...
Article
Background: Both Parkinson's disease (PD) and multiple system atrophy (MSA) exhibit degeneration of brainstem serotoninergic nuclei, affecting multiple subcortical and cortical serotoninergic projections. In MSA, medullary serotoninergic neuron pathology is well documented, but serotonin system changes throughout the rest of the brain are less wel...
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The process of identifying suitable genome-wide association (GWA) studies and formatting the data to calculate multiple polygenic risk scores on a single genome can be laborious. Here, we present a centralized polygenic risk score calculator currently containing over 250,000 genetic variant associations from the NHGRI-EBI GWAS Catalog for users to...
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Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a progressive disorder associated with cognitive dysfunction that alters the brain’s functional connectivity. Assessing these alterations has become a topic of increasing interest. However, a few studies have examined different stages of AD from a complex network perspective that cover different topological scales. This...
Article
Importance: Preventive trials of anti-amyloid agents might preferably recruit persons showing earliest biologically relevant β-amyloid (Aβ) binding on positron emission tomography (PET). Objective: To investigate the timing at which Aβ-PET binding starts showing associations with other markers of Alzheimer disease. Design, setting, and particip...
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To examine regional cerebral vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT) ligand [¹⁸F]fluoroethoxybenzovesamicol ([¹⁸F]-FEOBV) PET binding in Parkinson’ disease (PD) patients with and without vestibular sensory conflict deficits (VSCD). To examine associations between VSCD-associated cholinergic brain deficits and postural instability and gait diffi...
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Changes in the levels of circulating proteins are associated with Alzheimer’s disease (AD), whereas their pathogenic roles in AD are unclear. Here, we identified soluble ST2 (sST2), a decoy receptor of interleukin-33–ST2 signaling, as a new disease-causing factor in AD. Increased circulating sST2 level is associated with more severe pathological ch...
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Exploring individual hallmarks of brain ageing is important. Here, we propose the age-related glucose metabolism pattern (ARGMP) as a potential index to characterize brain ageing in cognitively normal (CN) elderly people. We collected 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) PET brain images from two independent cohorts: the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimagin...
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The concept of age acceleration, the difference between biological age and chronological age, is of growing interest, particularly with respect to age-related disorders, such as Alzheimer’s Disease (AD). Whilst studies have reported associations with AD risk and related phenotypes, there remains a lack of consensus on these associations. Here we ai...
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Importance: Characterization of early tau deposition in individuals with preclinical Alzheimer disease (AD) is critical for prevention trials that aim to select individuals at risk for AD and halt the progression of disease. Objective: To evaluate the prevalence of cortical tau positron emission tomography (PET) heterogeneity in a large cohort o...
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Background Therapeutic modulation of TREM2-dependent microglial function might provide an additional strategy to slow the progression of Alzheimer's disease. Although studies in animal models suggest that TREM2 is protective against Alzheimer's pathology, its effect on tau pathology and its potential beneficial role in people with Alzheimer's disea...
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Introduction: Relying on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for quantification of positron emission tomography (PET) images may limit generalizability of the results. We evaluated several MRI-free approaches for amyloid beta (Aβ) and tau PET quantification relative to MRI-dependent quantification cross-sectionally and longitudinally. Methods: We c...
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Introduction: As the number of biomarkers used to study Alzheimer's disease (AD) continues to increase, it is important to understand the utility of any given biomarker, as well as what additional information a biomarker provides when compared to others. Methods: We used hierarchical clustering to group 19 cross-sectional biomarkers in autosomal...
Preprint
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The Dominantly Inherited Alzheimer Network (DIAN) Observational Study is an international collaboration studying autosomal dominant Alzheimer disease (ADAD). This rare form of Alzheimer disease (AD) is caused by mutations in the presenilin 1 (PSEN1), presenilin 2 (PSEN2), or amyloid precursor protein (APP) genes. As individuals from these families...
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Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is defined by amyloid (A) and tau (T) pathologies, with T better correlated to neurodegeneration (N). However, T and N have complex regional relationships in part related to non-AD factors that influence N. With machine learning, we assessed heterogeneity in 18F-flortaucipir vs. 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomo...
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The [18F]fluoroethoxybenzovesamicol ([18F]FEOBV) positron emission tomography (PET) ligand targets the vesicular acetylcholine transporter. Recent [18F]FEOBV PET rodent studies suggest that regional brain [18F]FEOBV binding may be modulated by dopamine D2-like receptor agents. We examined associations of regional brain [18F]FEOBV PET binding in Par...
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Importance: Allelic variation in the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Val66Met polymorphism moderates increases in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of tau and phosphorylated tau 181 (p-tau181), measured using immunoassay, and cognitive decline in presymptomatic dominantly inherited Alzheimer disease (DIAD). Advances in mass spectrometry sh...
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Acetylcholine plays a major role in brain cognitive and motor functions with regional cholinergic terminal loss common in several neurodegenerative disorders. We describe age-related declines of regional cholinergic neuron terminal density in vivo using the positron emission tomography (PET) ligand [¹⁸F](–)5-Fluoroethoxybenzovesamicol ([¹⁸F]FEOBV),...
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Purpose4-18F-Fluoro-m-hydroxyphenethylguanidine (18F-4F-MHPG) and 3-18F-fluoro-p-hydroxyphenethylguanidine (18F-3F-PHPG) were developed for quantifying regional cardiac sympathetic nerve density using tracer kinetic analysis. The aim of this study was to evaluate their performance in cardiomyopathy patients.Methods Eight cardiomyopathy patients wer...
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Heterogeneity of brain diseases is a challenge for precision diagnosis/prognosis. We describe and validate Smile-GAN (SeMI-supervised cLustEring-Generative Adversarial Network), a semi-supervised deep-clustering method, which examines neuroanatomical heterogeneity contrasted against normal brain structure, to identify disease subtypes through neuro...
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Resting state functional connectivity (rs-fMRI) is impaired early in persons who subsequently develop Alzheimer’s disease (AD) dementia. This impairment may be leveraged to aid investigation of the pre-clinical phase of AD. We developed a model that predicts brain age from resting state (rs)-fMRI data, and assessed whether genetic determinants of A...
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The Imaging Dementia‐Evidence for Amyloid Scanning (IDEAS) Study collected over 15,000 community‐acquired amyloid‐PET scans, without structural MRI and with different acquisition times, tracers and scanners. Here we describe and validate rPOP (robust PET‐Only Processing), a pipeline for 18F‐Florbetapir (FBP), 18F‐Florbetaben (FBB) and 18F‐Flutemeta...
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The reference standard for amyloid-PET quantification requires structural MRI (sMRI) for preprocessing in both multi-site research studies and clinical trials. Here we describe rPOP (robust PET-Only Processing), a MATLAB-based MRI-free pipeline implementing non-linear warping and differential smoothing of amyloid-PET scans performed with any of the...
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Klotho-VS heterozygosity (KL-VS het ) is associated with reduced risk of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). However, whether KL-VS het is associated with lower levels of pathologic tau, i.e., the key AD pathology driving neurodegeneration and cognitive decline, is unknown. Here, we assessed the interaction between KL-VS het and levels of beta-amyloid, a key...
Poster
The overarching goal of the Longitudinal Early‐onset Alzheimer Disease study (LEADS) is to optimally characterize early‐onset AD (EOAD) and establish an EOAD clinical trials network. Here we report the baseline demographic and imaging biomarker comparisons of the LEADS cohort to late‐onset AD (LOAD) subjects from the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimagin...
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The U.S. Study to Protect Brain Health Through Lifestyle Intervention to Reduce Risk (U.S. POINTER) is a 2‐year randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effect of lifestyle interventions in older adults (60‐79 years) who are cognitively unimpaired but at increased risk for cognitive decline/dementia due to factors such as cardiovascular disease...
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Plasma phosphorylated-tau181 (p-tau181) showed the potential for Alzheimer’s diagnosis and prognosis, but its role in detecting cerebral pathologies is unclear. We aimed to evaluate whether it could serve as a marker for Alzheimer’s pathology in the brain. A total of 1189 participants with plasma p-tau181 and PET data of amyloid, tau or FDG PET wer...
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Pittsburgh compound B (PiB) radiotracer for positron emission tomography (PET) imaging can bind to different types of amyloid-β plaques and blood vessels (cerebral amyloid angiopathy). However, the relative contributions of different plaque subtypes (diffuse versus cored/compact) to in vivo PiB PET signal on a region-by-region basis are incompletel...
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A biological research framework to define Alzheimer’ disease with dichotomized biomarker measurement was proposed by National Institute on Aging–Alzheimer’s Association (NIA–AA). However, it cannot characterize the hierarchy spreading pattern of tau pathology. To reflect in vivo tau progression using biomarker, we constructed a refined topographic...
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Brain atrophy occurs in aging even in the absence of dementia, but it is unclear to what extent this is due to undetected preclinical Alzheimer disease. Here we examine a cross-sectional cohort (ages 18-88) free from confounding influence of preclinical Alzheimer disease, as determined by amyloid PET scans and three years of clinical evaluation pos...
Preprint
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Background and Objectives Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD) are difficult to reliably differentiate clinically. While their distinct pathologies may be captured by existing diagnostic modalities, these are expensive, time-consuming, and often inaccessible. Dementias are associated with visual dysfunctions, perhaps due to ch...
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Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a complex and heterogeneous disease that can be affected by various genetic factors. Although the cause of AD is not yet known and there is no treatment to cure this disease, its progression can be delayed. AD has recently been recognized as a brain-specific type of diabetes called type 3 diabetes. Several studies have s...
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Patients with early-onset Alzheimer's disease (EOAD) are commonly excluded from large-scale observational and therapeutic studies due to their young age, atypical presentation, or absence of pathogenic mutations. The goals of the Longitudinal EOAD Study (LEADS) are to (1) define the clinical, imaging, and fluid biomarker characteristics of EOAD; (2...
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Objective Attentional deficits following degeneration of brain cholinergic systems contribute to gait‐balance deficits in Parkinson disease (PD). As a step towards assessing if α4β2* nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) stimulation improves gait‐balance function, we assessed target engagement of the α4β2* nAChR partial agonist varenicline. Met...
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Background Inconsistent positivity thresholds, image analysis pipelines, and quantitative outcomes are key challenges of multisite studies using more than one β-amyloid (Aβ) radiotracer in positron emission tomography (PET). Variability related to these factors contributes to disagreement and lack of replicability in research and clinical trials. T...
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Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is characterized by the spread of tau pathology throughout the cerebral cortex. This spreading pattern was thought to be fairly consistent across individuals, although recent work has demonstrated substantial variability in the population with AD. Using tau-positron emission tomography scans from 1,612 individuals, we ident...
Preprint
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Purpose. The PET radiotracers 4-¹⁸F-fluoro-m-hydroxyphenethylguanidine (¹⁸F-4F-MHPG) and 3-¹⁸F-fluoro-p-hydroxyphenethylguanidine (¹⁸F-3F-PHPG) were developed for quantifying regional cardiac sympathetic nerve density using tracer kinetic analysis methods. The aim of this study was to evaluate their performance in cardiomyopathy patients. Methods:...
Article
Since the earliest days of nuclear medicine, there has been interest in using PET and SPECT imaging to interrogate and quantify the cholinergic system. In this Viewpoint we highlight key milestones in the development of cholinergic imaging agents, including identification of radiopharmaceuticals targeting the receptors, transporters, and enzymes of...
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Clinical effects of anti-cholinergic drugs implicate cholinergic systems alterations in the pathophysiology of some cardinal motor impairments in Parkinson’s disease. The topography of affected cholinergic systems deficits and motor domain specificity are poorly understood. Parkinson's disease patients (n = 108) underwent clinical and motor assessm...
Article
Introduction: Machine learning models were used to discover novel disease trajectories for autosomal dominant Alzheimer's disease. Methods: Longitudinal structural magnetic resonance imaging, amyloid positron emission tomography (PET), and fluorodeoxyglucose PET were acquired in 131 mutation carriers and 74 non-carriers from the Dominantly Inher...
Article
Solanezumab is a monoclonal antibody targeting soluble forms of β‐amyloid protein important in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Three previous 18‐month double‐blind placebo‐controlled trials of low‐dose solanezumab in late‐onset sporadic AD found inconsistent benefits on cognitive and functional assessments. Dominantly‐inherited mutati...
Poster
White matter (WM) hypointensity volume in T1 MRI correlates strongly with T2 hyperintensities and both are typically associated with advancing age and vascular brain injury (VBI). Recent research has suggested that Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) neuropathologic changes (ADNC) also increases WM hypointensity volume. Sporadic early onset AD (EOAD) patients...
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Gantenerumab is a humanized anti‐amyloid‐beta monoclonal antibody in clinical development for the treatment of several stages of Alzheimer disease (AD). Gantenerumab was evaluated in a phase 2/3 clinical trial program designed to evaluate its efficacy in autosomal dominant AD based on a combination of clinical and biomarker evidence. The study enro...
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Alzheimer’s disease (AD) prevention trials aim to intervene prior to significant neuronal loss, brain damage, and symptom onset to delay or slow cognitive decline. In dominantly inherited AD (DIAD), mutation carriers develop symptomatic AD at predictable ages with near 100% penetrance. In 2012, the Dominantly Inherited Alzheimer Network Trials Unit...
Poster
Previous studies have reported that age modifies the distribution and burden of tau (and, to a lesser extent, amyloid) pathology in sporadic Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Here we present preliminary baseline amyloid and tau PET results from the Longitudinal Early‐Onset Alzheimer’s Disease Study (LEADS), a multi‐site longitudinal study of sporadic early...
Poster
Previous research has suggested that, compared to males, females are at greater risk for and have greater pathology burden in late onset. However, sex differences in early onset AD (EOAD) have not yet been studied. We included 167 participants [28 cognitively normal (CN, 68% females), 98 early onset AD (EOAD, 55% females), and 41 cognitively impair...
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In Alzheimer’s diseases (AD), tau pathology is strongly associated with cognitive decline. Preclinical evidence suggests that tau spreads across connected neurons in an activity-dependent manner. Supporting this, cross-sectional AD studies show that tau deposition patterns resemble functional brain networks. However, whether higher functional conne...
Poster
Approximately 5% of the 5.6 million (∼280,000) Americans with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) develop symptoms at age 65 or younger and are classified as having early‐onset AD (EOAD). Although EOAD and late‐onset AD (LOAD) share the same pathologic substrate, there are notable differences in their clinical and biological phenotypes. The Longitudinal Early...
Article
Recent studies suggest that lifestyle changes (physical exercise, Mediterranean diet adherence, cognitive stimulation, vascular risk management) may protect against cognitive decline and reduce AD pathophysiology. The U.S. Study to Protect Brain Health Through Lifestyle Intervention to Reduce Risk (U.S. POINTER) is a 2‐year randomized controlled tr...
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Background In the US, EU and elsewhere, basic clinical research studies with positron emission tomography (PET) radiotracers that are generally recognized as safe and effective (GRASE) can often be conducted under institutional approval. For example, in the United States, such research is conducted under the oversight of a Radioactive Drug Research...
Preprint
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Objective Attentional function deficits secondary to degeneration of brain cholinergic systems are significant contributors to gait-balance deficits in Parkinson disease (PD). To assess whether α4β2 * nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) stimulation improves attention and gait-balance function, we performed a target engagement study of the α4β2...
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The implication of the receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE) in numerous diseases and neurodegenerative disorders makes it interesting both as a therapeutic target and as an inflammatory biomarker. In the context of investigating RAGE as a biomarker, there is interest in developing radiotracers that will enable quantification of RAGE...
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Background To evaluate the role of cortical amyloid deposition as a factor contributing to memory dysfunction and increased risk of dementia associated with late life depression (LLD). Methods 119 older adult participants with current diagnosis of Major Depression (LLD) from the ADNI Depression study and 119 non-depressed (ND) cognitively unimpair...
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An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.
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Objectives: The authors investigated the topography of cholinergic vulnerability in patients with dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) using positron emission tomography (PET) imaging with the vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT) [18F]-fluoroethoxybenzovesamicol ([18F]-FEOBV) radioligand. Methods: Five elderly participants with DLB (mean age,...
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Neurofilament light chain (NfL) is a protein that is selectively expressed in neurons. Increased levels of NfL measured in either cerebrospinal fluid or blood is thought to be a biomarker of neuronal damage in neurodegenerative diseases. However, there have been limited investigations relating NfL to the concurrent measures of white matter (WM) dec...
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Naloxone (NLX) is a mu receptor antagonist used to treat acute opioid overdoses. Currently approved doses of naloxone to treat opioid overdoses are 4 mg intranasal (IN) and 2 mg intramuscular (IM). However, higher mu receptor occupancy (RO) may be required to treat overdoses due to more potent synthetic opioids such as fentanyl and carfentanil that...