Riia Luhtanen's research while affiliated with University of Michigan and other places

Publications (17)

Article
The relationship between contingencies of self-worth and vulnerability to depressive symptoms was investigated in a longitudinal sample of 629 freshmen over the first semester of college. Higher levels of external contingencies of self-worth, in a composite measure of four external contingencies of self-worth (approval from others, appearance, comp...
Article
The unique effects of level of self-esteem, narcissism, and contingencies of self-worth assessed prior to college on alcohol use during the freshman year were examined in a longitudinal study of 620 college students. Narcissism predicted alcohol use, but level of self-esteem did not. Basing self-worth on appearance predicted more alcohol use, where...
Book
Over a century ago, William James (1890) proposed that the impact of success and failure on self-esteem depends on the domains in which self-esteem is invested. In this chapter, we review a relatively new programme of research that aims to (a) develop and validate a measure of this construct, (b) develop the implications of James's idea for psychol...
Chapter
(from the chapter) Over a century ago, William James (1890) proposed that the impact of success and failure on self-esteem depends on the domains in which self-esteem is invested. In this chapter, we review a relatively new programme of research that aims to (a) develop and validate a measure of this construct, (b) develop the implications of James...
Article
Full-text available
The Contingencies of Self-Worth Scale assesses 7 sources of self-esteem in college students: academics, appearance, approval from others, competition, family support, God's love, and virtue. In confirmatory factor analyses on data from 1,418 college students, a 7-factor model fit to the data acceptably well and significantly better than several pla...
Article
Full-text available
The unique effects of level of self-esteem and contingencies of self-worth assessed prior to college on academic, social, and financial problems experienced during the freshman year were examined in a longitudinal study of 642 college students. Low self-esteem predicted social problems, even controlling for demographic and personality variables (ne...
Article
SUMMARY This study investigated and compared predictors of well-being in lesbians/bisexual women and gay/bisexual men. Well-being was assessed using measures of self-esteem, life satisfaction, and depression. Predictor variables included involvement in lesbian/gay/bisexual (LGB) culture, rejection of negative stereotypes of LGBs, positivity of gay/...
Article
Notes that W. James argued that self-esteem fluctuates around a typical level in response to successes and failures in domains on which self-worth is staked. In a test of James's hypothesis, 32 students applying to graduate school completed a measure of contingencies of self-worth, and then for 2 mo reported global self-esteem twice a week and any...
Article
Full-text available
Black Americans are far more likely than White Americans to endorse theories about conspiracies by the U.S. government against Blacks. The present study explored the predictors of these conspiracy beliefs for 91 Black and 96 White college students. Two explanations for belief in these conspiracies were considered, one focusing on political powerles...
Article
Investigated the effect of receiving assumptive help (unsolicited help provided without any evidence indicating personal need on the part of the recipient) from a White same-sex student on the self-esteem and affect of 20 Black and 27 White undergraduates. Ss received help in an intelligence task, a domain in which negative stereotypes and stigma e...
Article
Administered a collective self-esteem scale (CSES) and measures of psychological well-being (personal self-esteem, life satisfaction, depression, and hopelessness) to 91 Black, 96 White, and 35 Asian college students. Correlations between the Public and Private subscales of the CSES were near zero for Blacks, moderate for Whites, and strong for Asi...
Chapter
(from the chapter) evaluate the role of self-esteem as a predictor of prejudice and intergroup relations, with a focus on three issues / discuss the role of personal versus collective (or social) self-esteem in prejudice and intergroup relations / on the basis of recent developments in research and theory on personal self-esteem, [the authors] reco...
Article
Full-text available
Social identity theory as developed by Tajfel and Turner argues that there are two distinct aspects of the self-concept: personal identity and social identity (in American terminology, collective identity). Although many self-esteem measures are available in the literature, they allfocus on individuals'evaluation of their personal identity, whether...
Article
Used response latencies to record differences in evaluative self-judgments that result from social experiences. Immediately after receiving either positive, negative, or no evaluative feedback, 59 undergraduates completed a task on a microcomputer that recorded the latencies of their responses to various prime/adjective pairings. The primes were de...
Article
In addition to personal self-esteem, we propose that there is a second type of self-esteem, collective self-esteem. People who are high in trait collective self-esteem should be more likely to react to threats to collective self-esteem by derogating outgroups and enhancing the ingroup. In a study using the minimal intergroup paradigm, trait persona...
Chapter
(from the book) note that ingroup bias and favoritism can be observed even in the absence of competition or conflict over resources / describe a model of intergroup relations suggesting that biased ingroup comparisons are the result of social comparison motives, based on individual needs for self-enhancement / consider whether self-esteem influence...

Citations

... Social norms, framing, default, priming and feeling of loss are the nudge concepts that this study uses. Nolan et al. (2008) found that understanding "social norms" was an effective way to change behavior in the energy sector. Social norms from a behavioral science perspective refer to the tendency of people to follow others (Sunstein, 2003). ...
... First, the results indicate that the mindfulness aspect of self-compassion was predictive of an LGBTQ+ individual's sense of positive identity. This bolsters previous research indicating that there is a positive and significant association between both identity affirmation and positive mental health outcomes (Luhtanen, 2003;Rosario et al., 2011) for LGBTQ+ individuals, particularly if they are cultivating awareness of their own experiences. Two key elements of meaning-in-life, the presence of and search for meaning, were associated with positive identity development for our sample. ...
... Gender identification was measured with four items from a scale by Schmader (2002), which is an adapted version of a scale by Luhtanen and Crocker (1992). Items (e.g., "Being a male/ female is important for the perception I have of myself.") ...
... They also reinforce psychological barriers to positive intergroup reactions and reconciliation that may increase during crises such as the COVID-19 pandemic (Baumeister et al., 2001;Rozin & Royzman, 2001). Indeed, in postconflict societies, people have more negative perceptions of help provided by former enemies than by other groups, because the enemy's offer of help triggers them to perceive negative outgroup intentions-for example, to dominate or control them-and thus experience more negative emotions (Halabi et al., 2011;Nadler, 1998;Schneider et al., 1996). ...
... The test-retest reliability of the subscales was reported after 3 months to be between 0.68 and 0.92. Sargent et al. (2006) reported Cronbach's alpha of the seven subscales to be between 0.78 and 0.94. The test-retest reliability of the subscales was obtained between 0.78 and 0.94 after 4 months. ...
... In-group Pride, sometimes referred to as private self-regard, is a respondent's level of pride in their racial identity (Luhtanen and Crocker 1991). Based on SIT's assumption that people tend to evaluate the in-group positively to enhance their self-esteem (Tajfel 1978;Tajfel and Turner 1986), we assume being proud of one's race or nationality means that one's self-esteem is enhanced by positive in-group evaluations. ...
... In the school context, students' self-esteem and affect increase or decrease as a function of their success or failure in academic performance, and this relationship is particularly strong for those who base their self-esteem on being good at school (Crocker & Park, 2003;Crocker, Sommers, & Luhtanen, 2002). When positively evaluated, students' self-esteem increases, and they feel good. ...
... Moreover, the relationship between conflicts and conspiracy beliefs can be inferred based on previous evidence showcasing a relationship between constructs closely associated with intergroup conflict on the one hand, and support for or acceptance of conspiracy theories, on the other hand. For example, acceptance or support for conspiracy theories was found to be related to prejudice (Imhoff & Bruder, 2014), intergroup aggression , social exclusion (Poon et al., 2020), oppression and relative deprivation (Crocker et al., 1999), corruption (Alper, 2021;Alper et al., 2021;Alper & Imhoff, 2022), and inequality Salvador Casara et al., 2022). However, it should be noted that although these constructs are all related to violent conflicts, they do not fully capture the overall intensity of conflicts. ...
... If this is the case, we should expect a meaningful pattern of associations among life domains and life aspirations. In the current study, we demonstrate that the aspirations described by SDT share a link with the domains of contingent self-worth (CSW) proposed by Crocker and colleagues (Crocker, Luhtanen, Cooper, & Bouvrette, 2003;Crocker, Luhtanen, & Sommers, 2004;Luhtanen & Crocker, 2005). ...
... Individuals often express negative attitudes toward outgroup members to achieve and maintain their positive self-image (Crocker et al., 1993;Fein & Spencer, 1997). This research tends to focus on self-esteem, a positive self-concept as good and competent (James, 1890;Rosenberg, 1965), and tests its relation to intergroup attitudes. ...