Richard W. Woodman's research while affiliated with Texas A&M University and other places

Publications (56)

Article
Evidence in the literature suggests that employees can engage in other types of creative behavior at work beyond producing something new and useful for their organization. This paper seeks to advance our understanding of these “atypical” creative behaviors. We conceptualize a typology that encompasses both the commonly studied form of employee crea...
Article
Public entrepreneurship is much like its private sector counterpart; however, public entrepreneurs face additional challenges due to weaker competitive forces in the public than in the private sector with objectives that are often poorly defined and performance that is difficult to measure. Despite the impact on public good, how to successfully ena...
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The design of an implemented, innovative management course for French Master’s of Science students revolves around a field assignment in which they must visit and study an unfamiliar organization, diagnose what is going on, and apply their critical thinking to the situation to identify its causes, consequences, and implications for management actio...
Article
The link between HRD and Lean strategy is not well explored in the existing literature and lacks empirical depth regarding how the two conceptual domains are connected. Specifically, we focus on the role of HRD in organizations undergoing Lean strategy implementation. We adopt a qualitative multicase study approach and identify ways in which organi...
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This research examines the link between intrinsic motivation and creativity using inductive theory building to explore the intrinsic motivation of creative people. Data were gathered at six case study sites in France using semidirective interviews to explore how creative people experience their creativity and motivation in various contexts. Data an...
Chapter
Organization development (OD) is an applied behavioral science focused on understanding and managing organizational change. The field is informed by an interdisciplinary set of theoretical perspectives and research traditions. OD is characterized by a dual emphasis on both increasing organizational effectiveness and improving the work experience of...
Chapter
Organization development and change (also called OD) is a field of applied behavioral science focused on understanding and managing organizational change. OD techniques and approaches provide the HRM professional important tools to contribute to organizational effectiveness.
Chapter
The field is interested in valid evaluation of organizational change programs for both theoretical and practical reasons. Evaluation of organizational change will be most valuable when several important criteria are met.
Article
As a field of applied behavioral science, organizational change and development has characteristics of both science and art. I will explore four areas where the science of organizational change and the art of changing organizations are often in tension creating paradoxes that must be resolved or at least “held,” misunderstandings, occasional dysfun...
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We describe the new dialogic organization development (OD) fleshed outby Bushe & Marshak (2009). In comparing this approach with the old diagnostic OD, we explore the limitations of Lewin's (1947) unfreeze-change-freeze model for depicting organizational change over time. We develop an approach that more fully approximates an adequate temporal mode...
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In Charles Dickens' book A Christmas Carol, Scrooge was visited by three Spirits, of the past, present, and future, who, by means of dire warnings, inspired him to reform his life. In this chapter, we describe four Spirits of organization development (OD) who, despite dire predictions of OD's demise over the past 30 years, suggest why OD still live...
Article
Why do employees engage in innovative behavior at their workplaces? We examine how employees' innovative behavior is explained by expectations for such behavior to affect job performance (expected positive performance outcomes) and image inside their organizations (expected image risks and expected image gains). We found significant effects of all...
Article
Commentary: change processes and action implications It ought to be remembered that there is nothing more difficult to take in hand, more perilous to conduct, or more uncertain in its success, than to take the lead in the introduction of a new order of things, because the innovator has for enemies all those who have done well under the old conditio...
Article
Much of the literature in organizational change has taken a single approach to explain employee expectation formation regarding the outcomes of a change event. A conceptual model is developed to integrate two existing streams of research (the information effects approach and the social effects approach) and to develop a comprehensive picture of out...
Article
We propose a conceptual framework to examine the phenomenon of "work the system", which refers to the creative attempts of employees to utilize existing organization rules, regulations, and procedures to their own advantage. Neither rule conformity nor rule breaking, "work the system" is a clever maneuver within the system. Such behavior has signif...
Article
In this chapter, we propose a shared schema approach to model a change of organizational culture. The connection between shared schemas and organizational culture is first examined, and the development of shared schemas is then explored. Building on previous work utilizing a cognitive approach to organizational culture, we suggest that organization...
Article
This article presents several studies that examine organizational change. The authors note that certain issues should be addressed when examining the studies including an examination of the multiple contexts and levels of analysis in studying organizational change, the inclusion of time, history, process and action, the link between change processe...
Article
Compares the results of surveys of organizational development (OD) practices among major firms in the United States and Hong Kong. Despite obvious cultural differences between the two countries, OD practices were more similar than different. Discusses implications for OD research in international settings and global OD practices.
Article
In this article we develop a theoretical framework for understanding creativity in complex social settings. We define organizational creativity as the creation of a valuable, useful new product, service, idea, procedure, or process by individuals working together in a complex social system. The starting point for our theoretical development is prov...
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Full-text available
A theoretical framework for understanding creativity in a complex social setting, such as an organization, is developed. Organizational creativity is defined as the creation of a valuable, useful new product, service, idea, procedure, or process by individuals working together in a complex social system. The starting point for the theoretical devel...
Article
The 500 largest industrial firms in the United States were surveyed with regard to their internal organization development (OD) activities. Usable data were obtained from 110 of these organizations, including 61 of the largest 200 firms. Survey results are presented and implications of these results are discussed.
Article
Proposes an interactionist model of creative behavior that incorporates elements of personality, cognitive, and social psychology explanations of creativity. In the model, creative behavior is viewed as a complex person–situation interaction. Antecedent conditions exist as a precursor to the current state of the person and their interaction. Antece...
Article
The extent to which the Pygmalion effect occurs in a work organization was investigated. In this study, which took place over a 3-month period in a retail setting, the relationship between a supervisor's expectations of a subordinate and the resulting performance of the subordinate was investigated. Ss included newly hired sales associates and thei...
Article
The purpose of this review is to identify and explore new arenas of inquiry and action in the organizational change and development field. Recent developments are examined in seven categories: (a) refinement of change theories, (b) developments in research methodologies, (c) a new emphasis on strategic issues including strategic leadership and orga...
Article
many disciplines in the behavioral and social sciences have provided perspectives that may be, in some measure, useful [in understanding creativity] / several of these perspectives will be briefly reviewed here, pursuant to positing an interactionist model of creative behavior that attempts to combine elements of the personality, cognitive, and soc...
Chapter
Creativity seems to be one of those concepts understood by everyone in the world except behavioral scientists. Although some segments of the public might hypothesize other reasons for this state of affairs, we believe the reason for this seeming paradox is as simple as the difference between the terms concept and construct. As a concept used by lay...
Article
The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of two per-ceived organizational indicants-psychological climate and percep-tions of the management control system-on the often-studied rela-tionships of role conflict and ambiguity with job satisfaction and intentions to change jobs. Based on a cross-sectional survey of 423 marketing professional...
Article
Reviews the key pragmatic assumptions behind the inclusion of multidisciplinary teams (MDTs) within Public Law 92-142 (the Education for All Handicapped Children Act), which required school districts to revamp a wide variety of special educational activities in order to maintain their federal funding. It is argued that although the concept of MDT d...
Article
Pre and post transfer data were collected from Air Force NCO's. Post move adjustment to the new job and community was predicted by pre-move attitudes, adjustment and satisfaction with previous moves, number of dependents, unmet expectations, perceived job advancement, and amount of information about the new location.
Article
Organizations continuously bring in new recruits or employees and move employees to new positions, units, and/or locations. With these transitions comes the need for the individual to learn and adapt to the new role requirements. The organization must provide means for communicating and reinforcing the role requirements and, within limits, adapting...
Article
The authors respond to W. Shadish (see record 1984-21964-001) concerning their (see record 1984-21961-001) discussion of collateral organization theory. It is argued that Shadish fails to address much of the central theme of the authors' article, which is that collateral organizational forms, through the creation of complex role sets, may provide...
Article
A collateral organization is designed to co-exist parallel with the formal organization on a relatively permanent basis. Proponents contend that collateral organizations prove especially valuable in supplementing the formal organization because they provide (1) a means for identifying, analyzing, and mastering ill-structured problems and (2) an are...
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This report describes a study of transfer socialization processes in a sample of 91 U.S. Marines transferred from Camp Pendleton, California to Camp Hansen, Okinawa in November, 1981. Using data collected both at Camp Pendleton and Camp Hansen, an attempt was made to develop a predictive model of transfer adjustment. Data concerning four major indi...
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This research program, deals with the processes by which individuals are successfully (or unsuccessfully) socialized during their transition across various organizational boundaries. The transitions of particular interest are entry into the organization and transfer to a new position, unit, and/or location. These transitions are endemic to formal o...
Article
Multidisciplinary teams (MDTs) are necessary for educational decision making concerning handicapped children. Research on group decision making and team effectiveness in various organizational settings suggests that teams can be useful under certain conditions and that team development and maintenance are important factors to consider when employin...
Article
This paper presents data relating to expectations concerning Okinawa that marines develop and the effect of expectations upon several job-relevant attitudes and behaviors. In the present study, we were interested in the relationship between expectations and adjustment in transfers rather than initial organizational entry. We examined the role of ex...
Article
This paper reports an exploratory effort to understand more fully the transfer socialization processes experienced by a selected group of Marine Corps personnel. Major issues addressed are (1) expectations held prior to a military transition to a new duty assignment and subsequent accuracy of these expectations, (2) work stressors experienced durin...
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In this study of employees in five multinational corporations, assessment was made of (a) employees' beliefs regarding the types of personal information stored their companies, (b) the accuracy of those perceptions, (c) reactions to various internal and external uses of this personal information, and (d) evaluations of the companies' information ha...
Article
The public affairs/government relations (PA/GR) function appears to be growing in importance in large corporations. A survey of the 500 largest U.S. industrial concerns was undertaken to ascertain their views and practices with regard to the PA/GR function. 130 of the 163 firms responding to the survey have a formalized PA/GR function in place. Sur...
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Examined the effect of 4 independent variables—type of information disclosed (personality or performance), permission granted or not granted by the employee for the disclosure, unfavorable or favorable consequences of the disclosure, and internal vs external recipients of the information—on perceived invasion of privacy. 2,047 employees in 5 corpor...
Article
Describes the technology of team development, as distinguished from T-group or sensitivity training. Although there is general support in empirical literature for the finding that team building elicits positive affective responses from participants, the linkage between team building and improved work group performance remains largely unsubstantiate...
Article
A team development intervention was conducted with 22 three- and four-person work groups from an engineering survey course. For comparison purposes, 22 work groups from the surveying course served as controls and an additional 23 groups were observed to measure any possible Hawthorne effect. Random assignment of subjects to groups and groups to con...
Article
A study examining the perceptions and attitudes of 2,047 employees of five multinational corporations concerning their company's collection, storage, and use of personal information is described. Results of the study are viewed in the context of the current interest in information privacy in both the private and public sectors, with the aim of broa...
Article
The present study examines the degree to which the Growth Need Strength scales (Job Choice and Would Like formats) of the Job Diagnostic Survey (Hackman & Oldham, Journal of Applied Psychology, 1975, 60, 159–170) correlate with (a) other measures of needs and values employed in research as moderators of the job scope-job satisfaction relationship a...

Citations

... In contrast, extrinsic motivation is driven mainly through external control and rewards, or the avoidance of punishments. In this paper, our focus will be on intrinsic motivation, as it has been found that individuals who are internally motivated are associated with expressing interest, curiosity, enjoyment, and enhanced creativity (Auger & Woodman, 2016). ...
... This happens in high-tech industries companies where there are lower levels of structural rigidity or rules (Miller, 2014) and in creative professions such as high-tech sectors (Florida, 2010). The same happens in enterprises characterized by an innovative culture that is open to new ideas and changes (Lurie, 2019) and in cultural contexts where democracy and empowerment in the work setting is extended (Yuan and Woodman, 2021). In the same way, other studies in similar workplaces shows that «the Internet is a tool on which the workers are very dependent, but which at the same time makes them more broadminded, adaptable, and flexible, enabling them to react to changing situations» (Serrano-Martínez, 2016, p. 148). ...
... Other authors have emphasised public entrepreneurs as individuals bringing innovation in PSOs that have the same characteristics as private entrepreneurs but have additional challenges of focusing on an often-unclear mission and goals as opposed to profitability (Carnes et al., 2019;Klein et al., 2010). Likewise in PSOs individuals may function as change agents (e.g. ...
... For these reasons, despite the new emergent needs and the increasing dissatisfaction with the traditional educational methods, the Harvard-type model remained the mainstream approach. Rather than innovating the educational approach, most of the innovators focused on technological innovations, namely the implementation of massive e-learning and the use of new technologies in the classrooms, such as big data analyses, serious games, and business simulations [12]. While the effective use of technology in classroom is appreciable, particularly from a democratization and sustainability perspective, there is the need for "transforming students in active knowledge seekers and experiential learners driven by motivation and values", which requires, from them, a high level of engagement and a lot more effort [13]. ...
... Instead, the emphasis has often been placed on the actions taken or the change in behaviors and culture observed. While some research on the evaluation of various individual OD methods has certainly been done (e.g., Basu & Das, 2000;Terpstra, 1981;Woodman & Wayne, 1985), and there is a plethora of qualitative and quantitative case studies both individually and in OD texts citing the impact of various programs, relatively few authors have taken a more focused view of how to systematically measure our efforts. Moreover, many of these have come from authors with crossdisciplinary backgrounds (e.g., Armenakis, Bedeian, & Pond, 1983;Edwards, Scott, & Raju, 2003;Martineau & Preskill, 2002; ...
... Literature review shows, and experts interviews confirm (questionnaire and experts' answers summary are shown in Table 4), that there is no worthier a concept as organizational purpose in order to understand and promote the senior manager's role in corporate culture management [31]. ...
... In our analysis, we distinguish three distinct episodes at Commerzbank, referring to periods of relative stability that are separated by "episodic changes". Such episodic changes are infrequent, discontinuous, and intentional changes to the overall organisation, which simultaneously impact a significant number of components (e.g., business processes, organisational structures, and information systems) in fundamental ways (Pettigrew et al., 2001;Weick & Quinn, 1999). While we acknowledge the importance of understanding the ongoing, evolving, and cumulative changes to the EAM control mechanism portfolios within the individual episodes in more detail, we deliberately focus our investigation on the adjustments that are made during episodic changes. ...
... This type of approach was also present after the Second World War, as in factorial theories of intelligence (Guilford, 1950). But at the end of the 20 th century, researchers multiplied the approaches with different types of "componential models" (Lubart, 1999): the "Three-Component Model" (Amabile, 1983), the "Investment Approach" (Sternberg & Lubart, 1991), the "Interactionist Approach" (Woodman & Schoenfeldt, 1990), the "Cognitive-Component Approach" (Mumford et al., 1991), and the "Systems Approach" (Feldmann, Csíkszentmihályi & Gardner, 1994). In the early eighties, creativity was studied considering the developments in social psychology. ...
... explanatory case studies were found only in 5% of the analyzed articles. Representative of explanatory case studies in our sample was a study by Alagaraja et al. (2017). The authors investigated four organizations involved in the implementation of Lean strategy and proposed a three-phase model with key subprocesses explaining how organizations develop HRD and Lean strategy linkages. ...
... Because it leads to new conditions, change is considered a source of uncertainty. According to Rogers (2003), the " reduction in uncertainty " is strongly linked to the knowledge workers receive regarding the expected consequences of a change program (Berwick 2003). Woodman and Tolchinsky (1985) have defined an expectation as an individual's subjective belief in the probability that a given state either already does exist or will exist in the future. Employees' expectations of change outcomes have long been considered an important condition for first increasing employee readiness for change (Yuan & Woodman 2007), and then commi ...