Richard W. Brislin's research while affiliated with University of Hawaiʻi at Hilo and other places

Publications (42)

Chapter
Although a variety of terms have been used to conceptualize and define power across various disciplines, the most traditional and prevailing conception views power in terms of a potential to influence others. In everyday language, power refers to getting one's own way, to having “clout.” Power permeates various aspects of human existence, such as f...
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The construct of cultural intelligence has recently been introduced to the management literature as an individual difference that may predict effectiveness and a variety of interpersonal behavior in the global business environment. This construct has enormous potential in helping to explain effectiveness in cross-cultural interactions. However, pro...
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Cultural intelligence (CQ) represents advancement in the area of international human resources management and cross-cultural training. An experiential approach to CQ training is developed and analyzed. A diverse, multicultural group of over 370 participated. General self-efficacy and contextual aspects related to Contact Theory were found to be sig...
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As Japan enters the new century, pending workforce shortages – a function of low birth rates and an aging population – increase the need to address gender issues in organizations. Throughout the past four decades, the number of female workers in Japan has been growing, although full-time female participation in the Japanese workforce remains below...
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The construct of cultural intelligence, recently introduced to the management literature, has enormous potential in helping to explain effectiveness in cross cultural interactions. However, at present, no generally accepted definition or operationalization of this nascent construct exists. In this article, we develop a conceptualization of cultural...
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The results of this study suggest that marketing strategies need to be adjusted to changing cultures. Culture affects marketing decisions regarding product, price, promotion and place (the 4 Ps). Many marketing studies have been reported based on Hofstede's seminal work on national culture (1980). Marketing managers need to be cautious about assumi...
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This article examines the relation of culture to the propensity for, and potential effectiveness of, both internal reporting and whistle-blowing as ethics management tools within a North American context. Samples from a total of 10 regions in the US, Canada and Mexico increased the accuracy and meaningfulness of the findings. Hofstede's cultural di...
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A great number of studies have been reported based on Hofstede’s seminal work on national culture (1980). Our findings for a very recent sample of people attending executive and MBA programs found no significant differences in Power Distance between the United States (U.S.), Mexico and Canada. Our results suggest that caution should be taken in aut...
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Cultural intelligence has various meanings that can be looked on as complementary. On one hand, it refers to behaviors that are considered intelligent from the point of view of people in specific cultures. Such behaviors can include quick application of previously learned information in some cultures, getting along with kin in other cultures, and s...
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Counselors, academic advisors and educators working in educational institutions must address the increasingly diverse mental health and academic needs of culturally diverse groups. In Hawai’i, Native Hawaiians are a cultural minority. To alleviate the negative effects of current culturally inappropriate counseling and teaching methods, university p...
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This research effort specifically examines perceptions of workplace motivation in Japan between employees and managers while highlighting results that are somewhat counterintuitive to the traditional western perception of Japanese ethnography. Specifically, we find some evidence for a potentially shifting movement toward a self-orientation with mor...
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The global economy and international business ventures have brought many occasions for the development of interpersonal relationships among people who were socialised into different cultures. People's use of time, according to Hall, is a "silent language" that affects their everyday behaviors. The authors identify ten concepts that summarise how cu...
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The purpose of this investigation was to develop a multidimensional, culture-specific acculturation measure, the Khmer acculturation scale (KAS), for use with Cambodians living in the United States. The KAS development was guided by Berry's [W. H. Holtzman, T. Z. Bornemann (Eds.), (1990) Mental health of immigrants and refugees, Hogg Foundation for...
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Intercultural interactions will increase in the future given international business ventures, immigration patterns, recognition of minority group rights in various countries, and other social changes. People can prepare themselves by participating in formal educational and training programs that deal with understanding cultural differences and with...
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Dans cet article, nous suivons l’e´volution des concepts qui font partie de la litte´rature de ces 50 dernie`res anne´es sur la formation trans-culturelle en passant en revue quelques e´tudes qui ont fait date. Apre`s avoir de´battu des recherches et pratiques au fil des de´cennies, nous poursuivons en identifiant les grands courrants de recherche...
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Cross-cultural training programs are formal efforts to prepare professionals to work in cultures other than their own or with individuals from different cultural backgrounds. The purpose of this study was to uncover the often tacit knowledge of those experienced trainers who conduct such programs. Ninety-four professionals with from 8 to 45 years e...
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Intercultural sensitivity is a concept that is frequently viewed as important in both theoretical analyses of people's adjustment to other cultures and in applied programs to prepare people to live and work effectively in cultures other than their own. Attempts to measure this concept have not always been successful, and one reason is that research...
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Characterizes individualism as the subordination of a group's goals to a person's own goals and collectivism as subordination of personal goals to the goals of collectives, such as the extended family or a work group. There are also individual differences within cultures that effect individualism–collectivism. Allocentric individuals will sacrifice...
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A set of training materials has been developed which can form the basis of various cross-cultural orientation programs. The materials can be used no matter what people's role in other countries (e.g., businessperson, foreign students, diplomats) or their country of assignment. Further, the materials can be used with people who have extensive intera...
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A culture assimilator, a programmed learning technique for teaching about another culture, was combined with behavioral contact to test for the joint effectiveness of the two approaches to acculturative training. A total of 45 White male college students were randomly assigned to five training conditions in a modified Solomon four-group design. Res...
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Cross-cultural psychologists have supplied information that can be integrated into regular psychology courses for undergraduates. References to this kind of information are provided, and methodological problems of cross-cultural research are discussed in terms of differing meanings of concepts, translation, and bias in the use of single research me...
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Cross-cultural studies have a large number of intellectual attractions which can provide great amounts of satisfaction for its practitioners. There is the possibility of shedding new light from cross-cultural research on topics which have a long and well-established tradition within the behavioural sciences (e.g., perception, Deregowski, 1980). The...
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Intercultural communication difficulties include language factors handled well by interpreters, but the problems also include factors such as non-verbal behavior, different bases for making attributions about others, and biases stemming from the ingroup-outgroup distinction. Interpreters could expand their role by incorporating these additional fac...
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Cross-cultural studies are necessary for the complete development of theories in environmental research since no one culture contains all environmental conditions that can affect human behavior. Likewise, no one country contains all possible types of man-made changes of the physical environment, nor all of the man-made adaptations to natural condit...
Chapter
At a meeting held recently in Japan, an American was discussing two alternative proposals with his colleagues, all of whom were native speakers of Japanese. The American was well schooled in the Japanese language and was, indeed, often called “fluent” by those around him. At this meeting, proposal A was contrasted to proposal B, and a consensus was...
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A recent development in cross-cultural research is that leaders in various cultures are saying “no” to requests made by behavioral and social scientists for permission to carry out research studies. One of the possible reasons for this refusal is that researchers have little knowledge about the range of opinions held by indigenous people (called “i...
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An ecological hypothesis related to the Ponzo illusion is that people who show a large susceptibility are misapplying cues that are valid in their natural environments with which they have everyday experience. Past cross-cultural research supporting this hypothesis has been based on two-dimensional stimuli. A better test of the hypothesis would be...
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Cross-cultural research can make contributions to theory development by identifying groups of people who seem not to behave according to established theories and by increasing the range of independent variables available for study in any one culture. A major methodological orientation to such studies, developed over the last 10 years, is the emic-e...
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The postulated ecological hypothesis used to explain the Ponzo illusion is that the converging lines indicate distance, and so there is an unconscious inference that "the top line must be longer since it is further away." Four hundred and twenty Ss, ranging in age from 3 to 22 years, from Guam and Pennsylvania were administered various forms of the...
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Toute expérimentation psychologique requiert, pour la formulation de conclusions valides, le contrôle des variables étudiées. Les expériences de type interculturel n'échappent pas à cette exígence et ce contrôle doit s'exercer aux trois niveaux classiques suivants: variables indépendantes, variables associées aux sujets eux-měmes et variables inhér...
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In this chapter we will offer different perspectives in trying to understand the rules of behaviors between people from different cultures. The first perspective, Individualism-collectivism allows us to better understand why some people prefer to be closely associated with groups while others prefer to be on their own. Social categorization theory,...
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ABSTRACT Most comparative advertising studies are conducted within the U.S. Little is, thus, known regarding its persuasiveness in a cross-cultural setting. Even within the US, the impacts of comparative,versus noncomparative,(NC) ads are mixed. The inconsistencies

Citations

... The capacity to adapt to any culture provides a more flexible approach to traditional cross-cultural training given that "in the current global environment it is often difficult to identify the target culture group as there are sometimes many represented" (MacNab et al., , p. 1320. Furthermore, culture can be quite dynamic (Jenner, MacNab, Brislin, & Worthley, 2006;Kelley, MacNab, & Worthley, 2006;MacNab et al., 2012;Matsumoto, Kudoh & Takeuchi, 1996;Ralston, Holt, Terpstra & Kai-Cheng, 1997), and even within a single nation, multiple cultures can be represented (McSweeney, 2002). ...
... Because of the multi-linguistic characteristic of our sample regions, the finalized instrument underwent a careful process of back-translation as recommended by Brislin, MacNab, and Bechtold (2004). The process included an initial translation of the English instrument into both French (some Canadian participants) and Spanish (Mexican participants) by translation collaborators specifically expert of those regions. ...
... Self-efficacy for diabetes questionnaire from the Self-management Resource Center (SMRC) was used to measure self-efficacy in this study (Lorig et al., 2009). This tool was translated by the researchers to Indonesian language by using Back translation Technique (Brislin, 1978). The content validity test of the Self-efficacy for diabetes questionnaire showed the scale content validity index (S-CVI) was 0.92 and the Cronbach alpha coefficient for the reliability test was 0.81. ...
... Next, they were back-translated into the Thai language. In the current study, the translation process was adopted and followed the procedure developed by Brislin (1980). The author proposed the translation-back-translation procedure. ...
... Thus, the abilityt om akei ncreased external and culturally sensitive attributions is potentially an important positive outcome of intergroup contact, especiallyw hen it involves contactb etween memberso fd ifferent cultures.H owever,a lthough attributions have been recognized as important fori ntergroup contact (see Hewstone &Brown, 1986), theyhave not been studiede xplicitly as an outcome. An exception is acorrelationalstudy by Brislin (1983), which providessome initial empirical evidence. In this study,h ef ound that participants who reported intergroup friendships or relationships also used significantly more situational than personal attributions in comparison to those who did not report having experienced close intercultural contact. ...
... In the course of time, different theories were proposed, hundreds of studies were performed, and different intervention programs were planned. Many contributions constituted this line of study (e.g., Amir, 1976;Brislin, Landis, & Brandt, 1983;Hewstone, 1994;Katz & Taylor, 1988;Oskamp. 2000;Simpson & Yinger 1985; Stephan & Stephan, 2001) and we will not review it in its entirety, but rather make some observations relevant to our case. ...
... People with high BII do not report higher social adaptiveness, whether across cultural situations (Fitzsimmons et al., 2017) or in general (Mok et al., 2010). Cultural identity integration is not associated with cultural metacognition (Fitzsimmons et al., 2017), a component of cultural intelligence, which refers to the tendency to attend to and analyze cultural differences during interactions (Thomas et al., 2012;Ward et al., 2009). These results suggest that dispositional cultural sensitivity or social flexibility do not explain the assimilative versus contrastive responses of high versus low BII individuals. ...
... A hallmark that the field had come of age was the seminal publication of the threevolume Handbook of Intercultural Training (Landis & Brislin, 1983). The specific volumes focused on "Issues in theory and design" (Vol. ...
... Early on, IACCP published the proceedings book Applied Cross-Cultural Psychology (Berry & Lonner, 1975). Over 30 years ago, the Sage Publications cross-cultural psychology series, edited primarily by IACCP members, published IACCP member Brislin's (1990) Applied Cross-cultural Psychology. ...
... Based on this, she could identify (inter alia) some commonly occurring stressors for this cohort of participants and any variation that occurred over time. Dela Cruz et al. (2006) also used thematic analysis with the critical incidents that they collected, but for a different purpose than Arthur. As explained above, she and her colleagues wanted to develop an intercultural sensitizer training resource, and the first step needed in that process was to categorize CIs into different themes. ...