Richard Tewksbury's research while affiliated with Louisville Seminary and other places

Publications (288)

Article
Over the past century, many American correctional professionals (including correctional officers, wardens, and support staff) have written memoirs and autobiographies that described their experiences working at one or more facilities. Although the number of books of this nature pales in comparison to those that have been written and published by co...
Article
This study examined details of behavioural sequences that constitute male-on-male child molestation within the Boy Scouts of America based on the narratives reported by child victims. Previous studies largely focused on convicted offenders when reconstructing the circumstances of child molestations. Also, sex crime literature did not consistently d...
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With the growth of qualitative research within the fields of criminology and criminal justice (CCJ) it is important to examine discipline standards and expectations of how to collect and analyze qualitative data and to present research findings. Our aim here is to assess qualitative research published in 17 top CCJ journals during the period of 201...
Article
One of the often-noted ‘pains of imprisonment’ is the deprivation of good and services. One of the few ways that prisoners can acquire additional amenities is to purchase items at the prison commissary. As such, the commissary represents a small amount of control that inmates have over their lives with regard to food, clothing, and methods to pass...
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This article analyzes the challenges that investigators face when conducting scholarly research on supermax prisons. Drawing on existing literature, as well as results of a survey sent to researchers who have published scholarship on supermax prisons, issues and suggestions for enhancing and growing this specialized body of literature are summarize...
Article
A significant number of individuals are being diagnosed with autism in the United States. Autism characteristics have direct implications for how law enforcement officers conduct investigations, make arrests, and respond to the physical and mental needs of autistic individuals. Despite these implications, little is known about what kinds of interac...
Article
Criminal justice research has well documented the fact that law enforcement officers experience a significant amount of stress. Research also suggests law enforcement officers use tobacco (which is not healthy at any rate) and alcohol at rates exceeding those of other populations. Although several studies have documented the above across a wide var...
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Throughout the United States, Sex Offender Registration and Notification (SORN) laws have created housing issues for registered sex offenders (RSOs). As a result of SORN, many RSOs may need to rely on family members for their housing needs. This study focused on two separate SORN laws (i.e., Megan’s Law and the Adam Walsh Act) in Ohio. Each law is...
Chapter
This chapter examines prior registration methods of individuals from the 19th and 20th centuries, and that such practices are nothing more than repackaged ideas for today's registration requirements of sexual offenders. In addition, we provide a historical overview of registration laws in the United States and Canada, with a brief acknowledgment of...
Article
Urethral insertion – colloquially referred to as sounding – has primarily been restricted to case and quantitative studies within the medical literature, thereby reinforcing a stigma element to sounding. In qualitative in-depth interviews with non-heterosexual males who engage in sounding, respondents report a pathway into sounding. A dissolved rel...
Article
Critical incidents involving police use-of-force brings forth external critique to the police institution and to police officers. Building on previous research on ideas of emotions and tellability, the present paper examines the role of police storytelling of critical incidents in different spaces. Stories of critical incidents told by police focus...
Chapter
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Individuals who experience sexual and emotional attractions to animals are widely considered deviant in American society. Such a condition is frequently referred to as bestiality and zoophilia, which in fact describe two separate types of sexual behaviors. A multitude of studies have uncovered a range of prevalence rates across different demographi...
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Recognizing the growing presence of university students who are also ex-cons, this article discusses the challenges of working with such individuals and offers practical suggestions for ways to enhance such interactions. The effects of institutional socialization, cultural differences, and a range of abilities and motivations presented by ex-con st...
Article
This study explores perceptions and awareness of disproportionate minority contact (DMC) by stakeholders in juvenile justice, youth-serving community organizations, schools, social services, and the faith community. This study is derived from a statewide assessment, which included in-person interviews with individuals that have personal and profess...
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Athletes are cited as common perpetrators of sexual victimization and are at greater risk of becoming offenders compared with nonathletes. Demographic, lifestyle, and social characteristics of 624 nonathletes and 101 athletes from 21 U.S. Division I postsecondary educational institutions were assessed, with the updated Illinois Rape Myth Acceptance...
Article
This study presents findings on the community release performance of prisoners incarcerated for a drug offense and released over a 30-month period (July 2002 – December 2004). Within this sample, propensity score matching was used to construct comparable groups of parolees and offenders released unconditionally into the community. The authors find...
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This study examined rape myth acceptance among 727 university students from 21 U.S. institutions with the updated Illinois Rape Myth Acceptance scale. Findings showed sorority members rejected rape myths at greater rates than non-sorority members, but fraternity members were similar to non-fraternity members. Higher rape myth acceptance was associa...
Article
Objective: The current study examines the ways that male escorts provide highly desired services for male clients. Building on the “Girlfriend Experience” identified in the female prostitution literature we discuss the corollary experience of the “Boyfriend Experience” and identify and examine the components of the boyfriend experience that are cen...
Article
The scholarly literature is replete with studies of female prostitutes, their customers, prostitution dynamics, and understandings of the how, where, when, how much, and why of such interactions. However, male escorts is lacking. Based on content analysis of the online reviews of 627 male escorts, this study examines the experiences and perspective...
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Minimal research exists regarding the relationship between rape myth acceptance and religion. This study assessed rape myth acceptance of 503 university students’ disaggregated by five religious identities from 21 Division I postsecondary institutions. Except for Presbyterians, females disagree with rape myths at greater levels than males. Religios...
Article
Using data from one Midwestern state, the present study focuses on the importation and deprivation characteristics of 543 adult inmates to identify the types of inmates who participate in drug-related behavior during their incarceration. Overall, findings reveal that currently or formerly married inmates, as well as those engaged in general prison...
Article
This study provides the first assessment of officer self-regard and physical confidence among a sample of state police officers. Specifically, this study aims to identify health and wellness predictors of officer self-regard and physical confidence. Data were collected from surveys of all sworn members of one state police agency. State police offic...
Chapter
Chapter 2 presents the methods of the current study. Three fieldwork projects in two cities are explained, including one researcher’s embeddedness with a plain-clothes, street crime unit, one researcher’s 10 month inclusion with a narcotics investigation unit, and one author’s 18 months of participant observation with a major city’s homicide invest...
Chapter
This chapter examines the state of knowledge regarding law enforcement and confidential informants. The bulk of the previous literature has taken either a very practical, hands-on, how-to approach written by practitioners or a very legalistic perspective focusing on the ways that informant use fits (or does not fit) within legal structures. Additio...
Book
Confidential informants have long occupied central role in the criminal investigation efforts of law enforcement authorities. Yet, there exists minimal contemporary scholarship to help illuminate the complex relationships and roles associated with covert intelligence gathering. This book draws upon a rich array of fieldwork and face-to-face intervi...
Chapter
Chapter 7 explicitly identifies the benefits that are derived by both law enforcement in general and individual law enforcement officers. In addition to the obvious benefit of gaining information to facilitate the control/resolution of crime, so too are there benefits in the form of providing law enforcement agencies and agents with a deeper unders...
Chapter
Chapter 5 examines a different perspective on the use of informants, highlighting their use in narcotics investigations. With a focus on how different types of community members do and do not interact (and cooperate) with law enforcement officials the role of informants is brought central. By examining the beliefs and attitudes of policing official...
Chapter
Chapter 8 contrasts the content of Chapter 7 with a focus on the pitfalls and potential problems involved in law enforcement officials working with confidential informants. The problems and pitfalls of working with confidential informants are classified as personal, professional, and individualized issues. Personal pitfalls include the intrusion of...
Chapter
This chapter introduces a typology of confidential informants. Through assessing the motivation/reason that informants become such and whether law enforcement adopts a passive or active role in soliciting information from such person we construct a four category typology of confidential informants. By examining whether informants are coerced or vol...
Chapter
Chapter four highlights the actual ways that law enforcement officers work with confidential informants. Here the processes by which informants are identified and recruited are discussed, including a stage model for conceptualizing the process. The means by which officials communicate with potential informants is addressed, especially how indenture...
Chapter
The actual activities, strategies, and processes of how law enforcement officials work with and manage confidential informants is explicated in this chapter. Here the processes of working within (and around) bureaucratic requirements for establishing and maintaining a relationship with an informant is examined. So too are the many ways that relatio...
Chapter
The concluding chapter summarizes the key take away messages emanating from the ethnographic work that underlies the book. A series of theoretical considerations are detailed, including an effort to establish a broader context associated with the book’s 4-part typology of the police-citizen information exchange, the observation that informant work...
Article
Prostitution is one of the most publicly recognized crimes, yet one which we have limited information. Particularly, we have little knowledge of male prostitution and not much information on the locations of sexual transactions. This study fills a void in the research as we apply journey to crime theory to the question of “where” as it applies to m...
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The relationship between correctional officers (COs) and prisoners is dynamic and bounded by a unique context. COs engage in numerous sanctioned and unsanctioned behaviors within their correctional institution. The latter actions are typically referred to as deviant behavior. COs’ deviance can have a debilitating effect not only on other officers,...
Chapter
Recent research points to the fact that sex offender registration has collateral consequences for those who are placed on the registry. Little is known about female sex offenders, particularly their thoughts about what will happen to them once they are released from prison. This study adds to what is known about sex offender perceptions of the regi...
Article
Conducting and publishing research is at the heart of the academic social scientist's job. Understanding the publication process is critical for any scholar looking for a successful career. The current study draws on survey data from 117 editors of social science journals to identify how editors experience their jobs, how manuscript reviews are pro...
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The primary focus of sex offender research has been on the efficacy and collateral consequences of sex offender registration and notification (SORN) and residence restrictions. Past scholarship has found these laws to cause numerous re-entry barriers for sex offenders. Such barriers have affected sex offenders' ability to find and maintain housing,...
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Prior research (see American Journal of Criminal Justice 30 (2), 177–192, 2006a) examined the residential locations and mobility of registered sex offenders and showed a common movement into increasingly socially disorganized neighborhoods after 5 years of registration. The present study examines whether or not this downward spiral continues for th...
Article
This study provides one of the first assessments of sleep patterns and fast food consumption among a sample of State police officers. Amounts of sleep and fast food consumed and the predictors of such are identified. Data are collected from surveys of all sworn members of one State police agency. State police officers get less than the recommended...
Chapter
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The prison population in the United States has increased drastically in the last 30 years. This entry provides a brief examination of the historical and current trends in prison population through examination at the individual and system levels. Overcrowding, fiscal and social costs, demographics, and methods for influencing the population are disc...
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Postsecondary education for inmates is championed as an important path to rehabilitation and a factor minimizing recidivism. Over the past four decades, several for-profit colleges and universities have offered degree-based programs to inmates at American correctional facilities. This article reviews the history of these educational institutions, t...
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The methodological orientation of criminology and criminal justice journals is overwhelmingly quantitative. In fact, only between 5 and 10% of articles published in CCJ journals rely on qualitative methods. Fortunately, this trend seems to be changing within the discipline, which will encourage more scholars to seek to publish qualitative research....
Article
Recent years have seen increasing concerns about the importance of offender reentry and how to best facilitate ex-offenders remaining crimefree. Common responses have been to enhance punitiveness, and to decrease resources and support services for ex-offenders. Results have been consistently high levels of recidivism, and consequently increasingly...
Article
Individuals who experience sexual and emotional attractions to animals are widely considered deviant in American society. Such a condition is frequently referred to as bestiality and zoophilia, which in fact describe two separate types of sexual behaviors. A multitude of studies have uncovered a range of prevalence rates across different demographi...
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Full-text available
Current sex offending legislation and public opinion present an image of sexual offenders as specialized predators who are likely to exhibit continued sexually deviant behavior over the life-course. Although sex offending continuity and post-release recidivism has been independently assessed in prior research, the potential link between sex offendi...
Article
The present study seeks to identify factors associated with inmates and their incarceration that differentially affect their frequency of receiving visits from specific types of visitors. Findings reveal both demographic and prison experience characteristics as significant predictors of the number of visits received from specific types of visitors....
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Some educated convicts want to conduct scholarly research and have the results of their work appear in academic publications. This provides numerous benefits and challenges to the researcher/writer and the academic world. This article outlines these issues in order to assist convicts, scholars, journal editors, and correctional service personnel un...
Article
Despite widespread media attention, research efforts, and political support, there is relatively little known about how individuals who are employed in the criminal justice system perceive the fairness, efficacy, and scope of policies aimed at sex offenders. The present study considers the attitudes and beliefs toward sex offenders and sex offender...
Article
Debate about whether crime is associated with sexually oriented businesses (SOBs) shows mixed results. However, previous research focuses only on crime (measured generally) in the neighborhoods surrounding such businesses. The present study examines all crime reported at the premises of all SOBs in Louisville, Kentucky. Analyses show that crime (vi...
Article
Using data from one Midwestern state, this article investigates whether or not characteristics of importation and deprivation serve as predictors of receipt of institutional disciplinary infractions. The results of the logistic regression analyses indicate that both importation and deprivation factors were significant indicators of having received...
Article
Using Data from Wave 9 of the Fragile Families and Child Well Being Study (2011) this study examines predictors of fathers’ use of harsh physical child discipline methods. Central to the investigation is the question of whether fathers who have been incarcerated experience a brutalization effect of imprisonment which is manifested in harsh physical...
Article
This study examined the utility of social disorganization theory as an explanation for child sexual abuse with a focus on differentiating single and multiple victim cases. Drawing on 1,172 child sexual abuse cases (including 159 cases with multiple victims) in Orange County, Florida, from 2004 to 2006, the present study considered case characterist...
Article
Utilizing a developmental trajectory approach, this study examines whether or not the perceived presence of social disorganization within communities contributes to the experience of having multiple sexual partners. The sample consists of African-American self-reports (n = 402) originating from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79). An...
Article
Little is known about how criminal justice officials perceive the efficacy and scope of sex offender registration and community notification (SORN) procedures. This study examines the attitudes regarding SORN among a sample of law enforcement agency supervisors/managers using a survey methodology and the Community Attitudes Toward Sex Offenders (CA...
Article
Scholarly debate about whether the presence of sexually oriented businesses in a community is related to increased levels of crime has been present for several decades. This argument about the “secondary effects” of such businesses shows support for the link to increased crime as well as evidence of a lack of relationship. This article addresses th...
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Existing research on stress among police assumes the presence of uniform stressors across job roles and borrows upon generic stress instruments to tap stress types and levels. The present study draws upon interviews with 26 members of a metropolitan homicide unit to provide an inductive vantage point on stress perceptions within a specialized area...
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This research note explores the rationale for consistently submitting scholarly manuscripts to and publishing in American Journal of Criminal Justice. By means of structured interviews with nine of the most frequently published authors throughout the history of the journal, this research identifies that AJCJ’s manuscript review process and its read...
Article
Conducting and publishing research is one of the core responsibilities of academic researchers. Frequently, publications are commonly used measurements for assessing suitability for hiring, tenure, and promotion. Understanding the “black box” of the publication process is essential for budding and new scholars, who are often expected to publish at...
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Learning how to effectively write a literature review is a critical tool for success for an academic, and perhaps even professional career. Being able to summarize and synthesize prior research pertaining to a certain topic not only demonstrates having a good grasp on available information for a topic, but it also assists in the learning process. A...
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The purpose of this study is to examine the structure of a measure of work stress. More specifically, the research investigated whether six items properly identified a latent measure of work stress for correctional staff. Using data from a nonrandom sample of correctional staff, the results of the structural equation model analysis supported the vi...
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Returning to the community after incarceration can be a difficult challenge. These issues are exacerbated for sex offenders, who reenter society carrying strong stigmas and who are subject to a variety of both legal and extralegal restrictions. Drawing on in-depth interviews with 24 incarcerated, soon-to-be released sex offenders, this study examin...
Article
Given the limited opportunities for consensual, sexual relationships in prisons, inmates must often seek to fulfill their sexual needs through other avenues, including use of sexually explicit materials. The current study explores the policies of correctional agencies regarding allowing inmates’ access to sexually explicit materials. Drawing on Dep...
Article
The bondage, discipline, sadism, and masochism (BDSM) community today uses online personal ads as a major way for members to meet. Such communities have designed their on-line experience around the format of the once prevalent newspaper/magazine personals ads and often feature physical descriptions, personal pictures, and special interests listings...
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Despite much research and policy development, it remains true that less than one half of all reported sexual assaults are cleared by arrest (Federal Bureau of Investigation [FBI], 2011). Compounding this issue, many sexual assaults are not cleared by an arrest, but rather by being classified as "unfounded" by law enforcement (Soulliere, 1994, 2005;...
Article
Over the past two decades, a number of different types of policies have been developed to govern sex offenders. Sex offender residence restriction policies have proliferated as part of this growth in sex offender policies. Several studies have focused on how different types of respondents perceive these policies. These studies show that individuals...
Article
Purpose Empirical studies examining specialization/versatility among offenders have long been an area of interest among criminologists. This same focus has only relatively recently been directed toward sex offenders. Methods Utilize matched random samples of male sex offenders released from prison pre- and post-Sex Offender Registration and Notifi...
Article
Today, the amount of stress the correctional staff endures at work is an important issue. Research has addressed this issue, but has yielded no consensus as to a properly calibrated measure of perceptions of work stress for correctional staff. Using data from a non-random sample of correctional staff (n = 228), the Rasch model was used to assess wh...
Article
Scholarly examinations of the publishing process are relatively rare. But the misunderstanding and suspicion the process creates among authors and reviewers is unnecessary. The present study draws on data from reviews of manuscripts submitted for publication consideration to Justice Quarterly between 2007 and 2010. Characteristics of reviewers and...
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Previous research assessing the productivity of criminology and criminal justice (CCJ) scholars has sought to determine the overall most productive scholars based on various measures (e.g. total articles published, total cites, and articles per year). While such lists may be important for those who rank high, they may be best used to establish benc...
Article
Recent research points to the fact that sex offender registration has collateral consequences for those who are placed on the registry. Little is known about female sex offenders, particularly their thoughts about what will happen to them once they are released from prison. This study adds to what is known about sex offender perceptions of the regi...
Article
The current study examines whether the recidivism trajectories post-prison release for post-sex offender registration and community notification (SORN) sex offenders are similar to or different from the recidivism trajectories post-prison release for post-SORN non-sex offenders who are released from prison via parole. Furthermore, this study also f...
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The present study examines how sex offenders perceive and respond to their social status. Using data from in-depth interviews with a sample of 24 incarcerated sex offenders approaching their release dates, analysis highlights offenders' recognition of and responses to social stigmatization. Findings highlight how interactions with members of the pr...
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Little is known about how criminal justice officials perceive fairness, efficacy or scope of sex offender registration, community notification procedures, residency restrictions, and beliefs about sex offenders. The present study examines the utility of assessing community corrections professionals’ views of sex offenders using the community attitu...
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Utilizing semi-structured interviews with 24 inmates in one medium security prison, this study examines how incarcerated sex offenders approaching release perceive previous experiences with and future expectations for their families. Observed characteristics of family associations among these inmates, both prior and subsequent to their labeling as...
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Understanding factors related to the clearing of criminal cases by law enforcement is an important, but understudied, issue in criminal justice. Through an examination of 2,437 sexual assault cases reported to the Orange County (Florida) Sheriff's Office and Orlando Police Department between 2004 and 2006, this study examines the ability of case an...
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The present study examines the research productivity of criminal justice scholars with a declared specialisation in law enforcement. Focus is on distinguishing and comparing the productivity, measured as publications, citations and grant dollars received, for law enforcement scholars who do and do not have a minimum of 5 years of practical experien...
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In a community-level analysis, this study examines risky locations for motor vehicle theft in Louisville, Kentucky from 2004 to 2007. Maps will display clustering patterns, density, displacement of motor vehicle thefts and relationships with spatial attributes and neighborhood characteristics. Clustering indicates heavy concentration of motor vehic...
Article
The goals of the present study were to examine the recidivism rates of two matched samples of sexual offenders, those released prior to and after sex offender registration and notification (SORN) in New Jersey. The pre-SORN group (1990-1994) included 247 offenders, while the post-SORN group (1996-2000) included 248 offenders. The longitudinal analy...
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Drug trafficking and related disorders are common in public housing properties. This research draws from a sitespecific, multidimensional study of an urban public housing authority plagued with drug distribution and related crime. Focus group interviews and face-to-face surveys yield a vivid description of the residents’ perceptions of crime, disor...
Article
Bulletin board websites and the Internet have created new ways for individuals to find partners for casual sexual encounters through personal ads. This paper examines men who are seeking sexual encounters with married men through placement of a "men seeking men" personal ad found on a free, non-sexual, large mainstream bulletin board classified web...
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The purpose of the present study is to fill a gap in our understanding of correlates of whether a cybercrime conviction leads to prison or community corrections. Using data from the Internet Crime Complaint Center reports, the results show two important correlates. First, a cybercriminal that has a previous public order offense is likely to be sent...
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The American Journal of Criminal Justice (AJCJ), the peer-reviewed publication of the Southern Association of Criminal Justice (SCJA), has been in publication for 35 years. SCJA has often been viewed as an approachable association to become involved with for young faculty in criminal justice. In addition, based on the findings of this assessment,...
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This research uses data from a community wide assessment of knowledge, attitudes and behaviors to determine risks for HIV infection among traditional high risk populations. This analysis is based upon a sample of self-identified injection drug users. It examines the multiple avenues to infection that threaten this population. The role of criminal j...