Richard J. Torraco's research while affiliated with University of Nebraska at Lincoln and other places

Publications (32)

Article
Full-text available
Economics, demographics, technology, and other factors are changing the composition and availability of jobs. Newer forms of freelance, contingent work, also known as gigs, are gradually eroding traditional jobs. A venue that affords employment opportunities for a growing number of gig workers has become known as the platform economy. Those engaged...
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Human resource development (HRD) is no longer expected to be the primary agency for promoting learning and development among employees. Today, HRD is diffused and integrated into a broad range of leadership and supervisory roles. As more responsibility for learning and development is assumed by others, what is the role of HRD? Although HRD has larg...
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Economic inequality – the income gap between the wealthy and the poor – is increasing. Educational inequity has also increased with low-income students less likely to complete college than their wealthier counterparts. As the gap widens between the education “haves” and “have-nots,” those with inadequate education are faced with reduced career oppo...
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This article presents the integrative review of literature as a distinctive form of research that uses existing literature to create new knowledge. As an expansion and update of a previously published article on this topic, it reviews the growing body of literature on how to write literature reviews. The article identifies the main components of th...
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The Problem While the time and place of the birth of the Academy of Human Resource Development are documented, the field of human resource development (HRD) has historical roots that began decades earlier with the emergence of training and development and organization development as fields of practice. The Solution This article addresses the early...
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This article discusses the integrative review of the literature as a distinctive form of research that uses existing literature to create new knowledge. As an expansion and update of a previously published article on this topic, it acknowledges the growth and appeal of this form of research to scholars, it identifies the main components of the inte...
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This article explores the persistence of working poor families in the United States—families that live on the threshold of poverty despite at least one family member working full-time. The persistence of poverty in the United States has been exacerbated by recent changes in the job market that have altered the composition and availability of jobs d...
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Median family incomes in the United States are falling while admissions requirements for community colleges are rising. The purpose of this paper was to call attention to the predicament faced by low-income and academically underprepared students aspiring to complete community college programs in this environment and the implications for community...
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Adults with limited education and skills—those who lack the education and skills needed for full participation in U.S. culture and economy—are increasing in numbers. However, the knowledge base addressing this population and their educational needs is fragmented across the literature of several disciplines. A comprehensive review and critique of th...
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We examine the United States educational pipeline and the relationship between our nation's current educational policy, which results in the loss of substantial numbers of students from our education system, and the social and economic consequences of maintaining our current policies. Projections of changes in those moving through the educational p...
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The importance of learning for organizational effectiveness is no longer questioned. Research in the last decade has identified the central role of learning for enhancing individual development. team effectiveness, leadership. innovation, and competitive advantage. However, this acknowledgement of learning's importance has been accompanied by the l...
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This study examines student learning experiences in nine occupational education programs at two Midwestern community colleges. Interviews with 39 program graduates and 10 of their supervisors provided information about the features of the occupational programs that were most beneficial for job preparation, those that were least beneficial for job p...
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The integrative literature review is a distinctive form of research that generates new knowledge about the topic reviewed. Little guidance is available on how to write an integrative literature review. This article discusses how to organize and write an integrative literature review and cites examples of published integrative literature reviews tha...
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The problem and the solution. This article offers a theoretical framework for viewing the case studies of change in universities presented in subsequent articles. Two dramatically different strategies for effecting change in higher education are presented—organization development (OD) and top management-driven change. How effective is OD-based chan...
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The problem and the solution. This article will summarize what is known about the use of organization development (OD) in universities based on the foregoing cases. The following questions will be addressed: What lessons have been learned about OD in universities? Why have some change strategies been successful in developing organizational capabili...
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Six theoretical perspectives on work design are examined for their contributions to our understanding of how work is organized and designed in organizations: sociotechnical systems theory, process improvement, adaptive structuration theory, the job characteristics model, technostructural change models, and activity theory. A critique of these theor...
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Organization development is an approach to planned change that is used in the private, public, and nonprofit sectors. However, relatively little is known about OD in universities. This paper examines the challenges associated with the use of OD in universities that may not be present in the private sector and other non-university settings. Five cas...
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Theoretical research in HRD has established itself and is now at a point where many avenues exist for further contributions to the field. But what kinds of theoretical research appear to be needed at this stage in the development of HRD? This paper identifies areas in which further research in theory and theory building might be conducted. Possible...
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The problem and the solution. The tendency for decision makers to treat all decision-making variables as external to the decision system-that is, as exogenous variables-overlooks important inputs to the system from sources internal to the decision, endogenous variables. This article distinguishes between these two types of decision-making variables...
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The cognitive demands of new technologies are poorly understood because the technologies themselves are not well understood and because refinements are needed in the methods used to study their cognitive demands. This article defines specific characteristics of tasks involving the use of new technologies and identifies the cognitive demands of thes...
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The Problem and the Solution. Although knowledge is now recognized as one of an organization's most valuable assets, most organizations nevertheless lack the supportive systems required to leverage the value of knowledge Because knowledge is a complex and intangible asset that cannot be managed like other resources, organizations that do not system...
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The nature of work continues to evolve from predictable, deterministic patterns to forms that are more contingent and idiosyncratic. The evolution of work and of the expertise needed to perform it have not been accompanied by innovations in the models used by workplace educators to develop this expertise. For some technical work roles, present mode...
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Scanning for training-needs information is an important first step in the development of relevant, effective training. The larger organizational context in which training interventions are being considered dictates the inclusion of core measures of the organization's business performance as primary sources of information. Without a need to improve...
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Higher education, a setting devoted to the enhancement of learning, inquiry, and development, continues to lack effective development for faculty. Mentoring relationships seek to provide enhancement, yet few mentoring programs exist. This literature review examines forms of mentoring, its benefits, barriers to implementation, means for successful i...

Citations

... Σύμφωνα με τους Whittemore και Knafl (2005) η ανάλυση δεδομένων του συγκεκριμένου είδους βιβλιογραφικής έρευνας δεν υπόκειται σε συγκεκριμένες μεθοδολογικές σταθερές. Εντούτοις, η παρούσα έρευνα έγινε και καταγράφηκε με βάση τις θεμελιώδεις αρχές συγγραφής integrative literature review του Torraco (2016). ...
... In today's economy, financial organizations are facing various challenges such as rapid technological advances, changing market demands due to innovations in the field, increased competition and internalization, and new ways of working, leading to less jobs (e.g., Bakens et al., 2021;Scully-Russ & Torraco, 2020). Simultaneously, the workforce is aging, for example because of the introduction of a higher pension age for safeguarding the social security system (Mc Kee & Eraut, 2012;Nauta et al., 2009;Van der Heijden et al., 2016. ...
... Metode pelatihan dan pengembangan sumber daya manusia di perusahaan telah dikembangkan sesuai dengan perubahan lingkungan yang terjadi seperti saat ini bahwa kemajuan teknologi membawa kita pada era digital, maka metode pengembangan dilakukan dengan pendekatan komputer baik dari sisi perangkat keras ataupun perangkat lunak. (Ongori & Nzonzo, 2011) Dan menurut (Torraco & Lundgren, 2020), bahwa perkembangan manajemen sumber daya manusia khususnya pada aktivitas pembelajaran dan pengembangan sumber daya manusia yang dilansir memiliki potensi mengubah tempat kerja abad 21 adalah sebagai berikut: 1. Teknologi Pembelajaran; contohnya aplikasi pembelajaran berbasis mobile, video pembelajaran. Salah satu contoh metode pelatihan dan pengembangan di era digital adalah menggunakan pendekatan Gamification karena dengan pendekatan ini perusahaan mampu melibatkan peran generasi milenial dan berdasarkan hasil riset (Kapustina & Martynova, 2020) bahwa dari perspektif motivasi bahwa individu yang mengikuti pembelajaran dengan menggunakan video game memiliki motivasi belajar yang lebih baik dan meningkatkan kompetitif bisnis di era digital. ...
... In terms of education and skills our findings reflect Torraco (2018) concerning the 'haves' and have nots' and how workers can be trapped in low paying jobs (Jung, Noh, & Kim, 2018). The workers we interviewed possessed many skills but not opportunities to use them and thus remain underemployed (Thompson & Dahling, 2019). ...
... Through the application of an integrative literature review (ILR; Toronto & Remington, 2020;Torraco, 2016), we analyzed the previous research to create a comprehensive understanding in relation to our purpose. In addition to business academia, we reviewed literature from multiple research streams with footprints in deepfake research, including communications, computer science, information science, journalism, and social sciences, to synthesize existing knowledge. ...
... This facilitates an understanding of how different units in the organisation fit together, which is arguably technical knowledge, and how the organisational goals and objectives fit with the brand vision. The recognition of training as a practice in the contemporary business management field finds its roots in the patrimony of education from learning that was driven by survival, to religious education, to leadership and technical training post the second world war, to the current development of communities, employees and organisations mainly for work purposes (Torraco, 2016). • Leadership: Khan, Nawaz and Khan (2016) stated that leadership has been a focal point in management theory for years. ...
... Contextual and organizational factors of training and developing employees in developing economies, such as in India (Bharti 2014), has been the theme of a number of research efforts. Several studies have researched the human resource development of the 'working poor' (i.e., employed individuals whose income falls below the poverty line in the societies they live in) and its impact on family lives (Torraco 2016). Finally, the career experiences of employees who face financial barriers has been the theme of many published articles in the HRM and employment studies subdiscipline (e.g., Clark & Bower 2016). ...
... Online learning provides an excellent method for delivering material that is not bound by time or location, allowing accessibility anytime from anywhere (Alhassan, 2016;Choi & Yi, 2016;Knippelmeyer & Torraco, 2007). It gives three other advantages: a supplemental that is optional, complementary, or substitute. ...
... For instance, Ewell (1985), referred to students progressing and moving throughout their program as student flow, while Clagett (1991) discussed following the flow of student cohorts through to graduation. Luna (1999) used the concept of student flow to explain the various pathways by which the institution may retain students, and Torraco and Hamilton (2013) discussed the student flow of selected groups of minority students. Furthermore, many software companies have exploited the student flow metaphor to describe use of data to identify areas where leakage is present in student flow pipelines. ...
... Organizations can build sustainable talent pools by maintaining close relationships with leading academic institutions (Ehnert 2009). HRD can create avenues for corporate exposure, apprenticeship/internship programmes and give training to individuals in these institutes who hope to acquire relevant job-market skills (Hamilton and Torraco 2013). Being subjected to such programmes during higher education will be highly advantageous for students and secure durable access to skilled human resources for the future need of the organizations (De Prins et al. 2014). ...