Richard G. Rawlins's research while affiliated with Rush University Medical Center and other places

Publications (96)

Article
According to the Americans with Disabilities Act (1990), couples with blood-borne viruses that lead to infectious disease cannot be denied fertility treatment as long as the direct threat to the health and safety of others can be reduced or eliminated by a modification of policies or procedures. Three types of infectious patients are commonly discu...
Article
Reproductive synchrony and the consequent clustering of births are hypothesized to be regulated by seasonal changes in rainfall and food availability. Such climate-related seasonality is, however, questionable in tropical populations occupying temporally invariant habitats year round. Using the long-term data of the Cayo Santiago rhesus macaques fr...
Article
Genetic studies not only contribute substantially to our current understanding of the natural variation in behavior and health in many species, they also provide the basis of numerous in vivo models of human traits. Despite the many challenges posed by the high level of biological and social complexity, a long lifespan and difficult access in the f...
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Full-text available
While osteopenia (OPE) and osteoporosis (OPO) have been studied in various species of aging nonhuman primates and extensively in ovariectomized rhesus and cynomolgus macaques, there is virtually no information on the effects of castration on the skeleton of male nonhuman primates. Most information on castrated male primates comes from a few studies...
Article
This article presents a pictorial history of the free-ranging colony of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) on Cayo Santiago, Puerto Rico, in commemoration of the 75th anniversary of its establishment by Clarence R. Carpenter in December 1938. It is based on a presentation made by the authors at the symposium, Cayo Santiago: 75 Years of Leadership in T...
Article
2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is the most toxic congener of the polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), which causes anatomical abnormalities and developmental defects, impairs ovulation and reduces fertility. TCDD's endocrine-disrupting effects are, in part, caused by a direct action at the ovary. Herein we investigated the in-vi...
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Full-text available
Cayo Santiago is the oldest continuously operating free-ranging rhesus monkey colony in the world. Population control of this colony has historically been carried out by periodic live capture and removal of animals. However, the effect of such a strategy on the size, growth rate, age structure, and sex ratio of the population has not been analyzed....
Article
Tetanus was a major cause of mortality in the free-ranging population of rhesus monkeys on Cayo Santiago prior to 1985 when the entire colony was given its first dose of tetanus toxoid. The immediate reduction in mortality that followed tetanus toxoid inoculation (TTI) has been documented, but the long-term demographic effects of eliminating tetanu...
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Full-text available
Density-dependence is hypothesized as the major mechanism of population regulation. However, the lack of long-term demographic data has hampered the use of density-dependent models in nonhuman primates. In this study, we make use of the long-term demographic data from Cayo Santiago's rhesus macaques to parameterize and analyze both a density-indepe...
Article
Objective: To identify a gene expression signature in human cumulus cells (CCs) predictive of pregnancy outcome across multiple clinics, taking into account the clinic and patient variations inherent in IVF practice. Design: Retrospective analysis of single human cumulus-oocyte complexes with the use of a combined microarray and quantitative rev...
Article
Introduction There are many open questions regarding preimplantation human embryo development: does embryo polarity exist and what is the contribution of individual blastomeres and their allocation within the preimplantation embryo, especially blastocyst. In addition, little is known about the dynamics of gene expression underlying the lineage diff...
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Full-text available
HIV-serodiscordant couples wishing to conceive often seek assisted reproduction, during which spermatozoa from infected men are washed to minimize the risk of HIV transmission to partner and fetus. We sought to improve this method by adding a microbicide, PPCM, as an HIV prophylactic. HIV-1 (BaL) inhibition by PPCM appears irreversible and independ...
Article
Prior to 1985 tetanus was a major cause of mortality in the free-ranging colony of rhesus monkeys on Cayo Santiago, accounting for almost a quarter of annual deaths. In 1985 and 1986 all animals (except infants) received primary and booster doses, respectively, of tetanus toxoid. In subsequent years primary immunizations were given to all yearlings...
Article
To evaluate the effects of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD; dioxin) on mouse embryo development and apoptosis. Controlled animal study. Academic research environment. Female mice (CB6F1) at 3 to 6 weeks of age and proven breeders (C578B46). Mouse embryos were obtained at the morula stage and cultured to the blastocyst stage in a pharmacol...
Chapter
Encapsulation of mammalian preimplantation embryos has its origins in the work of Willadsen in the late 1970s and in the need to develop an artificial zona pellucida for denuded sheep, horse, and cattle embryos used in the production of monozygotic twins for the livestock industry. Although functional, these early methods relied on embedding in non...
Article
Full-text available
Dioxin (2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin; TCDD) is the most toxic congener of a large class of environmental pollutants. Several studies have shown that TCDD exposure reduced fecundity and ovulatory rate in rats and increased the incidence of endometriosis in monkeys. Recent work suggests that TCDD's endocrine-disrupting effects are, at least in...
Article
Dioxin (2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin; TCDD) is the most toxic congener of a large class of environmental pollutants. Several studies have shown that TCDD exposure reduced fecundity and ovulatory rate in rats and increased the incidence of endometriosis in monkeys. Recent work suggests that TCDD’s endocrine-disrupting effects are, at least in...
Article
To examine the relationships of follicular diameter and serum estradiol (E2) to the percentage of granulosa cells undergoing mitosis as reflected by the proliferative index of granulosa cells. In this prospective study, we enrolled 44 consecutive women undergoing controlled ovarian hyperstimulation for in vitro fertilization. Deoxyribonucleic acid...
Article
Recent reports have described the reproduction-modulating and endocrine-disrupting effects following exposure to toxic substances such as 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). Herein, we set out (1) to determine whether TCDD exposure exerts detrimental effects on follicle maturation in the Holtzman rat ovary and (2) to determine whether the e...
Article
Oocyte maturation in mammals follows a highly conserved pattern of release from arrest through to the extrusion of the first polar body and formation of the second metaphase spindle. Oscillations in cytoplasmic calcium concentration precede the events of maturation in many species. These calcium ions interact with and activate calcium-binding prote...
Article
To evaluate the impact of the oviduct, uterine, and in vitro environments on zona pellucida thinning in the mouse embryo. Female mice were stimulated with pregnant mare serum gonadotropin and mated and hCG injection. Unilateral oviduct ligation was performed on day 2 of gestation using the dorsal approach. The mice were divided into equal groups an...
Article
We have previously shown by immunocytochemistry and autoradiography the presence of estrogen receptors (ER) in rhesus monkey ovary. Intense chromogen staining showed specific binding for ER in nuclei of germinal epithelium and granulosa cells of antral follicles; and radiolabeled ligand bound specifically to functional corpora lutea (CL). Although...
Article
Co-culture with numerous cell lines has been shown to improve in-vitro embryo development. It is usually performed in open culture without an oil overlay, or in relatively large volumes of medium (e.g. 0.5 ml) under oil. We compared the efficacy of open and microdrop co-culture systems using human endometrial and tubal cell lines and mouse zygotes....
Article
Co-culture with numerous cell lines has been shown to improve in-vitro embryo development. It is usually performed in open culture without an oil overlay, or in relatively large volumes of medium (e.g. 0.5 ml) under oil. We compared the efficacy of open and microdrop co-culture systems using human endometrial and tuba] cell lines and mouse zygotes;...
Article
This study investigates the relationship between human tubal epithelial cell growth characteristics and mouse embryonic development to determine which cellular requirements should be preferentially provided in a coculture system. Cell growth and viability were assessed for 5 days in alpha-minimal essential medium or human tubal fluid supplemented w...
Article
To assess prospectively the appropriateness of follicular sonography alone for monitoring ovarian stimulation and to compare it to ovarian monitoring with both follicular sonography and hormone level determinations. Prospective, blind, clinical study in which the investigator made cycle management decisions based on follicular sonography only. Foll...
Article
The goal of this study was to compare mouse embryo development in a defined synthetic medium (human tubal fluid) against the same medium supplemented with a defined synthetic serum (SS), co-culture on human tubal epithelium (TECC), and culture on human fibronectin (FN) with and without SS. After 48 h, TECC, SS and FN + SS cultures demonstrated acce...
Article
To correlate luteal estradiol (E2) levels with pregnancy outcome, 36 consecutive conceptions resulting from gamete intrafallopian transfer in gonadotropin releasing hormone agonist/human menopausal gonadotropin (GnRH-a/hMG) cycles were analyzed. GnRH-a was initiated during the preceding luteal phase. HMG was adjusted individually. Human chorionic g...
Article
To assess whether a relationship exists between follicular fluid (FF) angiotensin II (AII) concentration and pregnancy outcome or earlier fecundity parameters and whether correlations exist among FF AII concentrations and P, E2, T, androstenedione (A), or various ratios of these. Retrospective study in which hormone concentrations in FF samples wer...
Article
Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), found in mammalian ovarian granulosa cells and oocytes (Kim et al., 1992, 1993), induces the human acrosome reaction (Anderson et al., 1994). The purpose of the present study was to determine whether ANP, as egg-derived peptides from sea urchins, can act as a chemoattractant to human spermatozoa. Small lengths of c...
Article
To investigate the effect of induced endogenous hyperprolactinemia on the luteinization process, as expressed by the shift in the P:E2 ratio after hCG injection in IVF cycles. Serum PRL, E2, and P levels were measured in 49 IVF patients (leuprolide acetate and hMG protocol) on the day of hCG injection. Estradiol and P also were measured on the day...
Article
Full-text available
Successful fertilization in humans, achieved when parental chromosomes intermix at first mitosis, requires centrosome restoration and microtubule-mediated motility. Imaging of inseminated human oocytes reveals that the sperm introduces the centrosome. The centrosome then nucleates the new microtubule assembly to form the sperm aster — a step essent...
Article
To describe the rate of rise of beta-hCG levels in normal single gestations after uterine and tubal embryo transfer. A prospective study from 1991 through 1992 in which infertility patients who conceived after ovulation induction and ET were monitored with serum beta-hCG levels. Infertility unit at Rush-Presbyterian-St. Luke's Medical Center in Chi...
Article
Objective To describe the rate of rise of β -hCG levels in normal single gestations after uterine and tubal embryo transfer. Design A prospective study from 1991 through 1992 in which infertility patients who conceived after ovulation induction and ET were monitored with serum β -hCG levels. Setting Infertility unit at Rush-Presbyterian-St. Luke’s...
Article
To determine if the total motile sperm count is predictive of IUI success and to apply life-table analysis to a large database of IUI procedures. Contingency table and life-table analyses were used to analyze a large group of couples (n = 546) undergoing 1,205 cycles of therapeutic IUI with husband's sperm. Clinical infertility practice at a medica...
Article
Atrial natriuretic peptides (ANPs) from several species induced the human acrosome reaction. The maximal response was highest for human ANP (18.6% above unstimulated or baseline values) and decreased progressively for peptides derived from animals lower on the phylogenetic scale. ANP concentrations required for a half-maximal effect in noncapacitat...
Article
To determine if cultured human granulosa cells (GCs) obtained from women at risk for ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) possess altered steroidogenic capacity. Prospective analysis of 28 consecutive in vitro fertilization-gamete intrafallopian transfer (IVF-GIFT) cycles. In Vitro Fertilization Program at Rush Presbyterian St. Luke's Medical C...
Article
To describe the hormonal profiles of chromosomally abnormal pregnancies during the first trimester. A prospective study from 1984 through 1990 in which infertility patients who conceived were monitored weekly with serum E2, P, and beta-hCG levels. The infertility practice at Rush-Presbyterian-St. Luke's Medical Center in Chicago, Illinois. Study in...
Article
Objective To describe the hormonal profiles of chromosomally abnormal pregnancies during the first trimester. Design A prospective study from 1984 through 1990 in which infertility patients who conceived were monitored weekly with serum E 2 , P, and β -hCG levels. Setting The infertility practice at Rush-Presbyterian-St. Luke’s Medical Center in Ch...
Article
To determine the effect of sodium alginate encapsulation of rodent embryos on in vitro embryonic cleavage rates, implantation rates, and livebirth rates, and to find the in vivo degradation time for the capsules. Studies were conducted using both CB6F1 mice and Golden Syrian hamsters. Capsules made with 3.0% sodium alginate degraded in vivo within...
Article
Acrosin, a sperm proteinase released during acrosomal exocytosis, facilitates penetration through the oocyte vestments. The purpose of this investigation was to determine if a correlation exists between the acrosin activity of ejaculated human spermatozoa, before motility enrichment techniques, and in-vitro fertilization (IVF) success using selecte...
Article
Objective To determine if cultured human granulosa cells (GCs) obtained from women at risk for ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) possess altered steroidogenic capacity. Design Prospective analysis of 28 consecutive in vitro fertilization-gamete intrafallopian transfer (IVF-GIFT) cycles. Setting In Vitro Fertilization Program at Rush Presbyte...
Article
The incidence and statistical associations of the ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) were studied in 304 egg retrievals with gonadotrophin-releasing hormone agonist suppression, gonadotrophin administration and follicular aspiration. In addition to preserving corpus luteum function, the luteal phase administration of human chorionic gonadotro...
Article
The purpose of the study was to describe and to compare the rate of rise of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) in vanishing twin and normally progressing twin pregnancies during the first trimester. All patients with twin pregnancies between 1985 and 1989 were prospectively studied. Human chorionic gonadotropin was measured one to three times per w...
Article
Ovarian response to human menopausal gonadotropins (hMG) was studied in the presence or absence of prior ovarian suppression using gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist in the same oligomenorrheic women. Delayed response, with higher hMG requirements, was observed in cycles with prior ovarian suppression.
Article
The acrosome reaction of human spermatozoa incubated in the presence or absence of vested human oocytes was investigated. All gametes were obtained from human in vitro fertilization (IVF) cases. Spermatozoa were collected after incubation in insemination medium only and following removal of the oocytes from insemination medium during the IVF proced...
Article
The free-ranging population of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) on Cayo Santiago was sero-surveyed for human measles, simian virus 40, B virus (Herpes simiae), rhesus cytomegalovirus, human and simian retroviruses and encephalomyocarditis virus to determine the prevalence of these viruses in the colony. The results of this study indicate that the co...
Article
Endometriosis appears to be a systemic disease with alterations in both humoral and cell-mediated immunity. An immune defect may allow ectopic implantation of the endometrial cells with subsequent development of autoantibodies.
Article
The effect of treatment with danazol (n = 10) or gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists (GnRH-a) (n = 10) on autoantibody (AA) production (IgG, IgM and, IgA to 6 phospholipids, 5 histones, and 4 polynucleotides) in endometriosis was evaluated blindly in a longitudinal, prospective, randomized study. Clinical improvement, ovarian suppression, and r...
Article
The acrosome reaction of human spermatozoa incubated in the presence or absence of vested human oocytes was investigated. All gametes were obtained from human in vitro fertilization (IVF) cases. Spermatozoa were collected after incubation in insemination medium only and following removal of the oocytes from insemination medium during the IVF proced...
Article
Polyspermic fertilization of human oocytes in vitro produces genetically abnormal embryos whose replacement in utero represents a potential obstetrical risk. Microsurgical removal of extra male pronuclei offers the possibility that normal ploidy can be restored in these zygotes. Pronuclear removal was attempted in three tripronuclear human oocytes...
Article
Eighteen women undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) procedures were studied. All had optimal (900 to 1600 pg/ml) peak serum estradiol (E2) response to the same stimulation regimen with clomiphene citrate and menotropins; fertilization rate was above 64%; and two to four embryos in two to eight cell stages were replaced in each patient. All were...
Article
In this study, 39 embryos from 17 patients were cryopreserved in a Planer R204 cell freezer using the protocol of Mohr et al. (J Vitro Fert Embryo Transfer 2:1-10, 1985). The procedure was modified by supplementing the cryoprotectant with 10% heat-inactivated and filtered (0.22 micron) maternal serum instead of fetal calf serum, and embryos were fr...
Article
Progesterone (P) and human chorionic gonadotropin (beta-hCG) levels were measured randomly or serially in 141 single clinical intrauterine pregnancies resulting from treatment of infertility. Seventy (group I) were conceived during spontaneous cycles, 36 (group II) with clomiphene citrate, and 35 (group III) with menotropins (hMG). Each group was s...
Article
Direct effects of a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa), danazol, or estrogen/progestogen (E/P) on experimental endometriosis were evaluated in castrated female rats. Endometrial explants decreased in size following castration, but there was no further change in the treatment groups. Histologic examination indicated atrophy and regressio...
Article
A patient with PCO and primary infertility had undergone numerous failed attempts of ovulation induction. She then was treated with GnRHa leuprolide 500 micrograms subcutaneously daily for 4 weeks, later combined with hMG 225 IU IM daily for 8 days and hCG 5000 IU IM. Six oocytes were retrieved for IVF, four fertilized and two were replaced. Twin p...
Article
Ovarian cysts persisting after the onset of menses were demonstrated by ultrasound (US) in 40 of 71 (56%) nonconception cycles following ovulation induction with human menopausal gonadotropins (hMG) and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). Persistent cysts were self-limited and all resolved spontaneously within two cycles. They developed more freque...
Article
Direct effects of a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa), danazol, or estrogen/progestogen (E/P) on experimental endometriosis were evaluated in castrated female rats. Endometrial explants decreased in size following castration, but there was no further change in the treatment groups. Histologic examination indicated atrophy and regressio...
Article
A major problem in development of nonhuman primate in vitro fertilization is the selection of donor males and repeated collection of consistent sperm samples. In practice, collection of a viable semen sample is highly dependent on operator technique and the type of animal restraint. We report an updated method for semen collection from the rhesus m...
Article
Tetanus was a major cause of mortality in the free-ranging population of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) on Cayo Santiago. From 1977 to 1984 the mean (±1 SD) annual total mortality rate (excluding neonatal deaths within 48 h postpartum, abortions, and stillbirths) was 6.39% ± .94%, and the mean annual tetanus mortality rate was 1.33% ± .45%. Tetanu...
Article
The relationship between serum total cholesterol (STC) and social dominance rank was investigated in adult (greater than or equal to 5 year old) males of a single, naturally-formed free-ranging troop of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) on Cayo Santiago, Puerto Rico. Dominance rank, age and body weight were not correlated with STC, nor was rank corre...
Chapter
The techniques of in vitro fertilization (IVF) and embryo transfer (ET) offer the possibility of conducting genetic analyses on developing embryos prior to implantation. The purpose of “preimplantation genetic analysis” would be to remove a part of the products of conception for chromosomal and/or biochemical analysis. If the diagnostic procedures...
Article
Secondary sex ratios (SSR) were calculated from 1,385 offspring delivered by 372 females in the Cayo Santiago population of free-ranging rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) from 1976 through 1984. The SSR for the entire colony ranged from 0.86 to 1.46 males per female (combined total: 1.08), but no significant difference was observed (P > .05). SSR val...
Article
Little research has been done on the in vitro and xenogenous fertilization of cryopreserved primate oocytes. This study reports the development of freezing and thawing methods for squirrel monkey oocytes with subsequent successful fertilization by these two methods. Preliminary results on techniques for blastomere separation using the hamster and s...
Article
Little research has been done on the in vitro and xenogenous fertilization of cryopreserved primate oocytes. This study reports the development of freezing and thawing methods for squirrel monkey oocytes with subsequent successful fertilization by these two methods. Preliminary results on techniques for blastomere separation using the hamster and s...
Article
This report documents the occurrence of congenital cataracts in a visually-impaired yearling rhesus monkey from the same matriline on Cayo Santiago in which a congenitally blind infant was born 2 years previously.
Article
A management procedure was developed for a harem breeding colony of rhesus monkeys to reduce trauma-related injuries and deaths resulting from the periodic removal of pregnant monkeys for research and their subsequent return to the population. Lower morbidity and mortality rates, a reduced mean conception interval, and a higher mean conception rate...
Article
This paper reports the results of an eight-year study of seasonal reproduction in the free-ranging colony of rhesus monkeys on Cayo Santiago, Puerto Rico. There was a significant correlation between the start of the annual spring rainy season and the estimated median conception date (r = .94, p < .001) and median birth date (r = .94, p < .001). Con...
Article
This report summarizes demographic data collected on the Cayo Santiago colony of rhesus monkeys from 1976-1983 and compares the results with those from 1959-1964 [8,9]. For males and nonpregnant/nonlactating, pregnant, and lactating females mean (+/- 1 SD), body weights, crown-rump lengths, and ponderal indices are tabulated for each age on a large...
Article
Free-ranging rhesus macaques on the island of Cayo Santiago, Puerto Rico, were surveyed for intestinal parasites for the first time in over 40 years. Results were compared with the only previous study, and the relationships between the prevalence of Strongyloides and dominance rank, body weight, age, and matriline examined in the sampled population...
Article
Tetanus is enzootic in the free-ranging rhesus monkey colony on Cayo Santiago. The disease accounts for 25% of all mortalities in the population. The high prevalence of tetanus provided a unique opportunity to study the potential roles of geophagia, wounding, and clinical tetanus infections on the development of naturally acquired tetanus antitoxin...
Article
The developing use of in vitro fertilization (IVF) as a human clinical procedure has prompted the exploitation of nonhuman primates to assess the chromosomal and biochemical normality of embryos produced by IVF. Of 1995 oocytes recovered from squirrel monkeys, 628 (31.5%) matured and 339 (54.0%) fertilized. Fertility can be significantly enhanced b...
Article
During seven annual birth seasons, from January 1976 to July 1982, 963 infants were born in the Cayo Santiago, Puerto Rico, colony of free-ranging rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). The reproductive rate for mature females, 4 years of age and older, ranged between 74.1% and 84.7%, with a cumulative mean of 80.8% over 7 years. Live births comprised 95...
Article
In order to describe ontogenetic change in the musculoskeletal system of rhesus monkeys, 126 Macaca mulatta from Cayo Santiago, ranging in age from 7 months to 21 years, were examined under anesthesia. Passive joint excursions were measured at the wrist, elbow, shoulder, hip, and knee. Mean ranges of excursion at these joints differed significantly...
Article
The hemogram, serum biochemicals, and electrolytes of aged (15- to 28-year-old) rhesus monkeys were compared with values for younger adults (4-14 years old) maintained under identical conditions. Aged males had lower mean corpuscular volume, serum iron and magnesium, and higher percentages of eosinophils, globulins, and triglycerides than adult mal...
Article
Ninety-six free-ranging rhesus monkeys were evaluated for age-, sex-, and pregnancy-related changes in total serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels and compared with previous studies. Our findings indicate that pregnancy depresses total cholesterol in females and that cholesterol levels tend to increase in males with age. Triglycerides decreased...
Article
Free-ranging patas monkeys (Erythrocebus patas) from El Guayacán island, Puerto Rico, were surveyed to establish values for the hemogram, serum biochemicals, calcium, and phosphorus. Results were tabulated for males and nonpregnant/nonlactating, pregnant, and lactating females. A summary of blood values from previous studies on captive patas monkey...
Article
Sixty-four male and 33 female free-ranging rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) from one of six social groups on the island of Cayo Santiago, Puerto Rico, were surveyed to establish normal values for the hemogram and serum biochemical and electrolytes for the colony. Mean values (± 1 SD) are reported by sex for each of three age groups (2–3, 4–9 and ≥ 1...
Article
Tetanus is a major cause of death in the free-ranging rhesus moonkey colony on the island of Cayo Santiago, Puerto Rico. During the five-year period of observation (July 1, 1976 through June 30, 1981), the mean annual tetanus mortality rate (± 1 SD) was 1.74% (±0.15). The mean annual total mortality rate was 6.77% (±0.78). The tetanus mortality rat...

Citations

... Here, adult men exposed to TCDD in utero or as a child exhibited low sperm counts and decreased motility [103,104]. Although TCDD can affect the reproductive system through its disruption on steroid receptor levels, steroid metabolism, and transport [105,106], it is of great interest to better understand its effect on epigenetics and genomic imprinting. ...
... In total, 25 embryo biopsies were collected. q-PCR results on specific genes (CDX2 and HOXB7) were obtained using unamplified RNA from 10 biopsies (Zaninovic et al., 2012), and 8 biopsies were used for the present study. In the remaining 7 biopsies, the RNA was either of insufficient quality to analyse (n = 6) or another embryo was transferred (n = 1). ...
... In the US, a variety of state laws around insemination limit access to treatment for people living with HIV (Gross et al. [33]). At the same time, HIV infection is considered a disability under the Americans with Disability Act (1990) such that the denial of services to people living with HIV is illegal in most cases (Gross et al. [33]; [38]). Similarly, in some European countries, such as Finland and Ukraine, discrimination legislation has been used to argue for the expansion of fertility services [31,39]. ...
... The fi ltrates were collected into different clean glass test tubes, centrifuged twice at 500 g for 10 min and the supernatants were discarded each time. Finally, 2 mL of capacitation medium (DE JONGE et al., 1988) was added to each sperm pellet separately, vortexed gently for 3 s and kept at 37 °C in an incubator in humid condition containing 5% CO 2 in air for 30 min allowing sperm cells to swim-up into the medium. After incubation, 50 μL of the sperm suspension from each tube was aspirated carefully from upper layer of the medium and resuspended again with 500 μL of capacitation medium in