Richard E. Lucas's research while affiliated with Michigan State University and other places

Publications (230)

Article
The target article proposes a new term—emotional well-being—and a new definition of that term, which are meant to bring clarity to a broad set of psychological constructs that relate to well-being. Although we appreciate the goal of improving scientific communication through the clarification of terms and definitions, both the chosen terminology an...
Article
Full-text available
This paper examines the experienced well-being of employed and unemployed workers. We use the survey-adapted Day Reconstruction Method of the Innovation Sample of the German Socio-Economic Panel Study to analyze the role of the employment status for well-being, incorporating time use. We use the novel P-index to summarize the average share of pleas...
Article
Full-text available
Increasing global policy interest in measuring and improving population wellbeing has prompted academic investigations into the dynamics of lifespan life satisfaction. Yet little research has assessed the complete adolescent age range, although it harbours developmental changes that could affect wellbeing far into adulthood. This study investigates...
Preprint
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Major life events can trigger personality trait change. However, a clear, replicable pattern of event-related personality trait change has yet to be identified. We examined whether the perception of major life events is associated with personality trait change. Therefore, we assessed young adults’ personality traits at five measurement occasions wi...
Article
Within the past several decades, scholars have expressed concerns regarding the psychometric properties of global, retrospective self-reports of well-being (e.g., life satisfaction scales). This has led to the development of purportedly psychometrically superior experiential measures of well-being, such as the day reconstruction method. However, re...
Article
Research on major life events and personality change often focuses on the occurrence of specific life events such as childbirth, unemployment, or divorce. However, this typical approach has three important limitations: (1) Life events are typically measured categorically, (2) it is often assumed that people experience and change from the same event...
Article
Despite constituting a large portion of society, single people—and their satisfaction with singlehood and life—are rarely examined in their own right. How happy are single people and does their happiness change over time? In 3,439 people followed over 10 years, we found that people reported being more satisfied than not, but both singlehood satisfa...
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Full-text available
Research examining the associations between major life events and personality trait development is mixed. Work that evaluates perceptions of life events and how those perceptions are themselves associated with personality traits may help clarify the existing literature. We used a large student sample (N ¼ 1,509) and a demographically diverse sample...
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Full-text available
Personality is not the most popular subfield of psychology. But, in one way or another, personality psychologists have played an outsized role in the ongoing “credibility revolution” in psychology. Not only have individual personality psychologists taken on visible roles in the movement, but our field’s practices and norms have now become models fo...
Preprint
Full-text available
Personality is not the most popular subfield of psychology. But, in one way or another, personality psychologists have played an outsized role in the ongoing “credibility revolution” in psychology. Not only have individual personality psychologists taken on visible roles in the movement, but our field’s practices and norms have now become models fo...
Article
Full-text available
Personality traits continue to change throughout the lifespan. However, we still know little about when, why, and how personality traits change. In this paper, we review the current state of scientific evidence regarding the nature, sources, and processes of personality trait stability and change. We revisit past disputes over the relative importan...
Article
How soldiers adapt to and change in response to the deployment experience has received a great deal of attention. What predicts which soldiers are resilient and which soldiers decline in character strengths across the deployment transition? We examined this question in two analyses drawing from the same data source of soldiers deploying for the fir...
Preprint
Full-text available
Research on major life events and personality change often focuses on the occurrence of specific life events such as childbirth, unemployment, or divorce. However, this typical approach has three important limitations: (1) Life events are typically measured categorically, (2) it is often assumed that people experience and change from the same event...
Article
Full-text available
Science is often perceived to be a self-correcting enterprise. In principle, the assessment of scientific claims is supposed to proceed in a cumulative fashion, with the reigning theories of the day progressively approximating truth more accurately over time. In practice, however, cumulative self-correction tends to proceed less efficiently than on...
Chapter
This chapter is about a more fundamental issue—just how similar are couples when it comes to their personality traits. Fortunately, spousal similarity is a topic of active research in personality psychology. Personality similarity between spouses tends to be fairly modest. Moreover, a consideration of attributes beyond core personality traits provi...
Chapter
This chapter looks at a myth that is the polar opposite of the idea that situations are the primary determinant of happiness. Specifically, it addresses the extreme view that people's ability to adapt to changes in life circumstances is so well developed that major life events have no lasting impact on happiness. Although the idea that situational...
Chapter
In this chapter, the authors describe the steps involved in developing a personality measure, and they hope this information convinces readers of the work in terms of conceptual analysis, evidence gathering, and evidence interpretation that is required to develop a personality measure that has acceptable levels of precision and validity. Armed with...
Chapter
The Positivity book promised to give readers the tools to become “the best version of yourself” and emphasized the importance of obtaining a 3‐to‐1 balance between positive emotions and negative emotions for promoting human growth and potential. The idea of a specific 3‐to‐1 ratio of positivity to negativity was described in an earlier academic art...
Chapter
This chapter begins by briefly refuting the myth that personality disorders are a life sentence but then turn to an extended discussion about the definition of personality disorders and evidence about treatment. It discusses this myth in more detail by acknowledging the challenges of conceptualizing and measuring personality disorders and then summ...
Chapter
Questions about the stability of personality over the life span necessarily build on issues regarding stability from one moment to the next, one day to the next, and one month to the next. Therefore, this chapter introduces some basic ideas about what personality is and what we should expect from people's personalities. As a science of human behavi...
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This chapter explores whether parenting practices systematically affect people's personality traits. The task for personality researchers is to identify the specific non‐shared environmental factors that contribute to personality differences. Parenting practices are often blamed. It is common to hear that parents were too lax with their children or...
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People are complex, and their personalities may simply be too complicated to measure with much accuracy, even if these personalities do have powerful effects on behavior and other outcomes. This chapter addresses the myth that this complexity is so great that useful measures of personality cannot be created. It discusses well‐established steps—step...
Chapter
When thinking about personality characteristics, people might not limit themselves to considering the personalities of individuals. Instead, people may consider broader groups and wonder whether, on average, these groups differ in terms of their collective “personality.” One particularly interesting group‐based stereotype concerns perceptions of na...
Chapter
Personality types are seen as useful fictions that offer a short‐hand way of referring to different configurations of personality information within people in an efficient and reasonable easy to communicate labels. Two broad, almost philosophical approaches to addressing the question of the basic units of a science of personality have emerged in pe...
Chapter
People differ in their levels of happiness, and these levels of happiness persist over time. Some might even consider happiness to be a personality trait or something that approximates a consistent individual difference. When something bad happens, happiness may be replaced by less pleasant feelings like sadness, anxiety, or fear. Therefore, it's n...
Chapter
The basic idea of a projective test is to have research participants, clients, or patients look at standardized images such as inkblots or evocative drawings or photographs and narrate how they interpret the images. Projective tests might be more useful in cases where people lack understanding of their own personalities or in cases where people may...
Chapter
Adolescence is a phase in life characterized by physical, cognitive, and emotional changes. In view of the tradition of viewing adolescence as a difficult time of life, there is a belief that adolescence is perhaps the time of the life span with most substantial personality development. This chapter builds on personality development by drawing on m...
Chapter
The degree of consistency across time raises the possibility that personality traits might become fixed at some point in the life span. William James, one of the most influential psychologists in history, suggested that personality was set like plaster by age 30. This idea has also influenced more modern perspectives, with McCrae and Costa suggesti...
Chapter
This chapter tackles a set of stereotypes that is the target of much speculation and discussion, that is, the difference in personalities between men and women. Meta‐analyses concerning differences between women and men have been conducted for the major personality traits. There are some good reasons to expect that women may score higher on trait l...
Chapter
This chapter focuses on the utility of the typological approach to each individual dimension of the Myers–Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI). The MBTI is based, at least loosely, on a theory of personality proposed by Carl Jung in the early 20th century. The biggest concern about the MBTI is the typological approach on which it is based. In comparison to...
Chapter
Determining whether major life events, traumatic or otherwise, influence personality trait change turns out to be extremely difficult to address in a conclusive fashion. Different people might define traumatic differently. And more importantly, a person's current personality may be related to the tendency to classify things this way. The point is t...
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More recent work has used principles from evolutionary psychology to better understand variation in personality. This chapter illustrates how such advances are changing how personality attributes are understood from evolutionary perspectives. It also illustrates why it is a myth to assume that evolutionary psychology is not relevant to personality...
Chapter
This chapter provides a basic understanding of the types of evidence that have been used to show broad genetic effects on personality. It explores whether personality trait differences result from large effects of single genes. Psychologists have long been aware that genetic differences between people help explain variation in personality traits. T...
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One popular interpretation of W. Mischel's 1968 book was that traits are inconsequential. This leads directly to the myth that traits are useless for predicting outcomes that people (psychologists or otherwise) care about. In this chapter, the authors define the key terms in this myth and then consider the overall evidence about the predictive powe...
Chapter
This chapter presents the debate over structured and unstructured interviews. Unlike the unstructured interviews, structured interviews occur when applicants are asked to address the exact same set of questions in a standardized format. Structured interviews by virtue of their systematic nature place constraints on how such biases can be introduced...
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Personality psychologists focus on characteristics that are thought to be a part of the psychological makeup of the individual. This chapter addresses the myth that the cumulative effect of life experiences results in virtually no long‐term stability in personality traits across the life span. It discusses the evidence for personality consistency o...
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Birth order is an intuitively appealing explanation for why genetically similar siblings are so different. The neo‐Freudian psychotherapist Alfred Adler was a vocal proponent of the idea that birth order was a significant determinant of personality. Evidence that birth order is a systematic predictor of personality is weak. When adequate tests of b...
Chapter
Some psychological researchers seem to equate high self‐esteem with narcissism, especially when they express worries that efforts to enhance or support self‐esteem run the risk of turning children and adolescents into narcissists. In contrast to narcissism, self‐esteem is a less controversial construct that seems to reflect a single psychological a...
Chapter
This chapter addresses the myth that personality is radically different from culture to culture. It aims to clarify two things and gets to the evidence. First, when examining cross‐cultural differences in personality traits, it's important to separate personality characteristics themselves from behaviors that more directly reflect cultural practice...
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This chapter focuses on individual differences in the core personality dispositions captured by contemporary trait models such as the Big Five traits (extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism, and openness) or the Big Three traits (positive emotionality, negative emotionality, and constraint). It considers these kinds of question...
Chapter
This chapter addresses the idea that personality measures are so easily faked that they have no validity. It presents the various issues that arise when studying faking on personality tests and then provides an overview of which issues have been resolved and which still lead to debate. Using personality measures in applied settings follows from a l...
Chapter
This chapter is really about skepticism about whether certain scientific claims have a sufficient evidentiary basis. It begins with some clear cases where interactions between person and environment would be expected; then moves to a broader discussion of the issues that are involved in testing these interactions. If the person–environment‐fit hypo...
Article
Social support has been proposed to be a protective factor that buffers the losses that result from the experience of negative life events. The present study uses data from a large-scale Australian panel study (the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia survey) to examine how life satisfaction changes following the onset of a disabling...
Preprint
Research about the associations between major life events and personality trait development is mixed. Work that evaluates perceptions of life events and how those perceptions are themselves associated with personality traits may help clarify the existing literature. We used a large student sample (N = 1509) to conduct exploratory analyses examining...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: Posttraumatic growth typically refers to enduring positive psychological change experienced as a result of adversity, trauma, or highly challenging life circumstances. Critics have challenged insights from much of the prior research on this topic, pinpointing its significant methodological limitations. In response to these critiques, we...
Preprint
Posttraumatic growth typically refers to enduring positive psychological change experienced as a result of adversity, trauma, or highly challenging life circumstances. Critics have challenged insights from much of the prior research on this topic, pinpointing its significant methodological limitations. In response to these critiques, we propose tha...
Preprint
Increasing global policy interest in measuring and improving population wellbeing has prompted many academic investigations into the dynamics of life satisfaction across the lifespan. While numerous international projects now track adults’ life satisfaction trajectories, little research has simultaneously assessed both adults and adolescents using...
Article
Full-text available
The United Nations described the Syrian conflict as the worst man-made disaster since World War II. We adopted a global perspective in examining the impact of the Syrian conflict on Syrians’ physical, mental, and social well-being using the Gallup World Poll. Face-to-face interview data of 11,452 Syrian participants from 2008 to 2015 show that Syri...
Preprint
Marriage has been linked to higher well-being. However, previous research has generally examined marital status at one point in time or over a relatively short window of time. In order to determine if different marital histories have unique impacts on well-being in later life, we conducted a marital sequence analysis of 7,532 participants from the...
Article
Marriage has been linked to higher well-being. However, previous research has generally examined marital status at one point in time or over a relatively short window of time. In order to determine if different marital histories have unique impacts on well-being in later life, we conducted a marital sequence analysis of 7,532 participants from the...
Article
McCrae (2020) argues that it is premature to explore interventions focused on personality change. In his commentary, he suggests that interventions should be promoted only if their effects in self-report data are confirmed by the additional opinion of informants. We agree with the essence of his position and would go further by envisioning a new fr...
Preprint
Objective: Despite a narrative of post-traumatic growth and resilience, research reliably demonstrating positive character development following adversity has proved elusive. In the current study, we examined changes in character strengths in Army soldiers deploying for the first time. The sample was comprised of 212,386 Army soldiers (Mage = 26.5...
Preprint
Social support has been proposed to be a protective factor that buffers the losses that result from the experience of negative life events. The present study uses data from a large-scale Australian panel study (the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia study) to examine how life satisfaction changes following the onset of a disabling c...
Article
Full-text available
Objective Despite a narrative of post‐traumatic growth and resilience, research reliably demonstrating positive character development following adversity has proved elusive. In the current study, we examined changes in character strengths in Army soldiers deploying for the first time. Method The sample was comprised of 212,386 Army soldiers (Mage...
Article
To what extent are research results influenced by subjective decisions that scientists make as they design studies? Fifteen research teams independently designed studies to answer five original research questions related to moral judgments, negotiations, and implicit cognition. Participants from 2 separate large samples (total N > 15,000) were then...
Article
The day reconstruction method (DRM) is an approach to measuring well-being that is designed to approximate the rich data that can be obtained from intensive repeated measures designs like those used in the experience sampling method (ESM). Although some preliminary tests of the validity of the DRM have been conducted, these typically focus on agree...
Article
Previous research suggests that having close relationships is a fundamental human need that, when fulfilled, is positively associated with subjective well-being. Recently, however, scholars have argued that actually interacting with one's closest partners may be psychologically taxing (e.g., because of pressures to provide support, care, and empath...
Article
The importance of personality for predicting life outcomes in the domains of love, work, and health is well established, as is evidence that personality traits, while relatively stable, can change. However, little is known about the sources and processes that drive changes in personality traits and how such changes might impact important life outco...
Preprint
The importance of personality for predicting life outcomes in the domains of love, work, and health is well established, as is evidence that personality traits, while relatively stable, can change. However, little is known about the sources and processes that drive changes in personality traits, and how such changes might impact important life outc...
Preprint
In theory, Registered Reports eliminate publication bias against negative results because publication decisions are made without knowledge of the results; increase clarity between planned (hypothesis testing; confirmatory) and unplanned (hypothesis generating; exploratory) analyses, thereby increasing the diagnosticity of statistical inferences; an...
Article
Full-text available
To what extent are research results influenced by subjective decisions that scientists make as they design studies? Fifteen research teams independently designed studies to answer five original research questions related to moral judgments, negotiations, and implicit cognition. Participants from two separate large samples (total N > 15,000) were th...
Chapter
Income inequality has risen drastically in recent decades. The question of whether income inequality is linked to subjective and physical well-being has gained increasing interest from various fields. This chapter reviews existing evidence and finds that income inequality is not consistently associated with greater or poorer well-being. The authors...
Article
Full-text available
We identify pragmatic considerations as central for any current evaluation of models of personality trait structure. From this perspective, the HEXACO and Big Five perspectives are each probably good enough for making substantive progress in personality psychology.
Article
Personality traits are powerful predictors of outcomes in the domains of education, work, relationships, health, and well-being. The recognized importance of personality traits has raised questions about their policy relevance, that is, their potential to inform policy actions designed to improve human welfare. Traditionally, the use of personality...
Article
Previous research suggests both relationship status and relationship quality correlate with well-being. The present study extended these findings in three ways. First, we benchmarked individuals with various-quality relationships against uncoupled people to determine whether even low-quality relationships are associated with greater well-being than...
Preprint
This paper examines experienced well-being of employed and unemployed workers. We use the survey-adapted day reconstruction method (DRM) of the Innovation Sample of the German Socio-Economic Panel Study (SOEP-IS) to analyze the role of the employment status for well-being, incorporating complete time use. Summarizing the average share of pleasurabl...
Preprint
Personality traits are powerful predictors of outcomes in the domains of education, work, relationships, health, and well-being. The recognized importance of personality traits has raised questions about their policy relevance – that is, their potential to inform policy actions designed to improve human welfare. Traditionally, the use of personalit...
Article
Global well-being is positively correlated with health. Moreover, studies suggest that health and global well-being predict changes in one another across time. Fewer studies, however, have examined the extent to which health is associated with daily emotional experiences—especially longitudinally. The present study examined the longitudinal associa...
Preprint
The Day Reconstruction Method (DRM) is an approach to measuring well-being that is designed to approximate the rich data that can be obtained from intensive repeated measures designs like those used in the Experience Sampling Method (ESM). Although some preliminary tests of the validity of the DRM have been conducted, these typically focus on agree...
Article
Background: Disablement has been linked to compromised wellbeing in later life, but whether material resources buffer these negative effects is unclear. Objective: Drawing upon conceptual models of stress and coping, we analyze experienced wellbeing data from time diary interviews with adults ages 60 and older. We expect that experienced wellbei...
Article
Background and objectives: The diminished wellbeing of caregivers is well documented, but studies typically draw upon coarse measures of time use and thus provide limited understanding of the role of specific care activities in the daily lives of care providers. This study uses time diary data to explore whether there are signature care patterns t...
Article
The current study examined actor, partner, and similarity effects of personality on a variety of well-being indices, including both global and experiential measures of well-being in 2,578 heterosexual couples (N = 5,156 individuals; M age = 51.04, SD = 13.68) who completed the 2016 Wellbeing and Daily Life supplement to the Panel Study of Income Dy...
Article
Experienced well-being measures tap a distinct form of subjective well-being (SWB) and have different age-related properties than the more widely studied evaluations of life satisfaction. Unlike evaluations of the quality of life as a whole, experiential measures capture affective reactions soon after they occur. Recent advances in measurement have...
Article
Full-text available
The commentaries on our target article are insightful and constructive. There were some critical notes, but many commentaries agreed with, or even amplified our message. The first section of our response addresses comments pertaining to specific parts of the target article. The second section provides a response to the commentaries' suggestions to...
Article
Full-text available
Subjective well-being (SWB) is an extremely active area of research with about 170,000 articles and books published on the topic in the past 15 years. Methodological and theoretical advances have been notable in this period of time, with the increasing use of longitudinal and experimental designs allowing for a greater understanding of the predicto...
Preprint
The commentaries on our target article are insightful and constructive. There were some critical notes, but many commentaries agreed with, or even amplified our message. The first section of our response addresses comments pertaining to specific parts of the target article. The second section provides a response to the commentaries' suggestions to...
Preprint
Experienced well-being measures tap a distinct form of subjective well-being (SWB) and have different age-related properties than the more widely studied evaluations of life based on satisfaction. Unlike evaluations of the quality of life as a whole, experiential measures capture affective reactions soon after they occur. Recent advances in measure...
Article
Full-text available
Dijksterhuis and van Knippenberg (1998) reported that participants primed with an intelligent category (“professor”) subsequently performed 13.1% better on a trivia test than participants primed with an unintelligent category (“soccer hooligans”). Two unpublished replications of this study by the original authors, designed to verify the appropriate...
Article
Full-text available
Time is a finite resource, strictly limited to 24 hours a day. How people spend these resources is in many ways determined by necessities and external constraints, yet research on personality-situation transactions shows that people also choose their environments to resonate with their personality. This finding implies that daily time use and indiv...
Article
Self-report measures of global well-being are thought to reflect the overall quality of people’s lives. However, several scholars have argued that people rely on heuristics, such as current mood, when reporting their global well-being. Experiential well-being measures, such as the day reconstruction method (DRM), have been proposed as an alternativ...
Article
Many philosophers of science and methodologists have argued that the ability to repeat studies and obtain similar results is an essential component of science. A finding is elevated from single observation to scientific evidence when the procedures that were used to obtain it can be reproduced and the finding itself can be replicated. Recent replic...
Preprint
Many philosophers of science and methodologists have argued that the ability to repeat studies and obtain similar results is an essential component of science. A finding is elevated from single observation to scientific evidence when the procedures that were used to obtain it can be reproduced and the finding itself can be replicated. Recent replic...
Article
Life satisfaction judgments are thought to reflect people's overall evaluation of the quality of their lives as a whole. Because the circumstances of these lives typically do not change very quickly, life satisfaction judgments should be relatively stable over time. However, some evidence suggests that these judgments can be easily manipulated, whi...