Rex B. Kline's research while affiliated with Concordia University Montreal and other places

Publications (54)

Article
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Covariance‐based structural equation modelling (CB‐SEM) with reflective measurement has been a popular data analysis tool in organizational and management research. Extensive studies and guidelines have been published on what constitutes its best practice. What is much less known is the extent to which CB‐SEM users in organizational and management...
Article
Background: Lack of insight is a frequent characteristic of psychotic disorders, both in patients who recently experienced a first episode of psychosis (FEP) and those who experience recurrent multiple episodes (MEP). Insight is a multifaceted construct: its clinical form notably includes the unawareness of being ill, of symptoms, and of the need...
Article
In this reply to Rossiter (2018), we note that the goal of developing Journal Article Reporting Standards has been to specify the kinds of information that should be provided to the readers of scientific articles in order to allow maximal understanding of the work being reported—in the case of psychometrics, information that demonstrates the underl...
Article
Full-text available
Following a review of extant reporting standards for scientific publication, and reviewing 10 years of experience since publication of the first set of reporting standards by the American Psychological Association (APA; APA Publications and Communications Board Working Group on Journal Article Reporting Standards, 2008), the APA Working Group on Qu...
Article
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Structural equation modeling (SEM) is becoming an increasingly popular data analytic technique in communication studies. Reports of SEM analyses are published in communication journals (including Communication Research Reports) allowing for hypothesis testing with latent variables, estimation of direct and indirect causal effects, and validity test...
Article
The mediation myth is the false belief that mediation is actually estimated in the typical mediation analysis. This myth is based on a trifecta of shortcomings: (1) the typical mediation study relies on an inadequate design; (2) the researcher uses a flawed analysis strategy; and (3) there is scant attention to assumptions that are required when es...
Article
Test fairness and test bias are not synonymous concepts. Test bias refers to statistical evidence that the psychometrics or interpretation of test scores depend on group membership, such as gender or race, when such differences are not expected. A test that is grossly biased may be judged to be unfair, but test fairness concerns the broader, more s...
Article
Full-text available
Usability is increasingly recognized as an important quality factor for interactive software systems, including traditional GUIs-style applications, Web sites, and the large variety of mobile and PDA interactive services. Unusable user interfaces are probably the single largest reasons why encompassing interactive systems - computers plus people, f...
Article
Evidence shows that integrated development environments (IDEs) are too often functionality-oriented and difficult to use, learn, and master. This article describes challenges in the design of usable IDEs and in the evaluation of the usability of such tools. It also presents the results of three different empirical studies of IDE usability. Differen...
Conference Paper
This is the third in a series of reports about usability and learnability problems of integrated development environments (IDE). The first report used the method of ethnographic interviews, and the second report the methods of heuristic and psychometric evaluation to study problems that developers face in using IDEs. The present study extends previ...
Article
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There is evidence that CASE tools do not completely meet the goal of their diverse users. Part of the problem seems to be a gap between how programs are represented and manipulated in the user interfaces of CASE tools and the experiences of software developers, including maintainers, testers and programmers. The empirical study presented in this pa...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
A previous report identified several usability and learnability problems with integrated development environments (IDE) for Java. That report also cast these problems as examples of a conceptual gap between developer mental models and how programs are represented in IDEs. This present study extends the previous work through heuristic and psychometr...
Article
This study was conducted to assess the relative predictive validity of phonological processing, listening comprehension, general cognitive ability, and visual-motor coordination against early reading skills within a sample of children from diverse linguistic backgrounds. 65 children were tested in kindergarten with measures from each of the aforeme...
Article
This report describes the development of a new, multidimensional teacher report inventory: the Student Behavior Survey (SBS). The SBS is intended to accompany other parent-informant and youth self-report scales constructed by the authors for use in the collection of multi-informant data for child assessments conducted in schools or clinics. The SBS...
Article
When the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children (K-ABC; A. S. Kaufman & N. L. Kaufman, 1983a, 1983b) was published just over 10 years ago, it had many unique features, including its information processing model and specific recommendations for educational remediation. Although the test has received much attention because of these characteristics,...
Article
When the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children (K-ABC; A. S. Kaufman & N. L. Kaufman, 1983a, 1983b) was published just over 10 years ago, it had many unique features, including its information processing model and specific recommendations for educational remediation. Although the test has received much attention because of these characteristics,...
Article
Reports an error in the original article by R. B. Kline et al ( Psychological Assessment , 1993[Sep], Vol 5[3], 307–316). A correction was made to the 1st classification rule in Figure 2. (The following abstract of this article originally appeared in record 1994-16019-001 .) Psychologists who test children for possible special education placement a...
Article
Reports an error in the original article by R. B. Kline et al ( Psychological Assessment , 1993[Sep], Vol 5[3], 307–316). A correction was made to the 1st classification rule in Figure 2. (The following abstract of this article originally appeared in record 1994-16019-001 .) Psychologists who test children for possible special education placement a...
Article
R. W. Kamphaus and C. R. Reynolds developed a scoring system for the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children (K-ABC) in which test users derive alternative summary scores, including General Intelligence, Verbal Intelligence, and Reading composites. In this study, we evaluated the construct validity of this supplementary scoring model with data from...
Article
In earlier studies we developed a hierarchical classification model for the Personality Inventory for Children (PIC)—a parent-informant questionnaire of child adjustment status–intended for use in school settings. In the present study, we constructed and evaluated a profile-matching classification model that extends the usefulness of the PIC as a s...
Article
Of various means to prevent alcohol-related problems among adolescents, school-based educational approaches are very prevalent. The potential effectiveness of such programs will be limited, however, if teenage drinking is determined by factors beyond the influence of school-based interventions, such as demographic characteristics or quality of fami...
Article
Full-text available
Remedial services for children with reading problems are often allocated according to discrepancies between reading and IQ scores. Results of some recent research suggest, however, that IQ scores of poor readers do not covary with their levels of functioning in other cognitive domains. This study evaluated whether the external validity of IQ scores...
Article
Clinicians often attach interpretive significance to high variability among subtest scores in IQ profiles of adults and children. In this study we evaluated the external validity of a relatively new measure of IQ subtest variability, the profile variability index (PVI). Within a sample of referred children, we administered the Kaufman Assessment Ba...
Article
Psychologists who test children for possible special education placement are obliged to incorporate parental input into the assessment process. This investigation studied the utility of a multidimensional, parent-informant questionnaire, the PIC, as a screening measure for the need for special education services. PIC profiles from children in regul...
Article
Scatter analysis of IQ profiles has a long and controversial history. The study was conducted to determine whether the validity of scatter information is any greater for 2 new IQ batteries, the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children (K-ABC) and the Fourth Edition Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale (SB4), than for the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for...
Article
Scatter analysis of IQ profiles has a long and controversial history. The study was conducted to determine whether the validity of scatter information is any greater for 2 new IQ batteries, the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children (K-ABC) and the Fourth Edition Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale (SB4), than for the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for...
Article
The question of whether children's ability tests are biased has received much attention, but the same issue regarding children's personality tests has been neglected. In this study, the authors evaluated whether the external validity of the PIC, a parent-informant measure of child psychological status, was moderated by age, sex, or race. Using a hi...
Article
We evaluated the validity of a profile typology for the Personality Inventory for Children (PIC), a parent-informant measure of child psychiatric status. For referred children, we studied (a) the convergence of PIC profile types with diagnoses according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (3rd ed., American Psychiatric Asso...
Article
We evaluated whether abilities measured by the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children (K-ABC)are as complex as those measured by the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R)within a sample of referred children. Results of factor and multidimensional scaling analyses indicated that abilities tapped by the K-ABC Mental Processing sc...
Article
To enhance the clinical utility of a profile typology constructed in earlier studies and based on the PIC (a parent-informant measure of child and adolescent adjustment and ability), data were collected from mental health case records about presenting problems and problem history, possible etiological factors, family characteristics, and treatment...
Article
Latent variable path analysis (LVPA) is undoubtedly one of "the" new statistical techniques being used increasingly often by clinical researchers. Although well suited for some types of clinical research, LVPA can be a somewhat intimidating technique for novices. This work is intended to provide a non-mathematical introduction to the advantages and...
Article
The Fourth Edition Stanford-Binet is based upon a four-factor hierarchical model of intelligence, and its 15 subtests are partitioned into Verbal Reasoning, Quantitative Reasoning, Abstract/Visual Reasoning, and Short-Term Memory Scales. Results of recent factor analyses indicate, however, that the factor structure of the new Stanford-Binet does no...
Article
While researchers usually are concerned about psychometric properties of psychological tests estimated using large samples, most clinical decision-makers must evaluate the accuracy of test results for individuals. This is particularly true as regards tests that have cutting scores to determine, for example, whether to assign a particular diagnosis...
Article
Evaluated the relations of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-III) diagnoses and the parent-informant PIC within a sample of 839 behaviorally disturbed children and adolescents. In addition, the ability of DSM-III diagnoses and the PIC to predict teacher and clinician behavior ratings was compared. High proportions of childr...
Article
Psychiatric diagnoses and objective parent checklists are alternative ways to describe child adjustment problems. There has recently been interest in evaluating the degree of agreement or convergence between these sources of information. This paper addresses three issues neglected by researchers in this area. The appropriateness of the use of indic...
Article
The accurate assessment of children with developmental disabilities is very challenging. This is particularly true when clinicians must differentiate pervasive developmental disorder (PDD) from mentally retarded (MR) children, and among the various types of PDD syndromes. This study was conducted to evaluate the usefulness of a multidimensional, pa...
Article
Clinical and educational assessment of children requires reliable and valid measures of their behavioral, cognitive, and emotional functioning. The inadequacy of traditional psychiatric categories has long been recognized, and the importance of accurate child adjustment information for educational placement has been appreciated increasingly. This s...
Article
Alcohol use and abuse among adolescents is a serious and complex social problem. Previous research in this area has usually consisted of correlational studies that identified individual factors predictive of teenage drinking. Such simple analytic methods, however, did not allow investigation of interrelations among those parameters that may affect...
Article
We sought to refine the utility of an objective, cluster analytically derived Personality Inventory for Children (PIC) typology of emotionally and behaviorally disturbed children and adolescents constructed in a previous study. Using a sample of 1,333 cases referred for mental health services, we constructed a series of rules to classify the PIC pr...
Article
This study investigates the relationship between maternal psychopathology and the validity of the Personality Inventory for Children (PIC). Specifically, we tested the hypothesis that psychopathology in the parent informant limits the ability of the resulting scale scores to predict actuarially derived descriptions of child emotional and behavior d...
Article
Although different demographic groups of children often obtain unequal mean scores on IQ tests, test bias is only present when external criteria are differentially predicted across these groups. Concern about possible racial bias is relevant for several recently developed parent- or teacher-informant behavior rating inventories that incorporate sca...
Article
Examined the differential predictive accuracy of 7 MMPI Alcoholism scales and 2 Drug Abuse scales across both sex and race in a sample of alcoholic inpatients. Ss included 69 Black males (mean age 33.1 yrs), 43 White males (mean age 33.5 yrs), 25 Black females (mean age 38.1 yrs), and 34 White females (mean age 38 yrs). Results demonstrate consider...
Article
This study investigated the utility of a multidimensional instrument, the Personality Inventory for Children (PIC), to serve as the data base for an empirically derived typology of child and adolescent psychopathology. A cluster-analytic technique was applied to T-score ranges of the 12 PIC full-length substantive profile scales for two independent...
Article
Investigated the utility of a multidimensional instrument, the Personality Inventory for Children (PIC), to serve as the database for an empirically derived typology of child and adolescent psychopathology. A cluster-analytic technique was applied to T-score ranges of the 12 PIC full-length substantive profile scales for 2 independent samples of em...
Article
Recent cluster-analytic research with alcohol-abusing men has demonstrated the existence of several Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) subtypes that are consistent across diverse subject samples. Few such studies have been reported with alcoholic women. Shortcomings of this research include frequent failure to replicate clusters acr...
Article
Full-text available
Usability is increasingly recognized as an important quality factor for interactive software systems, including traditional desktop applications, Web-based systems, and mobile services. The design of this diversity of applications so that they actually achieve their intended purposes is not an easy task. Although there are many individual methods f...

Citations

... CB-SEM was chosen to be used in this research for the following reasons. First, CB-SEM is known to possess feature advantages over other conventional analytical methods as a tool for data analysis suitable for the field of organisational and management research (Zhang et al., 2020). Second, CB-SEM is known as the most appropriate technique for analysing mediating effects compared to other methods due to its advantages such as the ability to be flexible in manipulation of analysis for mediation; the ability to analyse multiple indicators of the same construct in a latent variable model for mediation (Iacobucci et al., 2007); the ability to separate the measurement error from the manifest variable to ensure the most accurate factor loading estimate possible (McDonald, 1996); the ability to identify the multicollinearity problem well, thanks to the tool of modification index assigned to this application (McIntosh et al., 2014). ...
... Повышенная самоуверенность наблюдается у лиц с высоким риском психоза и предваряет развитие психотического состояния [63]. Когнитивный компонент критики в свою очередь положительно влияет на клиническое понимание состояния и может выступать медиатором при формировании осознания пациентами своего расстройства и его клинических проявлений [64][65][66]. ...
... In response, numerous organizations, working groups, and advisory committees have been set up to develop recommendations and guidelines that aim to improve replicability, reproducibility, credibility, and transparency in research (e.g. Aczel et al., 2020;Appelbaum et al., 2018;Kidwell et al., 2016;Morey et al., 2016;NIH, 2021a;Nosek et al., 2015;NSF, 2021a;Open Science MOOC, 2018;SIPS, 2021;The FOSTER consortium, 2021a). Collectively, these recommendations and practices that are broadly aimed at improving scientific research integrity have become known as 'open science'. ...
... This approach emphasizes getting the empirical facts straight before drawing conclusions about their implications for substantive hypotheses. An additional advantage to the approach is that it solves the problem of effect size inflation demonstrated by the Open Science Collaboration [1] and discussed subsequently by many authors (e.g., [7][8][9][10][11][12] and [4]). As will be elaborated later, the present focus is on obtaining good sample estimates of population parameters-however large or small the population parameters may be-and not on obtaining sample effect sizes sufficiently large to render p-values under threshold. ...
... Finally, to assess the extent to which the item can be used repeatedly and yield consistent results (construct reliability) was assessed in terms of Cronbach's (1951) alpha coefficient and composite reliability. The results indicate that Cronbach's alpha coefficient and composite reliability scores for all study constructs were above the required minimum of 0.70, meaning that internal consistency was also established (Kline 1999). ...
... The second trend comes from the empirical literature, which over the past 20 years has begun to demonstrate that subtest scores retain limited external validity. Examples of diminished utility include the inability of either individual subtest scores or score patterns to inform the identification of neurological deficits (Watkins, 1996), the diagnosis of learning disabilities (Daley & Nagle,1996;Glutting, McGrath, Kamphaus, & McDermott, 1992;Kavale & Forness, 1984;Kline, Snyder, Guilmette, & Castellanos, 1992;Livingston, Jennings, Reynolds, & Gray, 2003;Maller & McDermott, 1997;McDermott, Goldberg, Watkins, Stanley, & Glutting, in press;Mueller, Dennis, & Short, 1986;Reynolds & Kamphaus, 2003;Smith & Watkins, 2004;Ward, Ward, Hatt, Young, & Mollner, 1995;Watkins, 1999Watkins, , 2000Watkins, , 2003Watkins & Kush, 1994;Watkins, Kush, & Glutting, 1997a, 1997bWatkins, Kush, & Schaefer, 2002;Watkins & Worrell, 2000), or the classification of behavioral, social, and emotional problems (Beebe, Pfiffner, & McBurnett, 2000;Dumont, Farr, Willis, & Whelley, 1998;Glutting et al., 1992;Glutting et al., 1998;Lipsitz, Dworkin, & Erlenmeyer-Kimling, 1993;Reinecke, Beebe, & Stein, 1999;Riccio, Cohen, Hall, & Ross, 1997;Rispens et al., 1997;Teeter & Korducki, 1998). Indeed, nonreactive support for this trend comes from a retrospective review of textbooks on children's intelligence testing (cf. ...
... The data was foremost checked for univariate outliers by computing the standardized scores for all cases. The analysis did not detect any univariate outliers as all cases are less than three standard deviations (Goodboy and Kline, 2016). Although none of the individual scores may be considered an outlier, the case can still be considered a multivariate outlier if this pattern is unusual in the sample. ...
... Although this is in line as the sole measure of cognitive ability. The different subscales of this measure are difficult to interpret which lowers the validity of both subscales [54,55]. However, since the total score for cognitive ability (Mental Processing Composite) was the main outcome of this study, the interpretation of the subscales might be less important. ...
... A French Score was computed by taking the average of the ÉVIP Score and Proficiency Score (out of 10). As recommended by Kline (2001), a composite score for intelligence was computed by taking the average standardized score of the PPVT and Raven's Progressive Matrices. Age, Intelligence, Attention (SWAN score), and Bilingualism (French Score) were centered so that each variable had a mean of 0 and a standard deviation of 15. ...
... The use of mediational analyses on cross-sectional designs is controversial because such designs fail to consider time precedence. However, the examination of indirect effects crosssectionally is acceptable as long as directionality assumptions have a strong rationale (Kline 2015). Alternative effects of sex, externalizing, and/or internalizing problems on BZD misuse can be ruled out because such variables have no effect on one's sex. ...