René Gapert's research while affiliated with University College Dublin and other places

Publications (32)

Article
This study examined the sexual dimorphism in variables of the foramen magnum in a modern German population. This includes measurements of the maximum width, the maximum length, the circumference and the area of the foramen magnum, which were taken using the imaging software OsiriX (v.4.1.1. 64 bit). The data set includes 200 cadavers (100 males, 10...
Chapter
Full-text available
Introduction The coast off the southeastern tip of Ireland has been, over the years, the site of many 'finds' involving human remains in various stages of decomposition and disarticulation. There are a number of reasons for this, including the direction of the current and the convergence of two seas, the Irish Sea and the Celtic Sea, via the St. Ge...
Poster
The advancement of modern diagnostic imaging such as digital radiography, magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography (CT) permits the acquisition of large amounts of data from modern human populations. This study examines the extend of sexual dimorphism of the foramen magnum dimensions within a modern adult German population using CT datase...
Article
Background: Doxylamine (DA) is widely available in pharmacies without prescription and can be used in suicidal intention because of its sedative and anticholinergic properties. Research of literature shows that only a few publications deal with post-mortem evidence of DA and its interpretation during toxicological examination. Material and method...
Article
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are commonly used as analgesics and antipyretics in Western countries. Gastrointestinal (GI) disorders are common side effects of NSAIDs and other drugs. This study investigated the correlation between chronic use of these substances and GI lesions by analyzing postmortem blood and hair samples from au...
Article
This report demonstrates how carbon dioxide (CO2) may be a potent weapon in murder-suicide, where the death scene offers virtually no clues as to the lethal modality and the autopsy findings are nonspecific. Four bodies were discovered in an apartment in midsummer 2012 in Berlin, Germany. The bodies were those of a father (a 69-year-old business co...
Article
There now lay revealed such a horror as would have overwhelmed us had we not been prepared. Through a nearly square opening in the tiled floor, sprawling on a flight of stone steps so prodigiously worn that it was little more than an inclined plane at the centre, was a ghastly array of human or semi-human bones. Those which retained their collocati...
Article
The discovery of human remains dating to the time of the Second World War is a common occurrence in Europe and the Pacific regions. This case report demonstrates the analysis of a bone fragment recovered from a Luftwaffe crash site in Austria during the summer of 2007. Eye-witness statements and official reports were used to reconstruct the histori...
Article
Alcohol consumption during pregnancy is a widespread problem and can cause severe fetal damage. As the diagnosis of fetal alcohol syndrome is difficult, the implementation of a reliable marker for alcohol consumption during pregnancy into meconium drug screening programs would be invaluable. A previously published gas chromatography mass spectromet...
Article
Autopsies conducted at the university Institutes of Legal Medicine in Berlin, Germany in the time period from 1997 to 2012 were retrospectively analyzed for the frequency and phenomenology of fatal infant and juvenile cases of falls from low and great heights and compared with previous studies. The 16,211 autopsy protocols analyzed included 22 case...
Article
Diphenhydramine (DPH), an H1-antihistamine, is identified during postmortem toxicological analyses on a relatively rare but still regular basis. This study examines suicidal intoxications with DPH by analyzing blood and gastric content concentration levels. Twenty cases of DPH intoxications within a 10-year period (2000-2010) were discovered by scr...
Article
Sex differences in the foramen magnum region of the cranial base have been identified with varying rates of success. Recent publications demonstrate a continuing strong interest in metric analysis of the foramen magnum region for sex determination despite the generally low expression of cranial base sexual dimorphism. It is important to identify po...
Article
Alcohol abuse is a common problem in society; however, the technical capabilities of evaluating individual alcohol consumption using objective biomarkers are rather limited at present. In recent years research has focused on alcohol markers using hair analysis but data on performance and reliable cut-off values are still lacking. In this study 169...
Article
Proof of live birth is of major importance in suspected neonaticide cases. Although not without controversy the lung flotation test is the main method used to asses this in different jurisdictions worldwide. The present study examines the usefulness of postmortem multislice computed tomography (pmMSCT) in the detection of live birth signs. Body sca...
Poster
• In November 2007 a volunteer team examined a World War II plane crash site in Austria. According to reports a Focke Wulf 190 had crashed into a hillside forest on 23 August 1944 after being strafed by an American P-51 Mustang. • The site was located in an area that was difficult to access due to the steepness of the hill and the dense vegetation....
Thesis
The identification of human skeletal remains is one of the most important objectives of anthropologists working in medico-legal contexts. The establishment of identity from human bones is based on four main characteristics: age, sex, ethnicity and stature. The majority of these characteristics can be established relatively quickly if the skeleton i...
Article
Fragmentary human remains compromised by different types of inhumation, or physical insults such as explosions, fires, and mutilations may frustrate the use of traditional morphognostic sex determination methods. The basicranium is protected by a large soft tissue mass comprising muscle, tendon, and ligaments. As such, the occipital region may prov...
Article
The successful identification of the deceased is vital to the progress of any forensic investigation. One of the principal biological traits to be established from skeletal remains is the sex of the individual. This becomes more difficult if only parts of a skeleton are found or if the bones are compromised by physical insults such as fire, explosi...
Conference Paper
The adult human occipital bone offers opportunities to develop measurements that can aid in the identification of human remains, particularly as it tends to survive inhumation and physical insults more readily than many other bones of the skull. The occiput has a number of anatomical features, some of which have been evaluated for sex and ancestry...
Article
Full-text available
Human skeletal remains are analysed by forensic anthropologists in order to draw conclusions about the probable identity of the deceased. During the analysis, the skull is used, along with other bones, to help determine the identity of the decedent. If only the base of the skull is available, forensic researchers take manual measurements from the l...
Article
Endocranial capacity has been studied in fossil remains in order to draw conclusions on the brain capacity of early man. No study has been undertaken to examine the possible relationship between endocranial capacity and the size of the foramen magnum in recent adult human crania. The relationship between foramen magnum size and endocranial capacity...
Poster
Endocranial capacity has been studied in fossil remains in order to draw conclusions on the brain capacity of early man. No study has been undertaken to examine the possible relationship between endocranial capacity and the size of the foramen magnum in recent adult human crania. The relationship between foramen magnum size and endocranial capacity...

Citations

... Globally there are a handful of example applications of isotope testing in unidentified decedent casework (e.g., Fauberteau et al., 2020;Font, van der Peijl, et al., 2015;Kealy et al., 2014;Lehn et al., 2015;Meier-Augenstein, 2018;Meier-Augenstein & Fraser, 2008;Rauch et al., 2007). The major focus has been on "cold cases" in an attempt to provide new investigative leads for either a single set or small groups of remains. ...
... Hair minerals accumulate into the cortex of the hair (Combs, 1987). Hair analysis detects the causes of some toxic cases in animals, such as the presence of lead, molybdenum, or arsenic (Harkey, 1993;Henderson, 1993;Krumbiegel et al., 2014). ...
... This is the most commonly reported motive in the literature [1]. In one case that involved a 69-year-old father killing his wife and his two sons by carbon dioxide poisoning, possible financial motives were mentioned in his suicide note [13]. ...
... X-ray and PMCT have been recommended especially in case of an odd number of lesions at visual inspection [15,16] (levels 4-5), but retained missiles were found even when no gunshot at all was suspected [15,[17][18][19][20] (level 5). In decomposed, skeletal, mummified or charred bodies, the presence of an ammunition could be the only clue of the firearm fatality [1,18] (levels 4-5), though the possibility of old retained bullets should always be considered [17,21] (level 5). ...
... Sex estimation accuracy rates of between 58.8 % and 90.9 % have been reported when only foramen magnum measurements were used ( Table 1). In some studies, using occipital condyle measurements together with foramen magnum measurements has provided some improvements in sex estimation accuracy, with accuracy rates reaching 94.0 % [10][11][12][13][14][15][16]18,20,[30][31][32][33][34][35]44] (Table 1). In addition, one study claimed that sex estimation could be made with an accuracy rate of 96 % using only foramen magnum measurements [8]. ...
... Serum cotinine and gammaglutamyl transferase (GGT) were respectively used as biochemical markers for smoking status and alcohol consumption. 38,39 Cotinine was measured by means of a modular Roche automised (Switzerland) apparatus using a homogeneous immunoassay. Cotinine, a metabolite of nicotine, defined habitual smokers when levels were ≥ 14.99 ng/ml. ...
... This is due to the impact of the body on the ground, which differs from trauma caused by an airplane crash. Few studies are available that report airplane crashes in an archaeological context (Gapert & Rieder, 2013;Palmiotto et al., 2020). Most of these types of studies are reported in forensic literature (Byard & Tsokos, 2006;de Bakker et al., 2018) were quite well preserved and tended to be present in their entirety. ...
... In this context, considering the responsibility of the mother, the identification of new molecular biomarkers to demonstrate prenatal exposure remains challenging for the scientific community [47][48][49][50][51]: in different countries, there is a legal responsibility for the mother if her newborn tests positive for abused substances [52]. The considerations about the mother's responsibility are strictly related to each country. ...
... Hingegen waren die ebenfalls lediglich apotheken-, aber nicht verschreibungspfl ichtigen H1-Antihistaminika in unserer Gruppe auff allend stark vertreten, Diphenhydramin zweimal als Einzelsubstanz und zusätzlich einmal in Kombination mit Doxylamin und einmal zusammen mit Doxepin und Melperon. Das ist bemerkenswert, da die therapeutische Breite der H1-Antihistaminika sehr hoch ist und die Substanzen als sicher gelten, Suizide werden selten berichtet (Bockholdt et al., 2001;Eckes et al., 2013;Nine & Rund, 2006). Die Möglichkeit des rezeptfreien Verkaufs an Minderjährige, insbesondere in größeren Abgabemengen, ist kritisch zu hinterfragen. ...