Rémy Willinger's research while affiliated with University of Strasbourg and other places

Publications (130)

Article
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Purpose To compare instrumentation configurations consisting of bilateral single or double rods and additional interbody cages (IBCs) at different levels in terms of Range of Motion (ROM) and distribution of von Mises stress in rods. Methods A previously validated L1-pelvis finite element model was used and instrumented with configurations consist...
Article
Objective The automotive industry's shift toward automated vehicles allows the occupants to assume postures different from the standard upright seated position. Injury criteria assessments are needed under these nonstandard postures to advance safety. The objective of this study is to develop a new device that can position the human cadaver head-ne...
Article
Surgical corrections of degenerative lumbar scoliosis and sagittal malalignment are associated with significant complications, such as rod fractures and pseudarthrosis, particularly in the lumbosacral junction. Finite element studies can provide relevant insights to improve performance of spinal implants. The aim of the present study was to present...
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Concussion, in spite of being a mild traumatic brain injury, involves serious long term consequences and can adversely affect the life of an individual, their family and the wider society. Since, diffuse axonal injury (DAI) is known to be one of the most frequent pathological features of traumatic brain injury (TBI), knowledge of the mechanical thr...
Chapter
Traumatic brain injury is the leading cause of death and permanent impairment in accidents. In both the severe and mild TBI, diffuse axonal injury (DAI) is the most common pathology. Computation of axon elongation by using finite element head model in numerical simulation can enlighten the DAI mechanism and helps to establish advanced tissue level...
Article
Advanced neck finite element modeling and development of neck injury criteria are important for the design of optimal neck protection systems in automotive and other environments. They are also important in virtual tests. The objectives of the present study were to develop a detailed finite element model (FEM) of the human neck and couple it to the...
Article
The helmet is the only head protection element for jockey in the falling situation. To date, the standard test for shock absorption capacity of the equestrian helmet consists of only linear impacts and uses outdated injury criteria. Previous studies have shown the existence of normal and tangential components of the impact velocity. The present stu...
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Multy-body simulation is applied to compute the motorcyclist’s kinematic in case of virtual motorcycle versus car accident. Results show that for over 50% of the simulations, the impact velocities of the whole body exceed 8 m/s when impacting the vehicle and 4 m/s at the time of road impact. The head impacts the vehicle most often with a speed exce...
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Introduction: The evaluation of head protection systems needs proper knowledge of the head impact conditions in terms of impact speed and angle, as well as a realistic estimation of brain tolerance limits. In current bicycle helmet test procedures, both of these aspects should be improved. Method: The present paper suggests a bicycle helmet eval...
Article
Based on real-world bicycle accident reconstructions and virtual accident simulations, the present study proposes realistic head-impact conditions in terms of oblique impact velocities. Thus, an existing bicycle helmet has been impacted frontally and laterally under oblique impacts with a Hybrid III dummy head fully instrumented for a 6D motion rec...
Article
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the leading cause of death and permanent impairment over the last decades. In both the severe and mild TBI, diffuse axonal injury (DAI) is the most common pathology. Computation of axon elongation by using finite element (FE) head model in numerical simulation can enlighten the DAI mechanism and help to establish adv...
Article
The study was dealing with to evaluate whether the motorcycle impact speed reduction produced by an ideal Motorcycle Autonomous Emergency Braking system (M-AEB) is sufficient to significantly reduce the head injury severity of a helmeted rider. A set of thirteen motorcycle crashes were analysed. Multibody simulations of the victim’s kinematics were...
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Background: A novel bicycle helmet concept has been developed to mitigate rotational head acceleration, which is a predominant mechanism of traumatic brain injury (TBI). This WAVECEL concept employs a collapsible cellular structure that is recessed within the helmet to provide a rotational suspension. This cellular concept differs from other bicyc...
Article
Blast pulmonary trauma are common consequences of modern war and terrorism action. To better protect soldiers from that threat, the injury risk level when protected and unprotected must be assessed. Knowing from the literature that a possible amplification of the blast threat would be provided by some thoracic protective systems, the objective is t...
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Experiments have been conducted using isolated tissues of the spine such as ligaments, functional units, and subaxial cervical spine columns. Forces and or moments under external loading can be obtained at the ends of these isolated/segmented preparations; however, these models require fixations at the end(s). To understand the response of the enti...
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In road and off-road motorcycle accidents, neck injury often has a catastrophic outcome if not fatal. To protect motorcyclists’ necks, a number of neck–braces are available on the market. The level of protection from these systems is not well reported because of the absence of an accepted neck-loading evaluation standard. The present study proposed...
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Retinal hemorrhages (RH) are among injuries sustained by a large number of shaken baby syndrome victims, but also by a small proportion of road accident victims. In order to have a better understanding of the underlying of RH mechanisms, we aimed to develop a complete human eye and orbit finite element model. Five occipital head impacts, at differe...
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With the increasing use of improvised explosive devices (IEDs), the need for better mitigation, either for building integrity or for personal security, increases in importance. Before focusing on the interaction of the shock wave with a target and the potential associated damage, knowledge must be acquired regarding the nature of the blast threat,...
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To better protect soldiers from blast threat, that principally affect air-filled organs such a lung, it is necessary to develop an adapted injury criterion and, prior to this, to evaluate the response of a biological model against that threat. The objective of this study is to provide some robust data to quantify the chest response of post-mortem s...
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The new Regulation 129 is a keystone in child safety as child restraint systems are now evaluated in side impact tests with Q-dummies. Research works have, nevertheless, shown that regulatory assessment criteria are not well correlated with head injuries. As a consequence, the present study aims to compare two child seat versions regarding biomecha...
Conference Paper
The new regulation 129 is a keystone in child safety as child restraint systems are now evaluated in side impact tests with Q-dummies. Research works have nevertheless shown that regulatory assessment criteria are not well correlated with head injuries. As a consequence, the present study aims to compare two baby-shell versions regarding biomechani...
Conference Paper
Small electric vehicles (SEVs) will increase substantially especially in urban areas. SEVs show distinctive design differences compared to traditional vehicles (e.g. outboard wheels, vertical windscreen). � Collisions will be different � SEVs (“L7e”) are not addressed by current vehicle safety evaluation methods � Virtual testing in future would be...
Conference Paper
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In case of blast event, the air pressures applied to a dismounted soldier are complex as fluid-structure interactions such as blast reflections and diffractions, occur. A good understanding of those effect is necessary to predict or mitigate the underlying injuries. In the BLASTHOR project, consisting of such comprehension studies, the focus is put...
Conference Paper
This research addresses the assessment of head injury risks in pedestrian impacts in different codes. The methodology discussed identifies some key building blocks necessary for virtual assessment. These key building blocks form the basis for assessing head injuries in event of pedestrian collision using a validated head model developed at the Univ...
Article
The main objective of this study is to develop a methodology to assess this risk based on experimental tests versus numerical predictive head injury simulations. A total of 16 non-lethal projectiles (NLP) impacts were conducted with rigid force plate at three different ranges of impact velocity (120, 72 and 55 m/s) and the force/deformation–time da...
Conference Paper
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Based on an existing in‐depth accident database available at Florence University, a total of 19 motorcycle accidents were selected for reconstruction using a multibody simulation approach. These computations give access to the head impact conditions in terms of initial head velocity vector. The real‐world accident simulation permitted the comput...
Conference Paper
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The main objectives of this study are to understand the complex shockwave‐structure interaction, in addition to the influence of the side‐on pressure profile generated by the detonation of an explosive charge on simplified torso surrogates’ responses. To achieve those objectives, rigid and deformable rectangular parallelepipeds (RPP) and cylinder...
Article
Since World War II, researchers have been interested in exploring the injury mechanisms involved in primary blast on the thorax by using animal models and surrogates. These studies were mostly concerned with the finding of the lung injury threshold and the relationship between the physical components of the air blast-wave and the biological respons...
Article
The purpose of this study is to investigate the brain-strain-based thresholds for better prediction of the diffuse axonal injury (DAI) induced by a rotational acceleration on the rat brain. A previously developed and validated rat head finite element model was used to reconstruct 26 in vivo rat head impact experiments. DAI was produced via the high...
Conference Paper
In the next 20 years the share of small electric vehicles (SEVs) will increase especially in urban areas. SEVs show distinctive design differences compared to traditional vehicles. Thus the consequences of impacts of SEVs with vulnerable road users (VRUs) and other vehicles will be different from traditional collisions. No assessment concerning veh...
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The effect of head mass on its biomechanical response during lateral impact to the head is investigated in this computational study. The mass of the head of a state-of-the-art validated finite element head model is altered by ±10 % from the base value of 4.7 kg. Numerical simulations of lateral head impacts for 30 cases (representing 15 human cadav...
Article
The objective of this study was to determine the responses of 5th-percentile female, and 50th- and 95th-percentile male human heads during lateral impacts at different velocities and determine the role of the stiffness and shape of the impacting surface on peak forces and derived skull fracture metrics. A state-of-the-art validated finite element (...
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Violently shaking a baby leads to clinical presentations ranging from seizures to cardiopulmonary arrest. The main injuries sustained are retinal hemorrhages, subdural hemorrhages, and sometimes fractures and spine injury. It is important to have a global view of the injuries sustained by the infant to correctly discuss the biomechanical aspects of...
Conference Paper
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An existing finite element head model is enhanced in terms of composite modeling and new constitutive law for the skull. The advanced FE head model is validated against the entire time domain response obtained from 15 side impact experiments conducted with postmortem human surrogates. The new skull model is capable of reproducing skull fracture in...
Article
This paper proposes the implementation of fractional anisotropy and axonal fiber orientation from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) of 12 healthy patients into an existing human FE head model to develop a more realistic brain model with advanced constitutive laws. Further, the brain behavior was validated in terms of brain strain against experimental...
Conference Paper
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This research was conducted to assess the safety performance of a commercial motorcycle helmet, homologated by the most relevant current standards and currently available in the market. The evaluation was based on accurate reproduction of translational impacts specified by the ECE R22.05 standard to assess motorcycle helmets. The Finite Element num...
Conference Paper
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The coupling of new medical imaging data, fractional anisotropy and axonal fiber orientation from Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) of 12 healthy patients called DTI atlas with Strasbourg University Finite Element Head Model has been done to improve the brain constitutive material law with more efficient improved heterogeneous anisotropic visco hyper-...
Article
A composite material model for skull, taking into account damage is implemented in the Strasbourg University finite element head model (SUFEHM) in order to enhance the existing skull mechanical constitutive law. The skull behavior is validated in terms of fracture patterns and contact forces by reconstructing 15 experimental cases. The new SUFEHM s...
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Objective: The aim of the current study was to study the kinematics of adult pedestrians and assess head injury risks based on real-world accidents. Methods: A total of 43 passenger car versus pedestrian accidents, in which the pedestrian's head impacted the windscreen, were selected from accident databases for simulation study. According to rea...
Conference Paper
Head injury is one of the most frequent causes of death and impairment sustained by pedestrians, cyclists, motorcyclists, vehicle occupants in road accidents and accounts for approximately half of the road fatalities in the European Union. Improved head injury assessment is now necessary to predict the potential head injury risk under different imp...
Article
Full-text available
Use of bicycles on a large scale, encouraged in the context to develop an eco-friendly environment, is facing today a range of barriers. One of these barriers identified by researchers and governments is observed to include ‘road safety’. Hence, it is necessary to set up a protection system for bicyclists especially for the cephalic segment. Curren...
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The objective of this study is to assess head injury risks of adult pedestrians using computer reconstructions of the accidents. For this purpose, accident reconstructions were developed based on the real-world pedestrian accidents. The impact conditions, which were obtained from the previous study [Y. Peng, C. Deck, J.K. Yang, D. Otte, and R. Will...
Article
The objective of the present study is to investigate the mechanical behavior of windshield laminated glass in the case of a pedestrian’s head impact. Windshield FE models were set up using different combinations for the modeling of glass and PVB, with various connection types and two mesh sizes (5 mm and 10 mm). Each windshield model was impacted w...
Article
The aim of our work was to expand on the knowledge concerning mild Traumatic Brain Injuries (TBI), by combining numerical modeling and animal experiments within a joint approach. A three-dimensional finite element model of the rat brain and braincase was developed, and experimental acceleration pulses were applied. Pulse data were obtained from tes...
Article
The objective was to assess head injury risks and kinematics of adult pedestrians and bicyclists in primary impact to the passenger cars and secondary impact to the ground using real world accident data and computer reconstructions of the accidents. For this purpose, a subsample of 402 pedestrians and 940 bicyclists from the GIDAS database, Germany...
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The objective of the study is to investigate the effects of pedestrian gait, vehicle-front geometry and impact velocity on the dynamic responses of the head. The multi-body dynamic (MBD) models were used to simulate the head responses in vehicle to pedestrian collisions with different vehicle types in terms of head-impact point measured with Wrap A...
Data
Full-text available
The use of the bicycle on a large scale encouraged in the context to develop an eco friendly environment is facing today on a range of barriers. One of these barriers identified by researchers and governments is observed to include 'road safety'. Hence, it is necessary to set up a protection system for bicyclists especially for the cephalic segment...
Article
Abdominal organs are the most vulnerable body parts during vehicle trauma, leading to high mortality rate due to acute injuries of liver, kidney, spleen and other abdominal organs. Accurate mechanical properties and FE models of these organs are required for simulating the traumas, so that better designing of the accident environment can be done an...
Article
The objective of the present study was to present a method to assess the protective performance of a passenger car hood to decrease pedestrian head injuries in car-to-pedestrian collisions by using a validated human head finite element (FE) model. Three types of hoods, sandwich structure hood, multi-cone and wavilness inner-panel hoods, made of alu...