Reinhold Bergström's research while affiliated with Uppsala University Hospital and other places

Publications (108)

Article
Survival rates during a follow-up period of more than seven years were analyzed in 1,349 women with breast cancer in relation to the histo-pathological classification of female breast cancer proposed by Ackerman and to other commonly used histo-pathological criteria, including the axillary node status. The information was collected prospectively du...
Article
A case-control study was undertaken to investigate the influence of exogenous estrogens and climacteric symptoms on the risk of developing endometrial carcinoma. The study comprised 254 women with newly diagnosed endometrial carcinoma, resident in a defined geographical area, and 254 age-matched population controls. Treatment with estrogens for 4 y...
Article
Infection with Helicobacter pylori is associated with an increased risk of gastric cancer. Several studies have indicated that the association differs with strain type. We aimed to find out if infection with strains lacking the virulence factor CagA is linked to gastric cancer risk. In a hospital-based case-control study, we collected sera from 100...
Article
Epidemiological evidence is accumulating that sexual history may be associated with prostate cancer, and some studies have suggested a relation between human papilloma virus (HPV) infections and prostate cancer. We measured the presence of antibodies to the major oncogenic HPV types 16, 18, and 33 among 238 subjects with untreated prostate cancer a...
Article
Sweden has one of the largest population-based cancer registers in the world that provides an opportunity to examine the trend of lung cancer incidence during a 35-year period. The primary aim of the present study was to estimate the effects of birth cohort, year of diagnosis (period), and age on the time trends of lung cancer incidence rates, and...
Article
Full-text available
The incidence of squamous cell carcinoma of the skin is increasing world-wide, and in Sweden this tumour is one of the most rapidly increasing malignancies. The aim of this study was to investigate incidence trends of squamous cell carcinoma in Sweden. For the 39,805 tumours registered in the Swedish Cancer Registry 1961-1995, incidence rates were...
Article
We sought to evaluate the effects of a number of factors that can potentially determine the optimal time for aortic valve replacement (AVR) and the observed and relative survival after the operation. Aortic valve replacement is performed in patients within a wide age span, but the proportion of elderly patients is increasing. In survival analyses,...
Article
While tobacco and alcohol are established risk factors for oesophageal squamous-cell carcinoma, their roles in the aetiology of the increasingly common oesophageal adenocarcinoma remains uncertain. We tested the association between tobacco, snuff and alcohol use and the risk of oesophageal and cardia cancer in a nationwide, population-based case-co...
Article
While tobacco and alcohol are established risk factors for oesophageal squamous-cell carcinoma, their roles in the aetiology of the increasingly common oesophageal adenocarcinoma remains uncertain. We tested the association between tobacco, snuff and alcohol use and the risk of oesophageal and cardia cancer in a nationwide, population-based case-co...
Article
Few studies have provided information on the role of smoking and alcohol in the carcinogenesis of gastric cancer by sub-site and histologic type. The relationship of snuff dipping with risk of gastric cancer has also been rarely studied. In a population-based case-control study conducted in 5 counties of Sweden from February 1989 to January 1995, a...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: Our purpose was to investigate effects of physical activity on risk for breast cancer. Methods: From the Swedish nationwide censuses in 1960 and 1970 we defined three partly overlapping cohorts of women whose occupational titles allowed reproducible classification of physical demands at work in 1960 (n=704,904), in 1970 (n=982,270), or w...
Article
Full-text available
Unopposed estrogen replacement therapy (i.e., estrogen without progestins) increases the risk of endometrial cancer. In this study, we examined the endometrial cancer risk associated with combined estrogen-progestin regimens currently in use, since the safety profiles of these regimens have not been clearly defined. We conducted a nationwide popula...
Article
Objective: We studied the risk of breast and endometrial cancer in a cohort of 11,231 Swedish women prescribed different replacement hormone regimens. Methods: All 10,472 women at risk of developing breast cancer and 8,438 women at risk of endometrial cancer were followed up from the time of the questionnaire in 1987–88 through 1993, by record-link...
Article
To assess changes in human fertility over time. Time-trend analyses and age-period-cohort modeling. Sweden, 1983-1993. All primiparous women aged > or =20 years during the study period. There were 401,653 women who were identified through the nationwide Medical Birth Register. None. Risk of subfertility, defined as > or =1 year of involuntary child...
Article
Full-text available
Reports of dramatic increases in gastric cardia cancer incidence warrant concern. However, the recent introduction of a separate diagnostic code, the lack of a consensus definition of the cardia area, and the accelerating interest in cardia cancer may affect classification practices. Little is known about the magnitude of cardia cancer misclassific...
Article
Urogenital symptoms are common among postmenopausal women. Such symptoms may be alleviated by low-potency oestrogen formulations administered orally or vaginally. Although low-potency oestrogen formulations are assumed to have few, if any, adverse effects on the endometrium, risk of endometrial neoplasia has not been quantified. In a nationwide pop...
Article
While use of hormone-replacement therapy (HRT) effectively alleviates menopausal symptoms and prevents osteoporosis and possibly cardiovascular disease, there is concern of a detrimental impact on breast-cancer risk. There is a particular lack of data regarding the effect of long-term use of oestrogen-progestin combinations on breast-cancer risk. W...
Article
Full-text available
To examine fertility patterns in women who had their appendix removed in childhood. Historical cohort study with computerised data and fertility data for this cohort and for an age matched cohort of women from the Swedish general population. The cohorts were followed to 1994. General population. 9840 women who were under 15 years when they underwen...
Article
Full-text available
The causes of adenocarcinomas of the esophagus and gastric cardia are poorly understood. We conducted an epidemiologic investigation of the possible association between gastroesophageal reflux and these tumors. We performed a nationwide, population-based, case-control study in Sweden. Case ascertainment was rapid, and all cases were classified unif...
Article
Full-text available
Infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 has been implicated as a risk factor for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in three seroepidemiologic studies. We conducted a larger, population-based study to verify this association and to investigate possible confounding factors. We performed a nationwide case-control study in Sweden of HPV16 or...
Article
It is unclear whether age at menarche is causally involved in breast-cancer aetiology, or serves a correlate of other early-life exposures. Other aspects of reproductive life, including cycle length and regularity, climacteric symptoms, reproductive history and oral contraceptive use, are also incompletely investigated. We examined these issues in...
Article
It is unclear whether age at menarche is causally involved in breast-cancer aetiology, or serves a correlate of other early-life exposures. Other aspects of reproductive life, including cycle length and regularity, climacteric symptoms, reproductive history and oral contraceptive use, are also incompletely investigated. We examined these issues in...
Article
Full-text available
To analyse sick leave in women at risk of primary hyperparathyroidism before its diagnosis. Case-control study nested within a screened cohort of postmenopausal women. Cases were women with hyperparathyroidism without prior knowledge of their disease and no traditional symptoms or complications. Controls were women from the screened population with...
Article
Full-text available
Recent epidemiologic investigations have suggested an association between increased blood levels of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and increased risk of prostate cancer. Our goal was to determine whether an association exists between serum levels of IGF-1 and one of its binding proteins, insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3),...
Article
Notwithstanding its biologic plausibility, the association between physical activity and endometrial cancer has been analyzed in only a few epidemiological studies. Retrospective assessment of exposure and small sample size often hampers interpretation of published data. We studied risk for endometrial cancer in relation to physical activity at wor...
Article
This study examined invasive colorectal cancer incidence-rates in Sweden from 1959 through 1993 (n = 134,643 cases). Age-standardized rates were calculated using the Swedish population in 1970 as a reference. In right-sided colon cancer (ascending and transverse colon including right and left flexures), male age-standardized rates rose from 8.0 to...
Article
Adult obesity has been associated with an increased risk of post-menopausal breast cancer, but it is unclear whether this relationship reflects a causal role of obesity during childhood and adolescence, of weight gain during adult life or of adult obesity per se. In a population-based case-control study in all of Sweden, we included 3,345 (84% of a...
Article
Animal studies suggest that monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fat may have opposite effects on the risk of breast cancer. We performed a population-based prospective cohort study, including 61,471 women aged 40 to 76 years from 2 counties in central Sweden who did not have any previous diagnosis of cancer; 674 cases of invasive breast cancer occu...
Article
Obesity before pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of several adverse outcomes of pregnancy. The risk profiles among lean, normal, or mildly overweight women are not, however, well established. We studied the associations between prepregnancy body-mass index (defined as the weight in kilograms divided by the square of the height in meter...
Article
Objectives: Women with a family history of breast cancer have an increased risk for the disease. However, the combined impact of family history and other risk factors on breast cancer risk is unclear. We conducted a large epidemiologic study to examine this issue. METHODS. In a population-based case-control study in all of Sweden, 3,345 women aged...
Article
While several epidemiologic studies have indicated a link between smoking and the risk of developing hema-tolymphoproliferative cancers (chiefly leukemias, lymphomas, and multiple myelomas), in particular myeloid leukemia, the role of tobacco in the etiology of these neoplasms remains unclear. To evaluate the potential impact of tobacco use on deve...
Article
The risk for endometrial cancer among women with breast cancer might increase following use of tamoxifen, recently classified as a carcinogen of the human endometrium. However, the strength of the association remains uncertain and it is unknown whether use of this drug - widely prescribed in Sweden since the mid-1980s - has had any measurable effec...
Article
Preoperative left ventricular function is a most important predictor for survival in patients with ischemic heart disease. To elucidate the optimal timing of recommended coronary artery bypass grafting, we investigated the influence of different aspects of preoperative left ventricular function on relative survival. To calculate the relative surviv...
Article
This study investigates the incidence trends of urinary bladder cancer in Sweden from 1960 through 1993 (a total of 46,211 cases). Age-standardized incidence rates increased among men from 14.6 per 10(5) in 1960 to 33.5 in 1993 and among women from 4.8 to 8.8, corresponding to an average annual increase of 2.4 percent (95 percent confidence interva...
Article
In Reply. —Drs Aus and Hugosson claim that we have underascertained deaths due to prostate cancer in our study. Their concern is based on a rather cavalier approach to epidemiological methods; they attempt to validate the mortality data we reported in a closed cohort study by means of cross-sectional data from the entire population.
Article
Full-text available
Background: Sex steroids, particularly androgens, have been implicated in the pathogenesis of prostate cancer. Data from previous studies comparing circulating hormone levels in men with and without prostate cancer are difficult to inter- pret, since the studies were limited in size, hormone levels were analyzed in blood drawn after the diagnosis o...
Article
Full-text available
Obesity is associated with endocrine changes (e.g., increased estrogen and decreased testosterone in the blood) that have been implicated in the cause of prostate cancer and, therefore, an association between body weight and the risk of developing prostate cancer would be expected. However, because of bias or low statistical power in previous epide...
Article
To describe the natural history of initially untreated early-stage prostate cancer. A key secondary objective was to calculate long-term survival rates by stage, grade, and age at diagnosis. Prospective cohort study. Population-based in 1 county of Sweden, without screening for prostate cancer. A group of 642 patients with prostate cancer of any st...
Article
Objective: The objective of the study is to analyze the temporal trends in relative survival among patients with colon cancer in catchment areas of hospitals of different categories and regions in Sweden. Background: In Sweden, cancer of the colon is the second most common type of cancer in women and the third most common in men, afflicting approxi...
Article
A population-based case-control study was conducted in two regions ofSweden and Norway to investigate the association between dietary habits andthe risk of thyroid cancer. The consumption of selected foods was reported ina self-completed food-frequency questionnaire by 246 cases withhistologically confirmed papillary (n = 209) and follicular (n = 3...
Article
All patients with medullary carcinoma of the thyroid (MCT) diagnosed in Sweden during 1959 through 1981 were identified. There were 113 males and 134 females with a mean age of 51.6 years (range, 11-85 years). The cohort was followed with regard to survival to identify prognostic factors. The results 5 and 10 years after diagnosis have been present...
Article
The role of diet in the etiology of prostate cancer remains unclear, because results from several case-control and cohort studies on fat intake and risk of prostate cancer have been inconsistent; few of the studies have adjusted the results for caloric intake. To examine the relationship between energy, intake of several nutrients and risk of prost...
Article
The understanding of proliferation is a central issue in oncology. Several methods exist for the assessment of the growth fraction and cell-cycle time, but comparative studies that give the clinician advice about the most reliable use of new markers are few. The aim of the current study was to perform methodologic, descriptive, comparative, and pro...
Article
Full-text available
Although cigarette smoking has consistently been shown to be positively related to the risk of adenomatous polyp development (benign neoplastic growth of epithelial tissue in the colon), most studies of cigarette smoking and the risk of colorectal cancer have been negative. However, in two large prospective studies in women and men, a statistically...
Article
The incidence of prostate cancer has increased during the past 30 years but has been paralleled by increases in survival rates from this disease, despite the absence of documented major improvement in curative treatment. Since a high prevalence of microscopic prostate cancer has been observed in autopsied men and because many prostate cancers may n...
Article
We evaluated the hypothesis that smoking increases the incidence of and mortality from prostate cancer. High-quality smoking information was collected in 1971–1975 in a nationwide cohort of 135,006 male construction workers in Sweden. We achieved virtually complete follow-up through record linkages and ascertained as of December 1991 2,368 incident...
Article
We determined risk factors for late deaths from cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) based on clinical characteristics at diagnosis, initial surgical treatment, histopathologic features of the primary tumor and type of eventual recurrences during follow-up. We examined deaths from CMM 8 or more completed years after the initial diagnosis in a case-co...
Article
Helicobacter pylori infection, now considered to be a cause of gastric cancer, is also strongly associated with gastric and duodenal ulcer disease. The discovery of these relations has brought the long-controversial connection between peptic ulcers and gastric cancer into focus. We estimated the risk of stomach cancer in a large cohort of hospitali...
Article
Full-text available
For unknown reasons, the age-standardized incidence of testicular cancer has shown a rapid increase in virtually all countries (mostly Western) studied. For populations with a sufficiently long period of cancer registration, this development can be traced back to the first half of this century. By evaluating data from six countries with long period...
Article
To assess the outcome of embolectomy over an 19 year period. Time trends in the outcome of acute arterial thrombo-embolectomy of the extremities were analysed in a population-based cohort of 1190 patients operated on between 1965-83. A total of 262 (22%) initial amputations were performed. The limb salvage rates at 5 years postoperatively were lowe...
Article
Better prognostic predictors in colorectal cancer than the Dukes stage are necessary for individualized therapy and follow-up. Survival among 212 patients operated on for colorectal cancer was examined regarding various clinical, histopathologic, cellular, and serologic tumor characteristics. Beside the Dukes stage, which was the most powerful vari...
Article
Full-text available
The incidence of testicular cancer was examined in the Nordic and Baltic countries, Poland and Germany by collaboration among 10 cancer registries. Population-based registers were used to analyze a total of 34,309 cases, diagnosed from the start of registration (varying from 1943 in Denmark to 1980 in Latvia and Lithuania) through 1989. An approxim...
Article
We describe an epidemiologic analytical study of the relationship between current diet and breast cancer risk. The study design is a case-control analysis. Cases were recruited from a mammography screening program used within the national health care system; the control subjects were selected from subjects free of breast cancer in the same populati...
Article
Previous malignant melanoma studies regarding prognostic factors have often selected their patients from hospitals. Unfortunately, most of these studies have had small numbers of patients, consisted of short-term data sets, omitted important factors, did not optimize histopathologic classification, had too short or inadequate follow-up, and did not...
Article
Exposures early in life seem to play an important role in the development of gastric cancer, but their nature is not well understood. In a population-based case-control study, we examined weight, height and body-mass index (BMI) at the age of 20 as well as indices of socioeconomic conditions. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with 338 of 456 e...
Article
A hospital-based case-control study of oesophageal cancer was carried out in the Heilongjiang Province, a low-risk area for oesophageal cancer in China. From May 1985 to May 1989, 196 histologically confirmed cases and 392 controls with other (non-neoplastic) diseases were personally interviewed in the wards of 5 major hospitals. Information was ob...
Article
Previous studies have provided conflicting information on the role of tobacco and alcohol in gastric carcinogenesis. A population-based case-control study with 338 histologically confirmed gastric-cancer cases and 679 control subjects was conducted. Information relating to life-time tobacco consumption, alcohol intake and diet during adolescence an...
Article
The aim of this study was to examine associations between oral contraceptive (OC) use, body mass index (BMI = weight/height2) and prognosis in invasive breast cancer diagnosed before the age of 45. Survival analyses of a consecutive sample of breast cancer patients were undertaken. The cases were initially registered in a nationwide case-control st...
Article
We compared measurements of temporal trends in cancer survival either based on observed survival or relative survival. Survival rates for cutaneous malignant melanoma diagnosed in Sweden 1960-1982 were used as an example. In a proportional hazards model based on observed survival, the hazard ratio for patients diagnosed during the period 1975-1979...
Article
Cytologic screening can reduce mortality from cervical cancer by detection and removal of premalignant lesions. Conceivably, mortality is further reduced because more women with invasive disease are diagnosed at an earlier, curable stage. This hypothesis can be assessed in Sweden, where population-based screening programs were introduced successive...
Article
In order to improve antenatal detection of ‘large for gestational age’ babies, a case-control study was performed in ultrasound dated pregnancies. There were 119 singleton term pregnancies with a birth weight of more than 2 s.d. above the mean for their gestational age. Controls were a random sample of 318 singleton term pregnancies, with birth wei...
Article
Helicobacter pylori has been implicated as a possible etiologic factor in gastric cancer. This case control study was performed to determine the association between H. pylori and gastric cancer, taking into account the possibility of confounding by other background factors. Sera were collected from 112 incident case patients with gastric cancer and...
Article
A case-control study to evaluate risk factors of gastric cancer was carried out in areas with contrasting incidence rates in Sweden. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with 338 of 456 eligible histologically confirmed gastric-cancer cases and 669 of 880 eligible control subjects, sampled from population registers and frequency-matched by age an...
Article
Cytologic screening and follow-up can reduce the incidence of cervical cancer by detection and removal of precursor lesions. It is unknown, however, whether differences in histopathologic criteria for these precursor lesions affect the benefit of screening. These criteria may be difficult to study, but they are likely to be reflected in reported in...
Article
To determine the long-term risk of hip fracture following fracture of the distal forearm. Registry-based cohort study comparing patients with a fracture of the distal forearm with a population-based cohort. FRACTURE COHORT: All women and men above 40 years of age with a radiologically verified fracture of the distal forearm during a 5-year period,...
Article
Objective To investigate whether the bone preserving effect of low dose oestrogen replacement therapy (20 mg oestradiol implanted subcutaneously every six months) persists during continuous long term treatment through advanced ages. Design Cross sectional clinical study of postmenopausal women treated with oestradiol implants as compared with nonus...
Article
Survival rates were analysed in 29,055 patients with urinary bladder cancer diagnosed in Sweden from 1960 to 1986 and followed up until 1987. The 2-, 5- and 10-year relative survival rates were 79, 70 and 64% for men and 75, 68 and 63% for women, respectively. Patients with a history of bladder cancer for at least 15 years ran a negligible risk of...
Article
The possibility to predict a large infant during pregnancy was assessed using data from a prospective cohort study of 537 singleton pregnancies with term deliveries. Maternal characteristics, symphysis fundal height and ultrasound measurements were used in multivariate analyses for the prediction of an infant with a birthweight of > or = 4,500 or >...
Article
Objective To determine the relative risk of developing a first acute myocardial infarction after treatment with oestrogens alone or oestrogen-progestogen combinations. Design Prospective cohort study utilizing a prescription-based and record linkage System for a follow-up period from 1977 to 1983. Average individual observation time was 5–8 years....
Article
We analyzed the age at diagnosis and the tumor size as determinants of axillary node involvement in 725 consecutive patients with breast cancer. The prevalence of nodal involvement increased consistently with tumor diameter from 18.9% in tumors smaller than 10 mm to 72.9% in those measuring 40 mm, or more. The risk also varied with age, the lowest...
Article
In a population-based randomized study comparing 150 patients with advanced prostatic cancer treated with orchiectomy or estrogen, some possible prognostic factors were analyzed. The observation period was 78 to 114 months. M category, T category, tumor grade, performance status, pain, prostatic acid phosphatase, sedimentation rate, hemoglobin and...
Article
Trends in the incidence of stomach cancer among 52,604 patients notified to the National Swedish Cancer Registry in 1960 through 1984 were analysed. Age-standardized incidence rates declined throughout the period, from 47.1 to 24.6 per 105 in males and from 23.8 to 12.7 per 105 in females. Among males the decline in incidence was more pronounced in...