Ravi S. Menon's research while affiliated with The University of Western Ontario and other places

Publications (334)

Article
The common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) is quickly gaining traction as a premier neuroscientific model. However, considerable progress is still needed in understanding the functional and structural organization of the marmoset brain to rival that documented in longstanding preclinical model species, like mice, rats, and Old World primates. To acce...
Article
Purpose To develop an RF coil with an integrated commercial field camera for ultrahigh field (7T) neuroimaging. The RF coil would operate within a head-only gradient coil and be subject to the corresponding design constraints. The RF coil can thereafter be used for subject-specific correction of k-space trajectories—notably in gradient-sensitive se...
Article
Full-text available
Sport concussions can be difficult to diagnose and if missed, they can expose athletes to greater injury risk and long-lasting neurological disabilities. Discovery of objective biomarkers to aid concussion diagnosis is critical to protecting athlete brain health. To this end, we performed targeted proteomics on plasma obtained from adolescent athle...
Article
Neuronal activity (NA) and metabolism are impaired in the early stages of Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) and Frontotemporal Dementia (FTD) leading to specific patterns of cognitive decline. Detailed disease models elucidating how and where in brain these NA disturbances commence and how they gradually progress remain incomplete. Recently, we introduced s...
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Full-text available
Social cognition is a dynamic process that requires the perception and integration of a complex set of idiosyncratic features between interacting conspecifics. Here we present a method for simultaneously measuring the whole-brain activation of two socially interacting marmoset monkeys using functional magnetic resonance imaging. MRI hardware (a rad...
Preprint
Full-text available
Purpose To develop an RF coil with an integrated commercial field camera for ultra-high field (7 T) neuroimaging. The RF coil will operate within a head-only gradient coil and be subject to the corresponding design constraints. The RF coil can thereafter be used for subject-specific correction of k-space trajectories—notably in gradient-sensitive s...
Article
Full-text available
The common marmoset has enormous promise as a nonhuman primate model of human brain functions. While resting-state functional MRI (fMRI) has provided evidence for a similar organization of marmoset and human cortices, the technique cannot be used to map the functional correspondences of brain regions between species. This limitation can be overcome...
Article
Frontoparietal networks contribute to complex cognitive functions in humans and macaques, such as working memory, attention, task-switching, response suppression, grasping, reaching, and eye movement control. However, there has been no comprehensive examination of the functional organization of frontoparietal networks using functional magnetic reso...
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Full-text available
Magnetic resonance imaging radio frequency arrays are composed of multiple receive coils that have their signals combined to form an image. Combination requires an estimate of the radio frequency coil sensitivities to align signal phases and prevent destructive interference. At lower fields this can be accomplished using a uniform physical referenc...
Article
There is a need for improved understanding of how different cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) protocols affect vascular cross-sectional area (CSA) to reduce error in CVR calculations when measures of vascular CSA are not feasible. In human participants, we delivered ∼±4 mm Hg end-tidal partial pressure of CO 2 (P ET CO 2 ) relative to baseline throu...
Preprint
Full-text available
Frontoparietal networks contribute to complex cognitive functions in humans and macaques such as working memory, attention, task-switching, response suppression, grasping, reaching, and eye movement control. However, little is known about the organization of frontoparietal networks in the New World common marmoset monkey ( Callithrix jacchus ) whic...
Article
Purpose To present a method that automatically, rapidly, and in a noniterative manner determines the regularization weighting for wavelet‐based compressed sensing reconstructions. This method determines level‐specific regularization weighting factors from the wavelet transform of the image obtained from zero‐filling in k‐space. Methods We compare...
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Full-text available
We have previously reported long-term changes in the brains of non-concussed varsity rugby players using magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and functional magnetic imaging (fMRI). Others have reported cognitive deficits in contact sport athletes that have not met the diagnostic criteria for concussion. These resul...
Article
The primary somatosensory cortex (S1) plays a key role in the processing and integration of afferent somatosensory inputs along an anterior-to-posterior axis, contributing towards necessary human function. It is believed that anatomical connectivity can be used to probe hierarchical organization, however direct characterization of this principle in...
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Full-text available
Recent methodological advances in MRI have enabled substantial growth in neuroimaging studies of non-human primates (NHPs), while open data-sharing through the PRIME-DE initiative has increased the availability of NHP MRI data and the need for robust multi-subject multi-center analyses. Streamlined acquisition and analysis protocols would accelerat...
Article
Full-text available
A crucial component of social cognition is to observe and understand the social interactions of other individuals. A promising nonhuman primate model for investigating the neural basis of social interaction observation is the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus), a small New World primate that shares a rich social repertoire with humans. Here we us...
Preprint
Full-text available
There is a need for improved understanding of how different cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) protocols affect vascular cross-sectional area (CSA) when measures of vascular CSA are not feasible. In human participants, we delivered ~±4mmHg end-tidal partial pressure of CO 2 (PETCO 2 ) relative to baseline through controlled delivery, and measured cha...
Preprint
Full-text available
The common marmoset has enormous promise as a nonhuman primate model of human brain functions. While resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has provided evidence for a similar organization of marmoset and human cortices, the technique cannot be used to map the functional correspondences of brain regions between species. This lim...
Preprint
Full-text available
Social cognition is a dynamic process that requires the perception and integration of a complex set of idiosyncratic features between interacting conspecifics. Here we present a method for simultaneously measuring the whole-brain activation of two socially interacting marmoset monkeys using functional magnetic resonance imaging. MRI hardware (a rad...
Article
Full-text available
In EEG data acquired in the presence of fMRI, gradient-related spike artifacts contaminate the signal following the common preprocessing step of average artifact subtraction. Spike artifacts compromise EEG data quality since they overlap with the EEG signal in frequency, thereby confounding frequency-based inferences on activity. As well, spike art...
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Full-text available
High-resolution functional MRI studies have become a powerful tool to non-invasively probe the sub-millimeter functional organization of the human cortex. Advances in MR hardware, imaging techniques and sophisticated post-processing methods have allowed high resolution fMRI to be used in both the clinical and academic neurosciences. However, consen...
Article
Full-text available
Changes in resting-state functional connectivity (rs-FC) under general anesthesia have been widely studied with the goal of identifying neural signatures of consciousness. This work has commonly revealed an apparent fragmentation of whole-brain network structure during unconsciousness, which has been interpreted as reflecting a break-down in connec...
Article
Full-text available
Unilateral damage to the frontoparietal network typically impairs saccade target selection within the contralesional visual hemifield. Severity of deficits and the degree of recovery have been associated with widespread network dysfunction, yet it is not clear how these behavioural and functional changes relate with the underlying structural white...
Article
Many neuroscience applications have adopted functional MRI as a tool to investigate the healthy and diseased brain during the completion of a task. While ultra‐high‐field MRI has allowed for improved contrast and signal‐to‐noise ratios during functional MRI studies, it remains a challenge to create local radiofrequency coils that can accommodate an...
Article
Early pathological changes in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer’s disease (AD) gradually decrease neuronal metabolism and function measured by PET and functional MRI (fMRI). These changes are often associated with cognitive decline and can help in the diagnosis of AD. However more sensitive indicators of the earliest stages of disease m...
Article
White matter tracts are known to be susceptible to injury following concussion. The objective of this study was to determine whether contact play in sport could alter white matter metabolite levels in female varsity athletes independent of changes induced by long-term exercise. Metabolite levels were measured by single voxel proton magnetic resonan...
Article
Concussions are frequent in sports and can contribute to significant and long-lasting neurological disability. Adolescents are particularly susceptible to concussions, with accurate determination of the injury challenging. Our previous study demonstrated that concussion diagnoses could be aided by metabolomics profiling and machine learning, with p...
Article
Understanding the similarity of cortico-subcortical networks topologies between humans and nonhuman primate species is critical to study the origin of network alternations underlying human neurologic and neuropsychiatric diseases. The New World common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) has become popular as a nonhuman primate model for human brain funct...
Preprint
Full-text available
Recent methodological advances in MRI have enabled substantial growth in neuroimaging studies of non-human primates (NHPs), while open data-sharing through the PRIME-DE initiative has increased the availability of NHP MRI data and the need for robust multi-subject multi-center analyses. Streamlined acquisition and analysis protocols would accelerat...
Article
Full-text available
In humans and macaque monkeys, socially relevant face processing is accomplished via a distributed functional network that includes specialized patches in frontal cortex. It is unclear whether a similar network exists in New World primates, who diverged ~35 million years from Old World primates. The common marmoset is a New World primate species id...
Data
Supplementary material for Standage et al, Cereb Cortex, 2020
Article
Full-text available
Most neuroanatomical studies are based on T1-weighted MR images, whose intensity profiles are not solely determined by the tissue's longitudinal relaxation times (T1), but also affected by varying non-T1 contributions, hampering data reproducibility. In contrast, quantitative imaging using the MP2RAGE sequence, for example, allows direct characteri...
Article
The magnetization‐prepared two‐rapid‐gradient‐echo (MP2RAGE) sequence is used for structural T1‐weighted imaging and T 1 mapping of the human brain. In this sequence, adiabatic inversion RF pulses are commonly used, which require the B 1⁺ magnitude to be above a certain threshold. Achieving this threshold in the whole brain may not be possible at u...
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Full-text available
The zona incerta (ZI) is a small gray matter region of the deep brain first identified in the 19th century, yet direct in vivo visualization and characterization has remained elusive. Noninvasive detection of the ZI and surrounding region could be critical to further our understanding of this widely connected but poorly understood deep brain region...
Article
With medial frontal cortex (MFC) centrally implicated in several major neuropsychiatric disorders, it is critical to understand the extent to which MFC organization is comparable between humans and animals commonly used in preclinical research (namely rodents and non-human primates). Although the cytoarchitectonic structure of MFC in the rodent bra...
Preprint
Full-text available
Understanding the similarity of cortico-subcortical networks topologies between humans and nonhuman primate species is critical to study the origin of network alternations underlying human neurological and neuropsychiatric diseases. The New World common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) has become popular as a non-human primate model for human brain fu...
Preprint
Full-text available
Changes in resting-state functional connectivity (rs-FC) under general anesthesia have been widely studied with the goal of identifying neural signatures of consciousness. This work has commonly revealed an apparent fragmentation of whole-brain network structure during unconsciousness, which has been interpreted as reflecting a break-down in connec...
Article
Full-text available
The common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) is a New World primate that is becoming increasingly popular as a preclinical model. To assess functional connectivity (FC) across the marmoset brain, resting-state functional MRI (RS-fMRI) is often performed under isoflurane anesthesia to avoid the effects of motion, physiological stress, and training requi...
Article
Full-text available
Objective To longitudinally assess brain microstructure and function in female varsity athletes participating in contact and noncontact sports. Methods Concussion-free female rugby players (n = 73) were compared to age-matched (ages 18–23) female swimmers and rowers (n = 31) during the in- and off-season. Diffusion and resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI)...
Article
Full-text available
General anesthetics are routinely used to induce unconsciousness, and much is known about their effects on receptor function and single neuron activity. Much less is known about how these local effects are manifest at the whole-brain level nor how they influence network dynamics, especially past the point of induced unconsciousness. Using resting-s...
Preprint
Unilateral damage to the frontoparietal network typically impairs saccade target selection within the contralesional visual hemifield. Severity of deficits and the degree of recovery have been associated with widespread network dysfunction, yet it is not clear how these behavioural and functional changes relate with the underlying structural white...
Preprint
Full-text available
Primates have evolved the ability transmit important social information through facial expression. In humans and macaque monkeys, socially relevant face processing is accomplished via a distributed cortical and subcortical functional network that includes specialized patches in anterior cingulate cortex and lateral prefrontal cortex, regions usuall...
Article
Full-text available
An object that is looming toward a subject or receding away contains important information for determining if this object is dangerous, beneficial or harmless. This information (motion, direction, identity, time-to-collision, size, velocity) is analyzed by the brain in order to execute the appropriate behavioral responses depending on the context:...
Article
Respiration‐induced movement of the chest wall and internal organs causes temporal B0 variations extending throughout the brain. This study demonstrates that these variations can cause significant artifacts in maps obtained at 7 T with the Bloch–Siegert shift (BSS) mapping technique. To suppress these artifacts, a navigator correction scheme was pr...
Article
Nonhuman primate neuroimaging is on the cusp of a transformation, much in the same way its human counterpart was in 2010, when the Human Connectome Project was launched to accelerate progress. Inspired by an open data-sharing initiative, the global community recently met and, in this article, breaks through obstacles to define its ambitions.
Preprint
Full-text available
Most neuroanatomical studies are based on MR images, whose intensity profiles are not solely determined by the tissue’s longitudinal relaxation times (T 1 ) but also affected by varying non-T 1 contributions, hampering data reproducibility. In contrast, quantitative imaging using the MP2RAGE sequence, for example, allows direct characterization of...
Article
Visual extinction has been characterized by the failure to respond to a visual stimulus in the contralesional hemifield when presented simultaneously with an ipsilesional stimulus (Corbetta and Shulman, 2011). Unilateral damage to the macaque frontoparietal cortex commonly leads to deficits in contralesional target selection that resemble visual ex...
Preprint
Full-text available
General anesthetics are routinely used to induce unconsciousness, and much is known about their effects on receptor function and single neuron activity. Much less is known about how these local effects are manifest at the whole-brain level, nor how they influence network dynamics, especially past the point of induced unconsciousness. Using resting-...
Article
Purpose: Arterial spin labeling (ASL) is an established noninvasive MRI technique used for cerebral blood flow measurement, which generally suffers from a low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). The use of ultra-high fields to enhance sensitivity inevitably results in an increase in TR because of specific absorption rate (SAR) constraints, causing inadeq...
Preprint
An object that is looming toward a subject or receding away contains important information for determining if this object is dangerous, beneficial or harmless to them. This information (motion, direction, identity, time-to-collision, size, velocity) is analyzed by the brain in order to execute the appropriate behavioral responses depending on the c...
Article
Full-text available
Saccadic tasks are often used to index aberrations of cognitive function in patient populations, with several neuropsychiatric and neurologic disorders characterized by saccadic dysfunction. The common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) has received recent attention as an additional primate model for studying the neural basis of these dysfunctions - mar...
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Full-text available
Background and purpose: Our aims were the following: 1) to compare multicontrast cortical lesion detection using 3T and 7T MR imaging, 2) to compare cortical lesion type frequency in relapsing-remitting and secondary-progressive MS, and 3) to assess whether detectability is related to the magnetization transfer ratio, an imaging marker sensitive t...
Article
Radio-frequency (RF) arrays constructed using electric dipoles have potential benefits for transmit and receive applications using ultra-high field (UHF) MRI. This study examines some of the implementation barriers regarding dipole RF arrays for human head imaging at 7 T. The dipole array was constructed with conformal, meandered dipoles with dimen...
Article
Marmosets are small New World primates that are posited to become an important preclinical animal model for studying intractable human brain diseases. A critical step in the development of marmosets as a viable model for human brain dysfunction is to characterize brain networks that are homologous with human network topologies. In this regard, the...
Article
Objective: To summarize current and emerging imaging techniques that can be used to assess neuroprotection and repair in multiple sclerosis (MS), and to provide a consensus opinion on the potential utility of each technique in clinical trial settings. Methods: Clinicians and scientists with expertise in the use of MRI in MS convened in Toronto,...
Article
Reconstructing the anatomical pathways of the brain to study the human connectome has become an important endeavour for understanding brain function and dynamics. Reconstruction of the cortico-cortical connectivity matrix in vivo often relies on noninvasive diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) techniques but the extent to which they can accurately repr...
Article
The common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) is a small New World primate species that has been recently targeted as a potentially powerful preclinical model of human prefrontal cortex dysfunction. Although the structural boundaries of frontal cortex were described in marmosets at the start of the 20th century (Brodmann, 1909) and refined more recently...
Article
Full-text available
Acute brain changes are expected after concussion, yet there is growing evidence of persistent abnormalities well beyond clinical recovery and clearance to return to play. Multiparametric MRI is a powerful approach to non-invasively study structure-function relationships in the brain, however it remains challenging to interpret the complex and hete...
Article
Full-text available
Background: The temporoparietal junction (TPJ) has been linked to lower-level attentional and higher-level social processing, both of which are affected in schizophrenia (SZ) and major depressive disorder (MDD). We examined resting functional connectivity of bilateral anterior and posterior TPJ in SZ and MDD to evaluate potential anomalies in each...