Ralf Einspanier's research while affiliated with Freie Universität Berlin and other places

Publications (188)

Article
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Honeybees are important managed pollinators that perform important ecological and economic functions. In recent decades, the obligate ectoparasite Varroa destructor severely affected survival of honeybees as it either feeds on hemolymph and fat bodies or acts as a vector for viruses. A common treatment against the varroa mite is formic acid, which...
Article
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The ectoparasite Varroa destructor Anderson and Trueman is the most important parasites of the western honey bee, Apis mellifera L . The most widely currently used treatment uses formic acid (FA), but the understanding of its effects on V . destructor is limited. In order to understand the mechanism of action of FA, its effect on Varroa mites was i...
Article
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Background Campylobacter jejuni ( C. jejuni ) infections are of increasing importance worldwide. As a typical mucosal pathogen, the interaction of C. jejuni with mucins is a prominent step in the colonisation of mucosal surfaces. Despite recent advances in understanding the interaction between bacterial pathogens and host mucins, the mechanisms of...
Article
Full-text available
Formic acid (FA) has been used for decades to control Varroa destructor, one of the most important parasites of the western honey bee, Apis mellifera. The rather unselective molecular mode of action of FA and its possible effects on honeybees have long been a concern of beekeepers, as it has undesirable side effects that affect the health of bee co...
Article
For the last decade, scientists have reported a loss of honeybee colonies. Multiple factors like parasites, pathogens and pesticides are dealt as possible drivers of honeybee losses. In particular, insecticides are considered as a major factor of pollinator poisoning. We applied sublethal concentrations of four insecticidal substances to honeybee l...
Article
There are viral, fungal, bacterial and trypanosomal pathogens that negatively impact the individual and superorganismal health of the western honey bee. One fungal pathogen, Ascosphaera apis, affects larvae and is the etiological agent of the disease chalkbrood. A previous genome analysis of A. apis revealed that its genome encodes for RNA interfer...
Article
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The tumour microenvironment comprises a diverse range of cells, including fibroblasts, immune cells and endothelial cells, along with extracellular matrix. In particular, fibroblasts are of significant interest as these cells are reprogrammed during tumourigenesis to become cancer‐associated fibroblasts (CAFs), which in turn support cancer cells gr...
Article
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Background: Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni) has been assigned as an important food-borne pathogen for human health but many pathogenicity factors of C. jejuni and human host cell responses related to the infection have not yet been adequately clarified. This study aimed to determine further C. jejuni pathogenicity factors and virulence genes base...
Article
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In a recent one-year feeding study, we observed no adverse effects on tissue level in organs of rats fed with the genetically-modified maize MON810. Here, we assessed RNA expression levels of 86 key genes of the apoptosis-, NF-кB-, DNA-damage response (DDR)-, and unfolded-protein response (UPR) pathways by RT-qPCR in the rat liver. Male and female...
Preprint
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There are viral, fungal, bacterial and trypanosomal pathogens that negatively impact the individual and superorganismal health of the western honey bee. One fungal pathogen, Ascosphaera apis, affects larvae and causes the disease chalkbrood. A previous genome analysis of As. apis revealed that its genome encodes for RNA interference genes, similar...
Conference Paper
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The western honey bee is considered the third most important farm animal due to the fact of pollinating more than 70% of global crops. In the last decades heavy bee losses were reported worldwide. The reason for this decline is likely the interplay of multiple factors such as parasites, pathogens and pesticides. A major part of the immune system of...
Article
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Objectives: Inhalation of immunostimulatory bacterial DNA segments (cytosine-phosphate-guanosine-oligodeoxynucleotides, CpG-ODN) normalizes clinical and cytologic parameters in severe equine asthma. We hypothesized that CpG-ODN inhalation also reduces the misbalance of elastinolytic activity in asthmatic horses. Methods: Twenty asthmatic horses...
Article
Autologous conditioned serum (ACS) is commonly used for the treatment of human and equine osteoarthritis (OA). The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of incubation time and incubation tube on concentrations of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) in AC...
Article
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Pathogenic mycobacteria are able to persist intracellularly in macrophages, whereas non-pathogenic mycobacteria are effectively combated and eliminated after their phagocytosis. It is known that TGF-β plays an important role in this context. Infection with pathogenic mycobacteria such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis or M. avium leads to production of...
Article
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Paratuberculosis is a major disease in cattle that severely affects animal welfare and causes huge economic losses worldwide. Development of alternative diagnostic methods is of urgent need to control the disease. Recent studies suggest that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) play a crucial role in regulating immune function and may confer valuable inf...
Article
The hedgehog signaling pathway is a crucial regulator of the postnatal intestinal development. Regulation of hedgehog expression itself is poorly understood. MicroRNAs were demonstrated to control differentiation and proliferation in postnatal intestinal development. This study identifies members of the miR-15 family to regulate the expression of k...
Article
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Background: Exosomes are defined as extracellular membrane vesicles, 30-150 nm in diameter, derived from all types of cells. They originate via endocytosis and then they are released through exocytosis to the extracellular space, being found in various biological fluids as well as in cell culture medium. In the last few years, exosomes have gained...
Article
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Background: Global as well as specific expression profiles of selected rat tissues were characterized to assess the safety of genetically modified (GM) maize MON810 containing the insecticidal protein Cry1Ab. Gene expression was evaluated by use of Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) as well as RT-qPCR within rat intestinal tissues based on mandatory...
Article
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Among different bacteria colonizing the bovine uterus, Trueperella pyogenes is found to be associated with clinical endometritis (CE). The ability of cows to defend against T. pyogenes infections depends on the virulence of invading bacteria and on the host's innate immunity. Therefore, to gain insights into bacterial factors contributing to the in...
Article
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Bacterial pathogens have coevolved with their hosts and acquired mechanisms to circumvent defense mechanisms of host cells. It was shown that bacteria interfere with the expression of mammalian microRNAs to modify immune signaling, autophagy or the apoptotic machinery. Recently, a new class of regulatory RNAs, long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), was re...
Article
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Brought to you by the editorial team of Cell Death and Differentiation, Cell Death and Disease is a peer-reviewed author-pays online journal in the field of translational cell death. It seeks to promote diverse and integrated areas of Experimental and Internal Medicine with its specialties, including Cancer, Immunity and Neuroscience.
Article
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Tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) is a double-edged cytokine associated with pathogenesis of inflammatory-related cancers being also able to induce cancer cell death. In the process of tumour development or metastasis, cancer cells can become resistant to TNF-α. In trefoil factor 3 (TFF3) overexpressing colorectal adenocarcinoma cells (HT-29/B6), we...
Article
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Results of clinical examination, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) cytology, acute phase proteins and markers of pulmonary haemostasisand fibrinolysis (fibrinogen, serum amyloid A, D-dimers) were compared between controls and horses affected by respiratory disease. Using a clinical scoring system, 58 horses were classified as free of respiratory...
Article
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Background Overexpression of matrix-metalloproteinases (MMPs) has been shown to lead to tissue damage in equine recurrent airway obstruction (RAO), as a misbalance with their natural inhibitors, the tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs), occurs. This favors irreversible pulmonary fibrosis formation. Increased levels of MMPs, TIMPs or alte...
Article
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Background In ruminants, embryo implantation depends on progesterone (P4) and interferon tau (IFNT) controlling endometrial function. IFNT antagonizes bovine endometrial cells (BEND) response to phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (PDBU) through posttranscriptional regulation of gene expression. We have previously described microRNAs (miRNAs) profiles in bovi...
Article
We hypothesised that shorter treatment intervals of intraarticular autologous conditioned serum (ACS) injections would more beneficially affect the synovial fluid (SF) concentrations of IL-1ra, IL-1β and cartilage biomarkers, compared with the traditional weekly treatment intervals in joints suffering from natural OA. In a randomised comparative st...
Article
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The GRACE (GMO Risk Assessment and Communication of Evidence; www.grace-fp7.eu) project was funded by the European Commission within the 7th Framework Programme. A key objective of GRACE was to conduct 90-day animal feeding trials, animal studies with an extended time frame as well as analytical, in vitro and in silico studies on genetically modifi...
Article
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Background The mammalian oviduct provides the optimal environment for gamete maturation including sperm capacitation, fertilization, and development of the early embryo. Various cell culture models for primary bovine oviductal epithelial cells (BOEC) were established to reveal such physiological events. The aim of this study was to evaluate 17 cand...
Article
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This letter specifically addresses the question on how to evaluate whole GM food/feed feeding trials. It does so by proposing a list of key quality criteria for the evalua- tion of 90-day and extended feeding trials with whole food/ feed derived from GM plants. The proposed quality crite- ria should be taken into account when evaluating a feeding...
Conference Paper
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Uterine infection is a characteristic event of the postpartum period in dairy cows. Among different bacterial populations colonizing the uterus, Trueperella pyogenes was found to be associated with clinical endometritis. The ability of a cow to defend bacterial infections depends on host innate immunity and virulence of invading bacteria. Host-path...
Article
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The role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in infectious diseases is becoming more and more apparent, and the use of miRNAs as a diagnostic tool and their therapeutic application has become the major focus of investigation. The aim of this study was to identify miRNAs involved in the immune signaling of macrophages in response to Arcobacter (A.) butzleri infec...
Article
This study was aimed to evaluate the concentrations of Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra) and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) in normal and osteoarthritic (OA) joints as well as the influence of joint location and arthrocentesis on these concentrations. IL-1ra and IL-1β levels were determined in the synovial fluid (SF) of 18 normal and 18 OA joi...
Article
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Haptoglobin is a positive moderate acute phase protein (APP) in cats. Measurement of haptoglobin can be used in the diagnosis, prognosis, and monitoring of systemic inflammatory disease, especially by creating profiles with major APPs. The aim of our study was to validate a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for measurement of felin...
Article
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Main survival mechanism of pathogenic mycobacteria is to escape inimical phagolysosomal environment inside the macrophages. Many efforts have been made to unravel the molecular mechanisms behind this process. However, little is known about the involvement of microRNAs (miRNAs) in the regulation of phagolysosomal biosynthesis and maturation. Based o...
Article
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Small non-coding RNA play a major part in host response to bacterial agents. However, the role of long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) in this context remains unknown. LncRNA regulate gene expression by acting e.g. as transcriptional coactivators, RNA decoys or microRNA sponges. They control development, differentiation and cellular processes such as autop...
Article
Probiotics are widely used in human and animal health, but little is known about the mode of action of probiotics. One possible mechanism on a molecular level could be an influence on miRNAs and the related immune-relevant target genes. Here, we analyzed differential expression of miRNA and potential target genes of ileal and jejunal lymphatic tiss...