Rakesh Sharma's research while affiliated with American Society for Reproductive Medicine and other places

Publications (37)

Article
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Antisperm antibodies (ASA), as a cause of male infertility, have been detected in infertile males as early as 1954. Multiple causes of ASA production have been identified, and they are due to an abnormal exposure of mature germ cells to the immune system. ASA testing (with mixed anti-globulin reaction, and immunobead binding test) was described in...
Article
Purpose: Azoospermia is defined as the absence of spermatozoa in the pellet of a centrifuged semen sample. In fact, when a basic semen analysis fails to detect sperm in the ejaculate, there is still the possibility of detecting rare sperm after centrifugation of the sample and examination of the pellet. In this study, we assessed the role of Cytos...
Article
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Purpose: In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, the American Center for Reproductive Medicine (ACRM) transitioned its annual training in assisted reproductive technology (ART) from a hands-on, laboratory-based training course to a fully online training endorsed by the American College of Embryology. Here we describe our experience and assess the qu...
Cover Page
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Sara, Coordinator certificate for ARCM training program
Article
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Semen analysis is the first, and frequently, the only step in the evaluation of male fertility. Although the laboratory procedures are conducted according to the World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines, semen analysis and especially sperm morphology assessment is very difficult to standardize and obtain reproducible results. This is mainly due t...
Article
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The current WHO 2010 manual for human semen analysis defines leukocytospermia as the presence of peroxidase-positive leukocytes at a concentration >1×106/mL of semen. Granular leukocytes when activated are capable of generating high levels of reactive oxygen species in semen resulting in oxidative stress. Oxidative stress has been correlated with p...
Article
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Retrograde ejaculation (RE) is a condition defined as the backward flow of the semen during ejaculation, and when present can result in male infertility. RE may be partial or complete, resulting in either low seminal volume or complete absence of the ejaculate (dry ejaculate). RE can result from anatomic, neurological or pharmacological conditions....
Chapter
Obtaining good quality sperm for in-vitro fertilization, ICSI, or for cryopreservation can be a major problem if a man suffers from medical conditions that preclude normal collection. Major advances in sperm retrieval and preparation techniques have been witnessed in recent years, allowing a better understanding of the contribution of the sperm to...
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Semen analysis is a basic test for evaluating male fertility potential, as it plays an essential role in driving the future management and treatment of infertility in couples. Manual semen analysis includes the evaluation of both macroscopic and microscopic parameters, whereas automated semen analysis is conducted through a computer-aided sperm ana...
Chapter
Selecting good-quality sperm for use in in-vitro fertilization is a key step in assisted reproduction. For many years purely morphological attributes have been used to assess suitability, but increasingly biochemical and molecular biological techniques are now identifying sperm with the best chances of producing viable and healthy embryos. Focusing...
Cover Page
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Founded in 1993, the American Center for Reproductive Medicine offers research fellowships, hands-on training in human assisted reproduction, and summer mentorship opportunities. It also offers diagnostic services for male infertility and cancer patients and has one of the largest and well recognized Andrology Laboratory in the country. The ACRM re...
Article
In 2020, the COVID‐19 pandemic led to the suspension of the annual Summer Internship at the American Center for Reproductive Medicine (ACRM). To transit it into an online format, an inaugural 6‐week 2020 ACRM Online Mentorship Program was developed focusing on five core pillars of andrology research: scientific writing, scientific methodology, plag...
Article
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Sperm DNA integrity is important for normal functions such as fertilization, implantation, pregnancy and fetal development. Sperm DNA fragmentation (SDF) is more common in infertile men and may be responsible for poor reproductive function. Although there are a number of tests available to measure SDF, the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase‐medi...
Chapter
Cancer survival rates have improved dramatically over the last couple of decades due to advances in diagnostic techniques and therapies. Roughly 15% of newly diagnosed cancer cases are men aged younger than 55 years, and about one quarter of them are younger than age 20 years. Consequently, the population of young cancer survivors has improved, and...
Chapter
Assisted reproductive technology (ART) use sperm sorting methods to select viable sperm from semen samples. Conventional sperm sorting techniques currently use swim-up and density gradient centrifugation. These methods use multiple centrifugation steps, which have been shown to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) that decrease DNA integrity and...
Chapter
Semen analysis is used routinely to evaluate infertile men. A significant overlap in sperm concentration, motility, and morphology between fertile and infertile men has been demonstrated. Abnormalities in the male genome characterized by damaged sperm DNA may be indicative of male subfertility in the setting of normal semen parameters. Standard sem...
Chapter
Excessive generation of seminal reactive oxygen species (ROS) by immature spermatozoa and white blood cells, especially granulocytes, in the ejaculate is detrimental to spermatozoa. The cellular antioxidant defense mitigates the impact of elevated ROS production. The imbalance between ROS and available antioxidants results in oxidative stress (OS),...
Article
To investigate the impact of antioxidants in sperm parameters and reduction in reactive oxygen species production during the freeze‐thaw process. PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, Embase and Cochrane central library were systematically searched. Of the 1583 articles, 23 studies were selected for data extraction. Our results show that antioxidants imp...
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Aims: To understand the molecular pathways involved in oxidative stress (OS)-mediated sperm dysfunction against a hypoxic and hyperthermic microenvironment backdrop of varicocele through a proteomic approach. Results: Protein selection (261) based on their role in redox homeostasis and/or oxidative/ hyperthermic/ hypoxic stress response from the...
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Antioxidant supplementation in idiopathic male infertility has a beneficial effect on semen parameters. However, the molecular mechanism behind this effect has not been reported. The objective of this study was to evaluate the sperm proteome of idiopathic infertile men pre- and post-antioxidant supplementation. Idiopathic infertile men were provide...
Article
Lack of standardized, reproducible protocols and reference values is among the challenges faced when using new or upgraded versions of instruments in reproductive laboratories and flow cytometry. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay combined with flow cytometry routinely used for diagnostic measurement of sperm...
Chapter
Routine semen analysis is the basic step in the laboratory evaluation of male fertility; however, it cannot explain why men are infertile even when the semen parameters are normal. Many studies evaluating sperm DNA integrity have demonstrated an inverse association between DNA fragmentation and fertilization and pregnancy rates. Advance molecular t...
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Purpose: Aberrant expression of seminal plasma proteins are associated with altered homeostasis that may affect the fertilizing ability of spermatozoa. However, the precise roles of seminal exosomes on sperm function remain unclear. The objective of this study was to identify the differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) associated with varicocele-...
Article
Objective: To test the ability of the smartphone-based YO Home Sperm Test to accurately and precisely measure motile sperm concentration (MSC) versus the SQA-Vision, an automated laboratory semen analyzer. Design: MSC compared for the YO device on Galaxy and iPhone smartphones versus the SQA-Vision in a double-blind manner. Setting: Academic medica...
Chapter
Oxidative stress (OS) is reflected by an imbalance between reactive oxygen species (ROS) and antioxidant capacity. Laboratory evaluation of ROS is important to elucidate this common mediator between etiology of male infertility and sperm dysfunction. Measurement of ROS can be achieved by direct or indirect assays. While direct assays measure the RO...
Article
Objectives To evaluate different laboratory assessments of oxidative stress (OS) in semen and identify a cost-efficient and highly sensitive instrument capable of providing a comprehensive measure of OS in a clinical setting, as early intervention and an accurate diagnostic test are important because they help maintain a balance of free radicals an...
Chapter
The functional aspects of sperm activity such as sperm chromatin integrity and ability to fertilize cannot be characterized by routine semen parameters. Men with unexplained infertility and idiopathic infertility, as well as men with normozoospermic semen profiles, show high DNA fragmentation. Molecular anomalies in the sperm can be detected by a s...
Conference Paper
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Table of contents O1 Regulation of genes by telomere length over long distances Jerry W. Shay O2 The microtubule destabilizer KIF2A regulates the postnatal establishment of neuronal circuits in addition to prenatal cell survival, cell migration, and axon elongation, and its loss leading to malformation of cortical development and severe epilepsy No...
Chapter
As cancer survival rates increase worldwide, sperm banking is gaining popularity as a way to preserve male fertility. Banked sperm can be used in assisted reproductive procedures to initiate a successful pregnancy, thereby increasing the likelihood of male cancer patients fathering biological children. The American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASC...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose This study was undertaken in order to establish a new reference value for the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in seminal plasma as a predictor of fertility. This study also aims to propose a detailed protocol for the TAC assay including calculation of assay results and assessment of sensitivity and specificity over possible cutoff values i...

Citations

... Further, a major criticism of these studies is that none of them are controlled and the appearance of sperm in these men may be due to spontaneous variation and not be due to the VR (AUA/ASRM guideline statement 27). A recent study showed that 23.9% of men diagnosed as azoospermia were found to have rare sperm in the ejaculate when tested with additional centrifugation and staining with nuclear fast picroindigocarmine [101]. ...
... Подготовка эякулята к ВРТ может привести к разбавлению определенных антител. Следовательно, различные методы подготовки эякулята могут снизить количество АСА [7]. ...
... The American Center for Reproductive Medicine (ACRM) is an internationally recognized andrology center, which conducts annual, in-person training courses in andrology and ART. In response to the CO-VID-19 pandemic, the ACRM transitioned its 2020 annual training in ART from hands-on, laboratory-based training to a fully online training course endorsed by the American College of Embryology (EMBCOL) [7,8]. The COVID-19 pandemic revolutionized the fields of research and training by prompting researchers to effectively utilize online tools for virtual training of many researchers simultaneously [9][10][11]. ...
... semen analysis (2). The reference value for normal sperm morphology, reported in the different editions of World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines for semen analysis, sharply decreased from ≥ 80.5% reported in the 1st edition (3,4) to ≥ 14% in the 4th edition (5). They lowered up to ≥ 4% in the 5th and 6th editions (2,6). ...
... More common in men with leukocytic sperm than in men with normal sperm count. 4 Leukocytospermia can impair the fertilizing capacity of sperm by interfering with the acrosomal reaction and sperm-egg fusion. Leukocytospermia has also been linked to sperm DNA fragmentation. ...
... Retrograde ejaculation causes ejaculatory dysfunction, wherein partial or complete passage of semen enters the urinary bladder rather than passing out through the urethra, which occurs due to complete contraction inhibition of the bladder neck [2]. This effect is due to nerve pathology in the sympathetic nervous system or due to biological injury [130,131]. Approximately 0.3% to 2% of infertility in men is due to RE [132]. It occurs when little or no semen is ejaculated, however, the sensation of orgasm and contraction can be felt at the base of the penis in the ischeo-and bulbo-cavernosus muscles. ...
... In addition, manual evaluation of semen analysis is often subjective, laborious and requires extensive training coupled with interpersonnel human errors and interlaboratory variations, which restricted the use of the conventional method (Finelli et al., 2021). Therefore, computeraided sperm analyzer systems are used in advanced IVF laboratories to minimize variations in inter and intralaboratory results between and between laboratories and improve the consistency of decision making during standardized sperm selection (Agarwal et al., 2021b). ...
... [4,5] and is the source of the current global pandemic affecting all levels of society. [6] The World Health Organization (WHO) has renamed this nCoV as SARS-CoV 2, which is the causative agent of COVID-19. [4,5,7] COVID-19 is highly transmissible and pathogenic compared with other viral infections, and the exact mortality rate has yet to be determined because the pandemic is not yet under control in several countries, resulting in unprecedented protective measures, partial or complete lockdowns, travel restrictions, etc. [8] As of March 7, 2022, COVID-19 had already infected more than 446 million people in 195 countries and territories around the world and killed approximately 6 million people, according to data from the Johns Hopkins Coronavirus Dashboard. ...
... The Terminal Deoxynucleotidyl Transferase-Mediated dUTP Nick End Labeling (TUNEL) assay has been less used than SCSA or SCDt to determine DNA fragmentation in pig sperm. The TUNEL assay is based on the binding of deoxynucleotide (dUTP) to the 3'-hydroxyl break-ends (nicks) of single-and double-stranded fragmented DNA (Sharma et al., 2021). The attachment of terminal dUTP to the break-ends is catalysed by deoxynucleotidyl transferase, a template-independent DNA polymerase. ...
... The reduced fertility and fecundity of older fathers are caused by sperm chromatin damage, epigenetic abnormalities (i.e. DNA methylation, histone modification and small non-coding RNA deregulation) and increased mutagenesis (Hekmatdoost et al., 2009;Evenson et al., 2020;Sharma et al., 2020;Chianese and Pierantoni, 2021). Sperm chromatin integrity affects pregnancy rates and miscarriage risk in both natural and IVF/ICSI procedures, and it is highly correlated with an advanced age (Halvaei et al., 2020). ...