Rajshree Agarwal's research while affiliated with Loyola University Maryland and other places

Publications (138)

Conference Paper
Full-text available
As the study of entrepreneurship continues to advance, recognition of the role of theory in the development of the field grows. In this paper, we build on our collective experiences to offer a peak into the inner working of theorizing and highlight how specifically to develop theoretical insights for advancing entrepreneurship scholarship. Four pri...
Article
Full-text available
As the study of entrepreneurship continues to advance, recognition of the role of theory in the development of the field grows. In this paper, we build on our collective experiences to offer a peak into the inner working of theorizing and highlight how specifically to develop theoretical insights for advancing entrepreneurship scholarship. Four pri...
Article
We examine how institutional factors may affect microlevel career decisions by individuals to create new firms by impacting their ability to exercise entrepreneurial preferences, their accumulation of human capital, and the opportunity costs associated with new venture formation. We focus on an important institutional factor—immigration-related wor...
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We examine how mission-oriented grand challenges—formed to address the public sector’s unmet needs through development of new technologies and products for high potential impact—originate and catalyze industry incubation. Our analysis of six prominent cases identifies the incubation process, consisting of identification of unmet needs as a grand ch...
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An analysis of sectoral differences in gender pay gap over career lifecycles reveals that academia has a wider gender pay gap relative to industry.
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Successfully navigating through critical uncertainties during the incipient stages requires new ventures to develop learning systems, and building the right team may be key in this process. Drawing on prior work indicating that entrepreneurial teams form using either an interpersonal attraction strategy (relationships with similar others in a close...
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Research Summary We investigate the emergence of a global industry based on digital innovation by studying how the international expansion of pioneering firms relates to their characteristics and strategies for capability development and deployment. Using detailed archival data on mobile money, we classify pioneers that internationalize based on wh...
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Scholars have long been interested in new industry emergence, highlighting that it could often be impeded by uncertainty across four dimensions: technology, demand, ecosystem, and institutions. Building on the insight that uncertainty stems from partial knowledge, we develop a conceptual framework that utilizes a temporal and a process perspective...
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The use of machine learning (ML) for productivity in the knowledge economy requires considerations of important biases that may arise from ML predictions. We define a new source of bias related to incompleteness in real time inputs, which may result from strategic behavior by agents. We theorize that domain expertise of users can complement ML by m...
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Entrepreneurial team formation-the process through which founders establish a team to start a new venture, has important implications for team performance and entrepreneurial success. While research on entrepreneurial team formation is gradually growing, it is at a critical juncture and marked by considerable fragmentation. In part, this is because...
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Research Summary We study the processes of firm growth in the evolution of the Japanese cotton spinning industry during 1883‐1914 by integrating strategy and historical approaches and utilizing rich quantitative firm‐level data and detailed business histories. The resultant conceptual model highlights growth outcomes of path dependencies as firms e...
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Research Abstract This study examines motivations and team building processes of employee entrepreneurs by analyzing thirty founding narratives of disk drive industry spinouts founded between 1977‐1997. Our inductive, grounded theory building approach uncovers that ringleaders—founders who spearhead spinout creation—are driven by a non‐pecuniary de...
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Research summary This paper investigates the interaction effects of specialization and relational capital on performance. We distinguish between upstream and downstream relational capital, and theorize that higher levels of specialization will buffer against decreases in upstream relational capital, because of deeper domain expertise and stronger d...
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Industry evolution scholars define industry inception as first instance of product commercialization, focusing on subsequent time periods of growth and maturity. Left understudied are the triggers, actors, and actions preceding industry inception. We integrate recent research in a preliminary framework conceptualizing the incubation stage as activa...
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Recent decades have witnessed a remarkable increase in interest in entrepreneurship research, practice and policy. Since its founding in 2007, the Strategic Entrepreneurship Journal (SEJ) has sought to contribute by publishing high quality papers on a range of themes relating to strategic entrepreneurship, broadly defined.
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We extend the knowledge-based perspective to consider the impact of spin-out founders on knowledge transfer to new ventures.We argue that existing theory largely ignores the founder's role as a team catalyst who mobilizes a team and transmits the team's knowledge to a new venture. We address this gap by building theory on the role of a spin-out fou...
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Research summary: This study explores the effect of knowledge integration on strategic renewal. In particular, it examines how executives from different levels and sources influence renewal when added to top management teams (TMT). In contrast to prior work, the study hypothesizes and finds that new outside rookies—those new to top management and t...
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Research summary: We examine firms' technological investments during an industry's incubation stage-the period between a technological breakthrough and the first instance of its commercialization. Using the agricultural biotechnology context, we develop stylized findings regarding the understudied knowledge evolution preceding product evolution in...
Chapter
We discuss the differences between incumbent firms and new entrants, indicating their heterogeneity in terms of technological capabilities, complementary assets and cognitive frames. Moreover, we highlight the heterogeneity within new entrants, based on their firm-level prior experience in related industries or their founder-level prior experiences...
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Management scholars have noted that leader departures often foreshadow higher turnover intentions (or lower organizational attachment) of subordinates left behind, especially when relationships between the departing leader and subordinates (leadermember exchanges) have been high quality. In this article we posit that the quality of subordinates' re...
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Strategic alliances are undertaken to create value through complementarities of resources and capabilities of the partner firms. This paper uses a recently developed estimator of matching games, i.e. the maximum score estimator, to advance strategic management research on partner selection in strategic alliances, with a focus on the formation of re...
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This introductory essay of the Special Issue honoring Steven Klepper provides a synthesis of his work, and places the articles of the Special Issue within the context of his scholarship. Steven Klepper’s pioneering work linked life cycle patterns in industry evolution to underlying micro-level firm innovation dynamics and employee entrepreneurship,...
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The burgeoning literature in the last two decades on employee mobility and entrepreneurship has examined its causes and consequences at individual, firm and regional levels of analysis. This symposium intends to build and extend on prior work by compiling papers that theoretically synthesize and identify new frontiers of research through the employ...
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We examine firm investments in technology when an industry is in its incubation stage — the period between introduction of a technological change and the first instance of its commercialization. Focusing on this understudied phenomenon and using the agricultural biotechnology industry as a context, we develop stylized findings regarding the trend a...
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Innovative new ventures are at the heart of economic development, particularly when these startups are created by employee, academic, and user innovators. We synthesize across literature streams examining each phenomena to document distinctions between firms originating from different “knowledge contexts.” We then integrate the knowledge context in...
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In this review of Steven Klepper's contributions in industry evolution, employee entrepreneurship, and geographical clusters, we trace the evolution of his scholarly career. Combining insights from an in-depth interview, our own experiences with him, and our retrospective review, we also note some salient characteristics of the process that Klepper...
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Competitive advantage often rests on the skills and expertise of individuals that may leave for rival organizations. Although institutional factors like non-compete regimes shape intra-industry mobility patterns, far less is known about firm-specific reputations built through patent enforcement. This study formally models and empirically tests how...
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Our study examines the mediating effect of spin-out team characteristics on the relationship between founder quality and parent and spin-out performance. Since the ability to transfer or recreate complementary assets is a critical determinant of performance, we theorize and show that founders with greater ability impact both parent firm and spin-ou...
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We explore the strategic implications of firm compensation dispersion on the heterogeneous turnover outcomes of employee mobility and entrepreneur ship. We theorize that individuals' turnover decisions are affected by the interaction of individual performance with the firm's compensation dispersion relative to its competitors. We test our theory us...
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We integrate insights from organizational capabilities, organizational economics, and industry evolution to examine industry entrants' boundary choices about value chain activities and test hypotheses in 1978—2009 data from a sample of U.S. bioethanol producers. We find support for our predictions that transaction hazards, decomposed as either endu...
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We integrate insights from organization design, economic game theory, and social psychology to examine the role of prior resource allocation and communication in alleviating behavioral uncertainty arising in interunit coordination settings. We use the context of post-acquisition coordination, focusing on the extent to which routines created under o...
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Research in corporate strategy has come a long way since its early days as a purely case‐based investigation. Today, corporate strategy theory draws not only on ideas from many disciplines, but has also developed its own concepts to better describe and predict strategic behavior. Methodologically, however, modern corporate strategy research relies...
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Focusing on entrepreneurial ventures created by employees leaving a firm, our study examines the differential impact of knowledge transfer and knowledge spillovers on both parent and spin-out performance. While extant research often uses knowledge transfer and spillover interchangeably, our study distinguishes between the two based on the rivalness...
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We examine how entrepreneurial entry by diversifying and de novo firms in new industries leads to different levels of performance. We propose that the two types of firms differ in their dynamic capabilities, which enable them to overcome growth impediments and transition to incumbency in the industry. Diversifying firms have already adapted firm kn...
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We examine the strategic implications of firm compensation structures on employee mobility and entrepreneurship. We theorize that employees seek compensation systems that provide the greatest rewards for their level of performance, and thus individuals’ mobility and entrepreneurship decisions are affected by the interaction of individual performanc...
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Knowledge spillovers and strategic entrepreneurship has each been the subject of much scholarly attention, but have largely been considered separately rather than in conjunction with each other. In this article, we develop implications of the link between knowledge spillovers and strategic entrepreneurship and identify key topics, themes, and issue...
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We examine how entrepreneurial entry by diversifying and de novo firms in new industries leads to different levels of performance. We propose that these types of firms differ in dynamic capabilities, which help them overcome growth impediments and transition to incumbency in the industry. Growth impediments arise at larger size, older tenure levels...
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Previous studies of employee entrepreneurship have not considered the rewards available to potential entrepreneurs inside of their current organizations. This study hopes to fill this gap by investigating how the firm’s compensation structure, an important strategic decision closely scrutinized by human resource management, affects the mobility and...
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In this chapter, the authors assert that traditional advanced degree programs underserve young scientists, and train them primarily for a career in academia pursuing basic research. Data drawn from the Scientists and Engineers Statistical Data System (SESTAT) from 1996 to 2006 show that only one fourth of all scientists are engaged in basic academi...
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Full-text available
This paper experimentally examines the determinants of the deviation between potential and realized value creation in strategic alliances. To better understand how decision making in alliances may influence success, we use an experimental design that juxtaposes two important factors that affect alliance members' decisions: economic incentives and c...
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We extend the concept of first mover advantage to the context of high-technology industries with multiple product generations, and propose that the notion of first mover advantage needs to be viewed not only through a dynamic lens, but also in conjunction with technological capability. Our main finding is that first mover advantages are contingent...
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We integrate insights from organizational capabilities, organizational economics, and industry evolution to examine the firm’s decisions regarding the organization of activities in a value chain, and test our hypotheses using a near census of US bio-ethanol producers during the 1978-2009 period. We find support for our predictions that transaction...
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Macroeconomic theory assumes that factors of production in the economy are homogeneous and fungible. As a result, it is poorly suited for analyzing and developing policy responses to the recent financial crisis. Theories of strategic management and organization, with their emphasis on heterogeneous resources and capabilities, are better positioned....
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Strategic renewal, although critical for the sustained success of organizations, has received relatively little attention as distinct from the more general phenomenon of strategic change. Like all strategic issues, strategic renewal presents both opportunities and challenges for organizations. In this article, we first define the term "strategic re...
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We theorize that differences in human assets’ ability to generate value are linked to exit decisions and their effects on firm performance. Using linked employee-employer data from the U.S. Census Bureau on legal services, we find that employees with higher earnings are less likely to leave relative to employees with lower earnings, but if they do...
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This paper experimentally examines the determinants of the deviation between potential and realized value creation in strategic alliances. To better understand how decision making in alliances may influence success, we use an experimental design that juxtaposes two important factors that affect alliance members' decisions: economic incentives and c...
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Full-text available
University research-based technological opportunities are often created and exploited through joint corporate and academic entrepreneurship activities such as university-industry research collaborations. What determines a "good match" between academic scientists and firms that seek to apply basic research for commercialization? To answer this quest...
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In an effort to respond to concerns regarding academic rigor expressed in the 1950s, management researchers turned to more established disciplines to help develop a stronger intellectual climate. We examine the evolution of management research over the past 25 years, with a focus on its relationship with the related disciplines of economics, psycho...
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Full-text available
Studying the US personal computer industry from its inception in 1974 through 1994, we address the following questions. What product technology strategies increase the survival chances of entrants into new, technologically dynamic industries? Does the effectiveness of these strategies differ by pre-entry experience? Does the effectiveness of these...
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‘Job hopping’ by engineers and scientists is widely heralded as an important channel for knowledge spillovers within industries. Far less is known, however, about the actions firms take to reduce the outward flow of knowledge through markets for skilled labor. This study investigates the efficacy of a lever that has received little research attenti...
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Questioning the underlying assumptions of the process of creative destruction, we conceptualize an alternative process of creative construction that may characterize the dynamics between entrants and incumbents. We discuss the underlying mechanism of knowledge spillover strategic entrepreneurship whereby knowledge investments by existing organizati...
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We investigate the relationship between firms' entry characteristics and their subsequent performance contingent on environmental turbulence and stage of industry life cycle by simulating industry as an NKC landscape. Diversifying entrants differ from entrepreneurial startups in terms of the complexity of their routines. We posit that diversifying...
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Sales in a new market generally follow a hockey-stick pattern: After commercialization, sales are very low for some time before there is a dramatic takeoff in growth. Reported sales takeoffs across products vary widely from a few years to several decades. Prior research identifies new firm entry or price declines as key factors that relate to the t...
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This paper experimentally investigates the determinants of the deviation between potential and realized value creation in strategic alliances. To better understand how decision making in alliances may influence success, we use an experimental design that juxtaposes two important factors that affect alliance members' decisions: economic incentives a...
Article
Studying the US personal computer industry from its inception in 1974 through 1994, we address the following questions. What product technology strategies increase the survival chances of entrants into new, technologically dynamic industries? Does the effectiveness of these strategies differ by pre-entry experience? Does the effectiveness of these...
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We investigate firm survival in a rapidly evolving industry where new technological subfields and market segments emerge frequently. We re-examine first mover advantage (FMA) through a dynamic, evolutionary lens while taking account of technological aspects of the product. Our findings demonstrate the importance of considering technological perform...
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To foster ‘creative destruction,’ entrants must survive the turbulent conditions they face in their first crucial years in the industry. We investigate how the external knowledge milieu of an entrant, conceptualized as its innovative environment, causes systematic variation in survival patterns. We test our model from 3,431 firms in 33 industries o...