Rachel Monaghan's research while affiliated with Ulster University and other places

Publications (30)

Article
Increasingly, commercial real estate and crowded places have become common targets for terrorist actions. Despite this, little empirical research exists explaining how such locations could be made more resilient, particularly in the context of new developments. The research presented in this article contributes to the literature by identifying what...
Article
The impact of terrorist attacks extends far beyond the immediate victims and can affect the wider economic environment including strategically important sectors of the economy. Mitigation of the adverse effects of such attacks should be of interest to risk management professionals, however, a gap within the literature has been identified with respe...
Article
While much of the literature concerning counterterrorism focuses on policies and strategies aimed at removing either the terrorist environment and/or the groups or individuals willing to utilize political violence to achieve their goal(s), there is a much smaller body of work concerned with antiterrorism, namely those defensive measures that are de...
Article
Close circuit television (CCTV) footage can be used to assemble an often-complex picture of an incident and aid in the identification of suspects after a crime or terrorist attack has occurred. For example, such footage allowed the police to not only identify the 7/7 London bombers but also to piece together the details of the bombers' movements pr...
Article
Since 9/11, there has been an increased interest in the use of biometric technologies as a way to counter the threat of terrorism and to protect a nation's critical national infrastructure and infrastructure assets. Biometric features can be used to verify an individual's identity or in the identification of an individual. Such features can be divi...
Article
Full-text available
The use of biometrics has become a popular method to counter the threat of terrorism. Biometric features can be used to confirm identity (biometric authentication) or to identify an individual (biometric identification). Such features include physical (e.g. fingerprints and DNA) and behavioural characteristics (e.g. handwriting and gait). This pape...
Article
Political violence undertaken in the name of animal rights has been ongoing for some 35 years in the United Kingdom and yet such activity is commonly termed extremism, not terrorism. Existing counterterrorism measures have not been utilized by the state against individuals and groups engaged in such violence. This article explores the criminal just...
Article
Governments when faced with countering terrorism have a number of options at their disposal. One such option is the collection of intelligence, and human intelligence can provide valuable information on terrorist groups and their activities. ‘Tout’, ‘informer’, ‘informant’, ‘source’, ‘agent’, ‘grass’, ‘mole’ and ‘nark’ are some of the labels used t...
Article
This article considers in detail loyalist paramilitary activity in Northern Ireland since the paramilitary cease-fires of 1994. The continuing nature of contemporary loyalist violence is documented with reference to sectarian attacks against members of the “Other”/Catholic community and associated symbols of that community, violence directed at oth...
Article
South Africa and Northern Ireland have experienced bitter ethnonational conflicts in which the transition to a peaceful political settlement has been characterized by crime and violence. In the case of Northern Ireland, this transition is still ongoing. This article examines the alternative policing and informal justice mechanisms, which have devel...
Article
The use of violence by paramilitaries to punish and to discipline members of their own respective communities is an established practice developed throughout the course of the ‘Troubles’ and continues in the post-conflict period. Paramilitary ‘punishments’ are primarily an urban phenomenon with the bulk of recorded ‘punishments’ occurring within th...
Article
Since the beginning of the Troubles, alternative forms of justice have emerged in many working class areas of Northern Ireland. Such justice operates outside the formal state system and is undertaken by paramilitaries. This article explores the nature of this informal justice including an identification of activities liable for ‘punishment’, the pr...
Chapter
The growing recognition that social problems are multi-faceted and need to be tackled in ways which cut across traditional departmental boundaries has heralded the advent of ‘joined-up’ government. Yet this new emphasis does not appear to have permeated the provision of public services in Northern Ireland and South Africa in their response to the i...
Chapter
Northern Ireland and South Africa may, at first sight, appear to have little to offer in terms of comparative analysis beyond the rather superficial observation that both are ‘divided societies’ as the title of this book suggests. One point of comparison, however, is that both might be styled ‘post-conflict’ societies and, as a consequence, merit a...
Chapter
Thus far we have traced the historical roots of the informal justice systems in Northern Ireland and South Africa and examined how both paramilitaries and vigilantes currently engage in summary punitive measures within their own communities. This has included insights into the different motivations behind, for example, loyalist and republican viole...
Article
In the working-class areas of Northern Ireland alternative forms of justice operating in parallel to the State's criminal justice system exist. This informal criminal justice system, administered by paramilitaries, includes threats, warnings, beatings, shootings, and executions. Informal justice mechanisms emerged in the early days of "the Troubles...
Chapter
Restorative justice projects have emerged in Northern Ireland (in both republican and loyalist areas) and South Africa. These projects seek to (a) meet the needs of victims; (b) make the offender accountable for their actions and offer a pathway back into the community; and (c) give communities a sense of ownership and responsibility over dealing w...
Chapter
The plight of the victims of political violence in Northern Ireland and South Africa and the enduring suffering of their families has assumed much greater public prominence. Some see this new-found concern by governments for victims in both countries as no more than a necessary part of the political and public relations exercise undertaken in light...
Chapter
This system acted as both a legal and a social code ensuring the smooth running of the rural hierarchical communities found in Ireland at this time. Accordingly, the legitimacy and authority of the system was dependent on the cohesiveness of the community. The hierarchical nature of the community resulted in the status of the victim and offender be...
Chapter
Informal criminal justice mechanisms have evolved to counter crime and ‘anti-social behaviour’ in the working-class areas of Northern Ireland and in the townships of South Africa. In Northern Ireland, paramilitaries exercise social control and ‘police’ their own people, taking action against individuals involved in crime and ‘anti-social behaviour’...

Citations

... Religious Courts are thus recognized by the state and have the monopoly to decide on disputes related to marriage, divorce, custody, guardianship, etc. In parallel to these two legal orders, community-specific faith-based or customary informal mechanisms exist to settle grievances outside the scope of formal institutions (Knox & Monaghan, 2002). ...
... Much like ordinary criminals, lone actors make a series of cost-benefit analyses to judge whether a particular act is worth committing and make carefully calculated choices that are value-maximising, increasing the probability of success (Gill et al, 2018). The US Federal Bureau of Investigation (2019) study into lone actor terrorism (n=52) over the period 1972 -2015 identified the following operational characteristics pertaining to lone actors' target selection, planning and execution of attacks, which were consistent across the data-set: (1) utilization of secure dark web platforms to acquire knowledge and skills from other like-minded individuals and virtual extremist communities (Turner et al, 2021); (2) tactics were modified based on the study of successes and failures of other terrorist /lone actor attacks (Mcllhatton, 2019); (3) some degree of symbolic valuethe target and or relation to individual(s) at the target location; (4) multiple targets were often considered before selecting the primary target; (5) the likelihood of operational success; (6) ease of access and the perceived risk of detection; (7) assessment that security was minimal or ineffective; (8) surveillance of the target was conducted in advance; (9) dry run rehearsals were conducted on the day of, or prior to the attack; (10) attack methods were relatively unsophisticated; and (11) firearms were the primary means of attack followed by explosives. Furthermore, these operational characteristics are consistent with findings from contemporary research (Gill et al, 2020;Schuurman et al, 2018;Bouhana et al, 2018;Hamm andSpaaij, 2017, 2015;Becker, 2014). ...
... Building on the threat landscape and these guidance documents, McIlhatton et al. (2018) explored how the real estate development process could potentially be used as a framework for maximizing the resiliency of commercial real estate and crowded places from terrorism. They focus on understanding how the different sectors (architects, investors, developers, planners, engineers, project managers, construction management, and urban designers) involved in real estate development consider the threat from terrorism and identify prominent barriers that need to be overcome for counterterrorism measures to become a key consideration. ...
... This technologically-enabled system of surveillance and control also intersects with global dynamics in a number of key ways. First, the utilisation of specific technological innovations such as DNA sequencing, metadata analysis, facial recognition technology and machine learning are becoming increasingly deployed by states throughout the globe across the both the global North and global South in the name of public safety and, especially, counterterrorism [10,38,59]. This trend makes it both easier for the Chinese state to construct a justificatory narrative around its system of control and for the state's various security apparatuses and bureaucracies to engage with and learn from international partners. ...
... It would further encourage calculation of "ghost" employees or students and staff who have remained unnecessarily absent from dispensing their duties or have been reported to have been involved in criminal activities. PRP would also ensure that any student , organization or employee does not possess any extremist views that either incite hatred towards a specific sect , ethnicity or locality , since such remarks could further lead to violence which can be used as a leverage to conduct terrorist activity (Chaurasia et al., 2016). ...
... These features are shaped into a feature vector relating to each signal independently for both train and test datasets [38]. The feature selection expels unessential features and improves classification theory [3,4]. The classification of the image is the last progress [6]. ...
... Dolayısıyla ekolojik terörde amaç çevrenin korunması iken; çevresel terörizmde amaç doğal kaynakların ve çevrenin zarar görmesidir. İki grup birçok alanda ortak faaliyet yürütmektedirler (Monaghan, 2013). ELF'nin en temel hedefi doğal kaynakların insanlar tarafından sömürülmesine engel olmak ve bu doğrultuda çevreye verilen zarara yönelik kamuoyu ilgisini arttırmaktır (Chalecki, 2001, s. 4). ...
... In some cases, these organizations may work in conjunction with the state to deliver RJ as an "alternative" diversionary or postadjudicative practice. In North Ireland, South Africa, and some Canadian and US jurisdictions, community organizations may deliver RJ programs as a fully fledged alternative justice process (Eriksson, 2015;Monaghan, 2008;Tomporowski, 2014). Sentencing circles in North American First Nations communities, as well as other forms of RJ used by First Nations peoples in Australia and New Zealand may also be community-led (Cultural and Indigenous Research Centre, 2008;Paulin et al., 2005), although there has been significant criticism by some First Nations scholars and activists around the degree of self-determination in such programs, discussed below in more detail. ...
... Exposure to ethnic conflict has been associated with lower levels of general (i.e., target not specified) prosocial behavior in children (Keresteš, 2006;Kijewski & Freitag, 2018;Rohner et al., 2013). Outgroup-specific prosocial behavior may be perceived as disloyal toward ingroup members , resulting in social penalties (Abrams et al., 2014;Pinto et al., 2010) or physical punishments (Monaghan & McLaughlin, 2006). In intergroup conflicts, prosocial behavior benefiting the outgroup is especially low when children strongly identify with their ingroup (O'Driscoll et al., 2018). ...
... However, there is likely some degree of underreporting of trauma in the present sample, particularly trauma relating to very sensitive or stigmatized experiences such as sexual abuse (Easton, 2013), as well as silence and fear surrounding discussion of conflict-related incidents. In Northern Ireland, experiences of abuse or maltreatment can sometimes be bound up with conflict-related experiences, for example, paramilitaries may administer extrajudicial punishments for domestic or gender-based violence (Monaghan, 2004;PSNI, 2019), or members of paramilitary groups and their associates may be the perpetrators (Doyle & McWilliams, 2018, 2019. Such conflict-related circumstances render reporting victimization experiences even more difficult. ...