Rachel Dunifon's research while affiliated with Cornell University and other places

Publications (16)

Article
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A growing literature in family demography examines children's residence in doubled-up (shared) households with extended family members and nonkin. This research has largely overlooked the role of doubling up as a housing strategy, with “hosts” (householders) providing housing support for “guests” living in their home. Yet, understanding children's...
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Over the last two decades, the share of U.S. children under age 18 who live in a multigenerational household (with a grandparent and parent) has increased dramatically. Yet we do not know whether this increase is a recent phenomenon or a return to earlier levels of coresidence. Using data from the decennial census from 1870 to 2010 and the 2018 Ame...
Article
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The share of children living with grandparents has increased in recent years. Previous studies have examined how time with grandparents is associated with child well-being, but we know little about how grandparents fare in their time with grandchildren. We used diary data from the American Time Use Study (ATUS) to examine the association between gr...
Article
Grandparents play varied roles in their grandchildren's lives. Prior work has focused mostly on historical trends in and implications of grandparent coresidence and has not considered more broadly how grandparents and grandchildren interact. Using time-use diary data for 6,762 person-years from the 1997 to 2007 waves of the Panel Study of Income Dy...
Article
Full-text available
BACKGROUND The likelihood that a US child will live with a grandparent has increased over time. In 2015, nearly 12% of children lived with a grandparent. However, the likelihood that a child will ever live with a grandparent is not known. OBJECTIVE We calculate the cumulative and age-specific probabilities of coresidence with grandparents during ch...
Article
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Background: Eighty-two percent of children under age 18 live with at least one sibling, and the sibling relationship is typically the longest-lasting family relationship in an individual's life. Nevertheless, siblings remain understudied in the family demography literature. Objective: We ask how having a sibling structures children's time spent wit...
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Despite public concerns about the negative implications of the increased labor force participation of mothers for child development, decades of research have revealed few risks and some benefits. One potential risk-a consistently observed association between maternal employment and childhood obesity-offers a window into how some dimensions of famil...
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Although the implications of nonstandard work schedules (work outside of the typical 9 – 5, Monday – Friday schedule) for individuals and families are increasingly well understood, it is unclear how such schedules are associated with perceived social support for working mothers. Using data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study and a v...
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Research studies and popular accounts of parenting have documented the joys and strains of raising children. Much of the literature comparing parents with those without children indicates a happiness advantage for those without children, although recent studies have unpacked this general advantage to reveal differences by the dimension of well-bein...
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Full-text available
Using data from the Year 9 Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N ∼ 3,182), we investigated the characteristics grandfamilies (grandparents raising their grandchildren with no parent present, N = 84) and compared them to other key groups, including children's nonresident parents and other economically disadvantaged families with children. Re...
Article
Many low-income families receive child-care subsidies, and a small but growing literature examines the relationship between subsidies and family well-being. Some studies find a negative association between subsidy receipt and family wellbeing, raising questions about the processes that mediate the two. Drawing on a subsample of 1,189 subsidy recipi...
Article
Using data on 67,558 children (age 0 to 17) from the 1999 and 2002 rounds of the National Survey of America's Families, the association between complex living arrangements and children's health is examined. The authors consider children residing in a wide range of living arrangements, including with stepparents, single fathers, custodial grandparen...
Article
U.S. children today have increasingly diverse living arrangements. In 2012, 10 percent of children lived with at least one grandparent; 8 percent lived in three-generational households, consisting of a parent and a grandparent; while 2 percent lived with a grandparent and no parent in the household. This article reviews the literature on grandparen...
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Recent trends such as increased life expectancy, decreases in family size, and the rise of both single-parent families and maternal employment increase the potential for grandparents to play important roles in the lives of their grandchildren. In this article, I review recent research and discuss directions for research on grandparents' influence o...
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This research brief provides an overview of the current research on parenting adolescents. It is intended primarily as a guide for parent educators and other professionals working with parents and caregivers of teens.
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Using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, 1998-1999 Kindergarten Cohort, the proposed study examines two research questions. First, what are the effects of participation in the National School Lunch Program (NSLP) on changes in children’s behavior, test scores, and body weight? Second, do these effects differ by gender? To address iss...

Citations

... Hispanic households frequently involve multiple generations, thus effective interventions and measurements of their effects should be tailored to include all household members. (48) We found higher sun protective knowledge led to less measured UVR exposure time at both low and high levels during the week, as seen in an adult Danish dosimetry study. (49) Overall assessed sun protective knowledge in our study, however, was low. ...
... The grandparenting experience, SWB and health. While a sizable number of studies have reported on the association between caring responsibilities toward grandchildren and SWB of grandparents (Bordone and Arpino, 2015;Di Gessa et al., 2015;Hughes et al., 2007;Ku et al., 2013;Neuberger and Haberkern, 2013), research examining the impact of intergenerational relations on grandparents is scarce (Choi and Zhang, 2018;Clarke and Roberts, 2004;Dunifon et al., 2020). There are legitimate reasons to believe, however, that the grandchild-grandparent relationship can positively impact grandparents' SWB. ...
... Parental involvement continues and evolves when young adults have children of their own. In addition to childhood socialization processes (Manning et al., 2011;Pearce & Thornton, 2007) and direct communication around sex and relationships (Allison, 2016;Trinh et al., 2014), parents can shape the next generation's transition to parenthood by providing emotional, practical, and material support after the birth of a child (Cooney, 2021;Dunifon et al., 2018;Mazelis & Mykyta, 2011;Mustillo et al., 2021). The transition to parenthood effects changes in the composition of couples' social networks (Bost et al., 2002) as well as the relational dynamics between generations (Bergman et al., 2010;Dun, 2010;Dun & Sears, 2017;Munz, 2017). ...
... Latin America is among the regions with the highest average rates of IC globally, after Asia-Pacific (45%) and sub-Saharan Africa (35%) (Pew Research Center, 2019). Although in North America the prevalence of IC has recently increased in all age groups, it remains comparatively low (11%; Amorim et al., 2017;Pew Research Center, 2010, 2019. ...
... In the United States, children without siblings living with them spend more of their discretionary time engaged exclusively with their parents compared to children with coresident siblings (22 hours compared to 6). Furthermore, children with siblings spend half their time outside school together, and an additional 20 percent of their time with groups of children in which their siblings are also present (Dunifon, Fomby, & Musick, 2017). Sibling talk is therefore an essential part of everyday communicative life for a large number of children. ...
... Cross-sectional studies conducted in the U.S. pre-pandemic [26][27][28] and during the first few months of the pandemic [29] show a relationship between health behaviors and individual child characteristics, including race/ethnicity, sex, age, and socioeconomic status. The pandemic has contributed to changes in household conditions that can influence health behaviors, such as parent employment, access to health-related services, and food insecurity [30][31][32]; although the groups most affected by the pandemic at the household level were not always those with historical disadvantage [33]. Additionally, novel household factors during the pandemic, including changes to parents' work schedules to care for their children during remote schooling and pandemic-related financial concerns as a source of stress have also been linked to children's health behaviors [29]. ...
... A large portion of the sociological literature regarding work-nonwork boundaries has focused on the balance between family and work responsibilities and roles, showing how these conflicts are particularly exacerbated for women and for employees with nonstandard work schedules (see, for example, Blair-Loy & Cech 2017;Bittman and Wacjman, 2000;Craig & Powell 2011;Jacobs and Gerson, 2001;Wynn 2018). Atypical schedules impact workers' lives outside of work by hindering the arrangement of child-care, domestic routines, and a constant sense of anxiety and unpredictability because earnings fluctuate along with hours worked (Blyton & Jenkins, 2012;Su and Dunifon, 2017). Work schedules not only affect close ties, but also looser social bonds, such as neighbor contact, attendance at social events, volunteering, and religious participation (Cornwell and Warburton, 2014). ...
... For racial and ethnic minorities, cultural appropriateness can be a key factor in influencing engagement (Barnett et al., 2020;Speth et al., 2015), and within ethnic minorities, different levels of acculturation may associate with different preferences (Perrino et al., 2018). Single parents may benefit from highly streamlined supports as they often experience additional financial and emotional burdens relative to dual parent households (Meier et al., 2016;Whisenhunt et al., 2019). Thus, there is a need for further research to understand how programs can be designed to remain accessible and engaging despite the additional barriers faced by these families. ...
... The majority of included studies suggested that children raised by grandparents had more behavioural problems (i.e. internalising or externalising problems, ADHD, delayed development, reoffending behaviours, bullying behaviours, marijuana use) than their peers raised by biological parents or other types of household structure/care (Ani et al., 2020;Bramlett & Blumberg, 2007;Campbell et al., 2006;Conway & Li, 2012;Edwards, 2006Edwards, , 2009Edwards, , 2016Nanthamongkolchai et al., 2009;Pilkauskas & Dunifon, 2016;Pittman & Boswell, 2007;Rapoport et al., 2020;Robbins et al., 2006;Smith & Palmieri, 2007;Smith, Hayslip, & Webster, 2019;Smith, Infurna, et al., 2019;Ziol-Guest & Dunifon, 2014). However, Oburu (2005) in Kenya and Dunne and Kettler (2008) in Australia did not find significant differences in children's adjustment (i.e. ...
... In a literature review, Allen et al. (2019) reported that grandparents caring for their grandchildren is the most studied topic in grandparenthood studies. Some grandparents live with their grandchildren (Dunifon et al. 2014;Freeman et al. 2019), with or without the parents. If skipped-generation households are extremely rare in Europe (Masfety et al. 2019), they are common in Asian (Xu 2019) and Sub-Saharan (Parker and Short 2009) cultures, leading to a greater diversity of the grandparenting role across cultures. ...