Rabindra N. Kanungo's research while affiliated with McGill University and other places

Publications (69)

Chapter
In today’s turbulent environment brought about by globalization and continuing technological change, innovation is a critical ingredient for a successful organization. Innovation means more than new technology and products. It means that employees use their knowledge, abilities, and experience to respond creatively to the constantly changing demand...
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As part of an ongoing research program on charismatic leadership, Conger and Kanungo (1994) developed and tested a questionnaire to measure the perceived behavioural dimensions of charismatic leadership as proposed in their model (1987, 1988). This article reports on further analyses of the dimensionality and validity of the Conger-Kanungo scale. I...
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Ethical leadership literature (Bass & Steidlmeier, 1999; Kanungo & Mendonca, 1996) suggests that authentic transformational leadership must be based on some moral foundation. Such literature is not as clear, however, on whether transactional leadership can have moral foundation as well. The paper argues that transformational and transactional leade...
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Relationship between attitude of job involvement and patterns of perceived need importance, need satisfaction, and need strength were explored. Data were collected from 64 high-involved and 77 low involved employees of two Indian organizations. Results revealed that the attitude of job-involvement acted as a moderator variable only with respect to...
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Full-text available
Kanungo and Misra (1992) distinguished ‘skills’ from managerial ‘competencies’, the latter being the basic components of a manager’s resourcefulness. Resourcefulness is critical in performing leadership roles that require coping with non-routine, unprogrammable and ill-structured tasks. This paper attempts to clarify the nature of the resourcefulne...
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This paper attempts to operationalise the construct of managerial resourcefulness. The construct was first proposed by Kanungo and Misra1 who suggested that managerial resourcefulness is a constellation of three generic competencies—affective, intellectual and action-oriented, which helps the manager deal with the non-routine, non-programmable aspe...
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On the basis of the current theories of charismatic leadership, several possible follower effects were identified. It is hypothesized that followers of charismatic leaders could be distinguished by their greater reverence, trust, and satisfaction with their leader and by a heightened sense of collective identity, perceived group task performance, a...
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On the basis of the current theories of charismatic leadership, several possible follower effects were identified. It is hypothesized that followers of charismatic leaders could be distinguished by their greater reverence, trust, and satisfaction with their leader and by a heightened sense of collective identity, perceived group task performance, a...
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Le Mode`le de Culture Fit explique la manie`re dont l’environnement socio-culturel influence la culture interne au travail et les pratiques de la direction des ressources humaines. Ce mode`le a e´te´ teste´ sur 2003 salarie´s d’entreprises prive´es dans 10 pays. Les participants ont rempli un questionnaire de 57 items, destine´ a` mesurer les perce...
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The empowerment grid is introduced as a conceptual tool to better understand the phenomenon of workplace empowerment. First, working conditions, work processes, and strategic governance are identified as the three broad domains of workplace empowerment. Next, three empowering agents are identified – management, government, and the workers themselve...
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The Model of Culture Fit postulates that the sociocultural environment affects the internal work culture, which in turn influences human resource management practices. This model was tested by two independent cross-cultural studies comparing Indian and Canadian managers and employees. In assessing sociocultural environment and internal work culture...
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This paper emphasizes the need to understand the precise way in which culture influences the effectiveness of the organisation's human resource management (HRM) practices. For this purpose, it first describes the findings of a series of conceptual and empirical studies that explain why a set of HRM practices might be effective in one societal cultu...
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Is an ethical leader an oxymoron? Society demands and expects greater accountability from organizational leaders. The literature on leadership, especially business leadership, has neglected ethical issues by focusing only on those approaches and strategies that emphasize self-centred, individualistic concerns. How ever, true and effective leadershi...
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Explored the process of acculturation in the Indo-Canadian family. 330 30–65 yr olds parents' acculturation attitudes were examined in relation to their 228 11–21 yr old children's attitudes and behavior problems. This study had 3 objectives. First, it aimed to develop reliable and valid measures of acculturation attitudes and beliefs for the sampl...
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The paper presents a model of culture-fit to understand human resource management (HRM) practices in both the developed and the developing countries. The model postulates that (a) socio-cultural values and enterprise environment affect the internal work culture of organizations which in turn influence managerial practices, and (b) organizations in...
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This paper attempts to explain Indian organizational behaviour with the help of two interrelated concepts: context sensitivity and balancing. Context sensitivity pertains to beliefs about person (patra), time (kal), and ecological (desh) components of the environment. Balancing is a behavioural disposition to avoid extremes and to integrate or acco...
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This study examines the differences between the internal work culture of public and private sector organisations in India. 7be model of culture fit was utilised to explain the ways in which the external sociocultural environment and enterprise variables influence the internal work culture which, in turn, has an impact on human resource management p...
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Argues that performance management techniques and practices developed in US organizations cannot be successful in the developing country context to gain competitive advantage unless the issue of culture-fit is addressed adequately. “Culture-fit” can be ensured when managers adopt human resource management strategies to overcome the cultural constra...
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Sumario: Leadership theory and research: modal orientations and emerging trends -- Ethical dimensions in leadership motivation -- Ethical dimensions of leadership influence processes -- Preparing for ethical leadership -- Cultural contingencies of leadership
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Recent interest in the charismatic leadership role of managers in organizations calls for the identification and measurement of perceived behavior characteristics of such leadership. This article reports on the development of a questionnaire measure of the perceived behavioral dimensions of charismatic leadership proposed by the Conger and Kanungo...
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The issue of culture fit is explored through the use of a model that identifies the characteristics of the internal work culture of organizations in developing countries. The context of their sociocultural environment and the manner in which the cultural characteristics are likely to facilitate or hinder the effective use of the state-of-the-art hu...
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Executive Overview “Altruism” is a word rarely associated with the world of business. After all, the game of business is played in a competitive arena and hence few expect business people to be altruistic. The path to profits, it is widely believed, is not paved with caring concern but with Darwinian cleverness. Add to these expectations a North Am...
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The diverse nature of the prevailing conceptualizations of skills required for successful managerial performance hinders our understanding of the phenomenon. This paper examines the limitations to our understanding of the nature of managerial skills based on the analysis of managerial jobs that are often non-routine, unprogrammed, and ill-structure...
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The paper explores charismatic leadership as a new dimension. A three stage model to understand the charismatic leader's influence process in organisations is proposed. Stage 1 is that of evaluation of status quo, Stage 2 that of formulation of organisational goals, and Stage 3 is the means of achieving these goals. In all stages, the essential and...
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The issue of worker alienation in the context of business ethics is critically examined. From a normative perspective, it is assumed that the minimal ethical requirement in business should include accountability for adverse consequences of management practice for workers in organizations. Using this standard, managerial actions that are responsible...
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Examined a behavioral model by J. A. Conger and R. N. Kanungo (see record 1988-12397-001) for studying charismatic leadership in organizational settings. 121 employees completed questionnaires based on the model. Results suggest that charismatic leadership can be studied as a dimension of leadership much like task or consideration roles. Results a...
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In this new book, Jay A. Conger reveals how the charismatic leader's qualities of creativity, inspiration, unconventionality, vision, and risk-taking can help bring about radical change in organizations damaged by long periods of inertia - and shows why we need charismatic leadership now more than ever before. Drawing on findings from organizationa...
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The paper identifies several characteristics of the socio-cultural environment and anternal work culture of organisations in developing countries, and discusses the reasons why such characteristics have facilitating or constraining effects on the installation and implementation of the performance management process. The paper also proposes specific...
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This paper argues that the existing theoretical explanations of work alienation and corrective management practices developed in the Western world have Limited cross-cultural applicability. This argument is supported fist by identifying the cultural bias inherent in the Western explanatory models of alienation and then by indicating how such a bias...
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This article reports on the development of a cross-culturally validated standardized measure of family involvement. Family involvement is operationalized on the basis of the motivational formulation of involvement and alienation (Kanungo, 1979) and studied in a bi-national setting. Data from heterogeneous samples of 269 Indian and 168 Canadian empl...
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Charisma is a Greek word meaning gift. It is presumed to be characterized by some mystical qualities of leadership divinely bestowed upon rare persons. Recently, Kanungo and Conger have attempted to “strip the aura of mysticism” from charisma by proposing a model that deals with charismatic leadership within organizations strictly as a behavioural...
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The continually rising costs of pay and benefits is always a matter of serious concern to organizations. However, these costs are not subjected to the probing cost-benefit analyses that are routinely used for operating costs. This article explores some of the reasons for manager's indifference to these enormous expenditures. Drawing upon a recent s...
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Despite increasing attention on the topic of empowerment, our understanding of the construct and its underlying processes remains limited. This article addresses these shortcomings by providing an analytical treatment of the construct and by integrating the diverse approaches to empowerment found in both the management and psychology literatures. I...
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influence process model of leadership / stage one: charisma and sensitivity to the environmental context stage two: charisma and the future vision stage three: achieving the vision personal power and charisma charisma as a constellation of behaviors implications for research and practice (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights...
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Despite increasing attention on the topic of empowerment, our under-standing of the construct and its underlying processes remains limited. This article addresses these shortcomings by providing an analytical treatment of the construct and by integrating the diverse approaches to empowerment found in both the management and psychology literatures....
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The validity of an intrinsic-extrinsic dichotomy of work rewards has been questioned on both empirical and theoretical grounds (Dyer & Parker, 1975; Guzzo, 1979). The present study re-examined this issue, analyzing employee perceptions of 48 work rewards in terms of 10 different attributes. The results demonstrate that the task relation and mediati...
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Full-text available
Charismatic leadership has been largely overlooked by organizational theorists. In part, the problem can be attributed to the lack of a systematic conceptual framework Drawing from political science, sociology, and social psychology, this paper addresses the problem by proposing a model linking organizational contexts to charismatic leadership. A s...
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Increasing productivity is the major goal of every successful organisation, be it private or public, service or manufacturing. In order to achieve this goal, the organisation has to depend to a large extent on both covert and overt behaviours of its members. The covert behaviours of organisational members refer to such psychological phenomena as jo...
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The paper reports on a bi-national study of involvement in work and family contexts. Using heterogeneous samples of managerial personnel in India and Canada, the study explored the differential need patterns aroused in work and family contexts, the nature of relationship between work and family contexts, and the relationship between perceived need...
Article
This paper reports on the development of a new and standardized measure of family involvement. The family involvement construct is operationalized on the basis of the motivational formulation of involvement and alienation (Kanungo, 1979) and studied in a binational setting. Data collected and analyzed from heterogeneous samples of 269 Indian and 16...
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This paper attempts to diagnose the possible cause of motivational deficit among employees in Indian organizations and suggests what management should do in order to motive employees for greater productivity and organizational effectiveness. Some of the organizational determinants of low work motivation among employees are: Poor manpower planning i...
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This paper identifies the sources of confusion with respect to the constructs : work, nonwork and Leisure. Furthermore, theories and hypotheses such as, spillover, segmentation etc., dealing with work work-nonwork relationship are reexamined. The paper proposes operational definitions of work-nonwork and leisure and uses Kanungo?s (1982) Motivation...
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This paper extends the motivational formulation and measurement of job and work involvement constructs (Kanunge, 1982b) and tests its pan-cultural implications by reporting on two studies conducted in West Germany and India. Data on the empirical properties of the new job and work involvement measures establish their reliability and validity. The c...
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Developed separate measures of job and work constructs using 3 techniques: semantic differential, questionnaire, and graphic. Assessment measures included the Job Involvement and Work Involvement Questionnaires, Job Involvement and Work Involvement Semantic Differentials, and Job Involvement and Work Involvement Graphic scales. Data collected from...
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The purpose of this study was to explore the hypothesis that the French and English Canadians, due to their unique cultural backgrounds, differ in their perceptions of and satisfaction with the nature of the organizational communication system under which they operate. The study was conducted in a large community general hospital. A total of 977 or...
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In contrast; to prevailing thought, the present study reveals that managers with salient extrinsic needs are as likely to be involved in their jobs as managers with salient intrinsic needs, provided their salient extrinsic needs are met. In fact, with salient extrinsic needs, a manager seems to experience greater job satisfaction and consequently m...
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R. N. Kanungo et al (see record 1976-23130-001) found differences in job motivation between Francophone (F's) and Anglophone (A's) managers in the city of Montreal. The present study of 216 employees of 2 hospitals replicated their results: (a) Interesting work was the most important job outcome for both A's and F's. (b) A's were more concerned wi...
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To clarify and operationalize the concepts of alienation and involvement, several current sociological and psychological approaches to the concepts are examined. Several common sources of confusion surrounding the treatment of the concepts are identified. A motivational formulation of the concepts is suggested to achieve greater parsimony and integ...
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Studied the psychological profiles of anglophone and francophone youths of Quebec to find out whether the culture-based differences between anglophone and francophone adults reported in earlier studies are still prevalent among the younger generation. Comparison of the 2 groups was made with respect to their achievement orientation, risk-taking beh...
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Explored similarities and differences between Francophone (persons from French-Canadian backgrounds) and Anglophone (persons from English-Canadian backgrounds) managers with respect to perceived importance of and levels of satisfaction with various job factors. Questionnaire data were collected from 219 Francophone and 115 Anglophone lower to middl...
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Conducted a study with 96 adult male office workers to test the effect of slogans and human models on the credibility of advertisements, likeability, and intention to buy the advertised product. The slogan variations consisted of the use of nonqualified (one-sided communication) and qualified (two-sided communication) slogans. The model variations...
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This chapter aims at critically evaluating the theory, methodology and scope of cross-cultural industrial and organizational psychology (I/O) research in the past twenty years with a specific emphasis on future directions for the field. In the theory section, we discuss the extent to which and the ways in which the sociocultural context influences...
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The book opens with an Introduction, which explains the rationale for studying charismatic leadership as well as the problems for prospects involved in its study. The chapters that follow are divided into four parts. Part One delves into the nature and dynamics of charismatic leadership. Examining theory and empirical research, this section's autho...
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purpose . . . is to address the importance of altruistic behavior in organizations, to explore the reasons for its neglect [in the organizational behavior literature], and to offer a tentative framework for identifying, describing, and understanding the phenomenon (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)

Citations

... Proponents of model of culture-fit argue that organisations are influenced by socio-cultural values/environments and the enterprise environment and these two factors affect the internal work culture of organisations, which in turn influence managerial practices or HRM practices. This model of culture-fit has relevance in developed and developing countries contexts due to the differences in their socio-cultural values (Kanungo and Jaeger, 1990;Mendonca and Kanungo, 1994;Kanungo and Aycan, 1998;Kanungo et al., 1999;Aycan et al., 1999Aycan et al., , 2000. The model of culture fit is relevant to this study, as the study looks at how public and private organisational culture (beliefs, values, missions, visions) affect HRM practices in healthcare service provision in a developing world context of Ghana. ...
... When a person appraises another person's actions or words to have exhibited excellence, they experience elevation, which involves warm and uplifting feelings. Individuals may also feel reverence, admiration and an expectation that the individual demonstrating excellence is capable of accomplishing impressive things (Conger et al. 2000). The other-praising emotion of elevation also translates into motivation and action by the person experiencing the emotion. ...
... Our study adds to the scholarship through the inclusion of women with physical disability and their experiences of empowerment and power through photovoice, a current gap in practice. We employ the social psychological theory of empowerment to focus on the individual's perspective in our study and not the broader social context (Conger & Kanungo, 1988). We question how the photovoice process creates a platform for individual empowerment. ...
... Charismatic leadership comes the closest to a blend of the four previously mentioned theories. Kanungo and Conger (1989) speak of three stages in which charismatic leadership works. The first stage talks of how a leader assesses a situation and is sensitive to the context of his environment. ...
... El modelo de la cultura ajustada (o culture fit en inglés) (Aycan, Kanungo, y Sinha, 1999) explica cómo, diferentes valores sociales y culturales presentes en las organizaciones y los diferentes entornos que podemos encontrar en ellas, afectarán a la cultura de trabajo interna y, finalmente, a las prácticas implementadas. Este modelo, ya se ha utilizado en previas comparaciones contextuales, por ejemplo, para comparar organizaciones en países desarrollados y en vías de desarrollo (Kanungo y Aycan, 1998). Este modelo asume que diferentes tipos de forma jurídica (en este caso, empresas con ánimo de lucro, públicas y sociales) tendrán valores y culturas diferentes y que esto afectará a la gestión de sus recursos humanos. ...
... Due to the terrorism-induced risk mentioned in previous paragraphs, expatriates become hard to adjust and perform in the terrorism-induced environment. Along with providing supportive training for international assignments, organizations reward with additional support in housing relocation and schooling for children, relaxation vacation leave (Guzzo et al., 1994), spousal assistance, social and logistic support, and career pathing (Aycan and Kanungo, 1997). Relative to the safe working environment, organizations also provide information about potential terrorist threats, news updates, adverse locations, and traveling for working and leisure activities while working in a foreign terrorism-induced risky environment. ...
... Similarly, in their study, Kanungo and Mendonca (1996) added some factors that include associative thinking and abstractive thinking to explain the factors related to the culture of developing countries like India. Lagrosen (2002) examined in a European survey that there are two dimensions of culturepower distance and uncertainty avoidance, which affect the approach taken to implement the TQM. ...
... Establishing a venture is full of uncertainty and an entrepreneur should be willing to accept psychological, personal, and social risks (Burke and Miller, 1999;Lumpkin and Dess, 1996). The start-up process is influenced by various setbacks where an entrepreneur is uncertain about the market demand, their acceptance of their products/services, and whether they can obtain the required finance (Conger and Kanungo, 1988). Therefore, an entrepreneur needs to persist in their efforts, especially when faced with challenges and uncertainty in the start-up process (Hatch and Zweig, 2000). ...
... İşe yabancılaşmanın bireysel özellikler, rol kaynaklı sorunlar, liderlik, iş özellikleri ve örgüt yapısı gibi değişkenlerden kaynaklandığı, işe dair olumsuz tutumları, işte sergilenen davranışları, performansı etkilediği, fiziksel ve psikolojik sorunlara neden olduğu belirtilmektedir (Dönmez, 2020 (Barakat, 1969) özerk olmak ve kontrolün hiç olmamasının da yabancılaşmayı getirdiği ifade edilmiştir (Kanungo, 1983 (Elma, 2003;Babür, 2009;Uysaler, 2010). İşe yabancılaşma çoğunlukla düşük moral, madde bağımlılığı, iş tatminsizliği ve işe devamsızlık ile sonuçlanabildiği gibi (Kornbluh, 1984) çalışanların örgüte olan bağlılığının azalmasına da yol açmaktadır (Hirschfeld, Field ve Bedeian 2000). ...
... People orientation and consideration, as coined by Kanungo and Conger (1993) (2020), is the dimension of ethical leadership. It means showing respect for others and treating them with dignity and respect. ...