Raanan Lipshitz's research while affiliated with University of Haifa and other places

Publications (39)

Article
Unaided human decision making appears to systematically violate consistency constraints imposed by normative theories; these biases in turn appear to justify the application of formal decision-analytic models. It is argued that both claims are wrong. In particular, we will argue that the "confirmation bias" is premised on an overly narrow view of h...
Article
The purpose of this paper is to address concerns regarding the absence or lax of rigor in qualitative naturalistic decision making (NDM) studies. The paper argues that concerns regarding the rigor of NDM's qualitative studies are largely irrelevant, as they are typically conceptualized consistent with the quantitative/experimental paradigm. To redr...
Article
Within the framework of judgment and decision making (JDM), considerable progress has been made in research on how intuitions and emotions affect decision making. Much of this research has been conducted in experimental settings. The present paper reports findings from a naturalistic decision making (NDM) study of how loan officers' so-called gut f...
Article
This paper presents an integrative framework for analyzing decisions. Three generic modes of decision making are identified: consequential choice (comparing alternatives in terms of expected consequences), matching (evaluating single options in terms of a certain criterion) and reassessment (re-evaluating an action to which one is already committed...
Article
This paper describes the design, implementation, and accompanying conceptual developments of a course in the behavioural sciences at the Israel Defence Forces Command and General Staff College. The objective of the course is to improve the effectiveness of the student as a problem-solver, decision-maker and crisis-manager. The two basic assumptions...
Book
This book presents a solid, research-based conceptual framework that demystifies organizational learning and bridges the gap between theory and practice. Using an integrative approach, authors Raanan Lipshitz, Victor Friedman and Micha Popper provide practitioners and researchers with tools for understanding organizational learning under real-world...
Article
The present study tested the existence of a cognitive schema that guides people's evaluations of the likelihood that observed problem-solving processes will succeed. The hypothesised schema consisted of attributes that were found to distinguish between retrospective case reports of successful and unsuccessful real world problem solving (Lipshitz &...
Article
Full-text available
We present an in-depth analysis of post-flight reviews in a fighter aircraft squadron of the Israel Defense Force Air Force. Our findings demonstrate how organizations can learn non-metaphorically and highlight the dynamics of learning in a central organizational learning mechanism in this type of after-action review. They also show that learning i...
Article
This paper applies case study methodology to analyze secondary data on the two-term EPA administrator, WR. Ruckelshaus. The paper has two objectives.. The first objective is to examine the plausibility of the proposition that leadership of real world organizations has three defining characteristics: the setting of a strategic direction or vision, c...
Article
Full-text available
Despite the growing popularity of organizational learning and the proliferation of literature on the subject, the concept remains elusive for researchers and managers alike. This article argues that enduring uncertainty about the meaning and practice of organizational learning reflects its so-called mystification. It attributes mystification to fiv...
Article
Purpose – The correlation between organizational unit managers’ leadership styles and the level of organizational learning in their units was tested. Design/methodology/approach – A positive correlation was hypothesized between transformational leadership and organizational learning as manifested by organizational learning mechanisms – OLMs (the s...
Article
Full-text available
Efforts to improve decision making must appeal to some source of warrant - that is, specific criteria or models for guiding and evaluating decision-making performance. We examine and compare the warrants for two approaches to decision aids, decision training, and consulting: analytically based prescription, which obtains warrant from formal models,...
Article
This paper presents a conceptualization of organizational learning quality based on a comparison of two successful and two unsuccessful episodes of post-accident reviews in an elite combat unit of the Israel Defense Forces. Analyses of semi-structured interviews of key participants revealed that: (1) the outcomes of high-quality organizational lear...
Article
Full-text available
The objective of this article is to map the manyfacets of organizational learning into an integrative and parsimonious conceptual framework that can help researchers and practicioners identify, study, and introduce organizational learning to organizations. The article addresses the gap between theoryand practice of organizational learning byprovidi...
Article
Full-text available
We review the progress of naturalistic decision making (NDM) in the decade since the first conference on the subject in 1989. After setting out a brief history of NDM we identify its essential characteristics and consider five of its main contributions: recognition-primed decisions, coping with uncertainty, team decision making, decision errors, an...
Article
Judgment-by-outcomes denotes basing retrospective evaluation of decisions on the valence of their outcomes (success versus failure). Although decisions are typically evaluated in social contexts, so far judgment-by-outcomes has been studied without regard to this context. This study examines the moderating effect of evaluator's identification with...
Article
Few names are more closely associated with organizational learning than those of Argyris and Schön. Nevertheless, their impact on the literature of organizational learning has been fairly tenuous. Examination of references to Argyris and Schön shows that they are frequently drafted to support an author’s or authors’ arguments rather than to be foll...
Article
Replacing logical coherence by effectiveness as criteria of rationality, Gigerenzer et al. show that simple heuristics can outperform comprehensive procedures (e.g., regression analysis) that overload human limited information processing capacity. Although their work casts long overdue doubt on the normative status of the Rational Choice Paradigm,...
Article
The authors present a case study of organizational learning in an internal medicine ward and a cardiac surgery ward of a university-affiliated hospital. The study is based on a structural and cultural approach to organizational learning. The structural facet of this approach consists of organizational learning mechanisms (OLMs), which are instituti...
Article
The approach to organizational learning in this article is anchored in structural and cultural facets. The structural facet focuses on organizational learning mechanisms, which are institutionalized structural and procedural arrangements allowing organizations to systematically collect, analyze, store, disseminate, and use information that is relev...
Article
'Organizational learning' and 'learning organizations' are currently in vogue in the academic and applied discourse on organizations (Levitt and March, 1988; Senge, 1990; Cohen and Sproul, 1991; Howard and Haas, 1993; Argyris and Sch¨ on, 1996). The down side of the ensuing outpouring of publications is a confusing proliferation of definitions and...
Article
This study examined the effect of error criticality on the likelihood of the development of a learning organizational culture. Four types of organizations differing in error criticality (the severity of the costs of potential error) were compared in terms of the intensity of learning culture, operationalized as shared values of issue orientation, v...
Article
This paper is concerned with three questions: How do decision makers conceptualize uncertainty? How do decision makers cope with uncertainty? Are there systematic relationships between different conceptualizations of uncertainty and different methods of coping? To answer these questions we analyzed 102 self-reports of decision-making under uncertai...
Article
This article concerns the first phase of a project introducing organizational learning into the Ordnance Corps of the Israel Defense Forces. Conducted as a joint experiment, the project was guided by a set of principles and metaphors that constituted a vision of learning organizations. The article describes the conceptual rationale underlying the p...
Article
The literature on problem-solving is dominated by the phase theorem. The descriptive facet of the theorem suggests that problem solvers follow a certain sequence of phases. Its prescriptive facet suggests that problem solvers are more likely to succeed if they follow a certain sequence of phases. Despite the ubiquity of the phase theorem, there is...
Article
This study examined the effects of outcome quality (success vs. failure) and norm conflict on the evaluation of decisions. Three hypotheses were tested: (1) Outcome quality affects the perceived congruence of the decision with normative expectations, the perceived quality of the decision process, and the ascription of causality to the decision make...
Article
Hershey and Baron (1992) have criticized the validity of research on judgment by outcomes, which fail to establish that this judgment constitutes a bias. This reply argues that Hershey and Baron′s criticism is based on a probabilistic version of affirming the consequent and that judgment by outcomes can be studied independently of the issue of bias...
Article
Problem framing is the setting of a problem within a cognitive context that delineates its components and imposes upon them a particular organization and meaning. Although organizational effectiveness has been attributed to the ability of people to skillfully frame and reframe situations, little empirical research has been done on the ways in which...
Article
Offers a conceptual framework which relates leadership development to theories of leadership. The framework suggests that programmes of leadership development should include three components: developing self-efficacy in the domain of leadership, developing awareness of different modes of motivating others in correspondence with different theories o...
Article
Coaching is a much-discussed topic on which little has been written at a thoeretical level. Relates coaching to Bandura's theory of sefefficacy and Schon's work on developing reflective practitioners. Claiming that enhancement of self-efficacy (a sense of mastery in a particular domain) is central to coaching, describes how self-efficacy is acquire...
Article
Three hypotheses on the relations between instrumental and normative values and facets of organizational commitment were tested and confirmed, using a sample of candidates for officers' training course in the Israel Defence Forces. Affective commitment (identifying with the goals and values of the organization) is related only to normative values,...
Article
Full-text available
Reflective thinking is an active, conscious mode of cognition that plays an important role in problem solving and in learning. However, most people tend to resist switching from an automatic to a conscious, reflective mode of thinking under conditions of ambiguity and threat. Chris Argyris and Donald Schon have developed a theory to explain this re...
Article
The history of a management development programme in the Israel Defence Forces (IDF) is presented. The programme was developed in response to two problems which handicapped internal consultants in the IDF, their low power position and the inappropriateness of organisation development as a paradigm for applying behavioural sciences in this organisat...
Article
Abstract This paper,argues,thatthe,Israel Defense Force (I.D.F.) failure in the second Lebanon warcan,be partly attributed to commanders mindless and insufficiently critical decision making processes att he individual,gr oup and organizational levels, or the platoon/tactical, division/operational and GHQ/strategic levels. Four cases are analyzed. T...
Article
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Citations

... For example, some of them suggest techniques of debiasing actors' judgments (Hodgkinson, Bown, Maule, & Glaister, 1999) and simplification of decision-making processes (Schwenk, 1984). In this article, we rely on the naturalistic decision making approach (Klein, 1998;Lipshitz, Klein, & Orasanu, 2001), commonly used to examine decision making under changing and time-pressure environments (for instance, healthcare, fire departments, U.S Navy operations). The naturalistic -or intuitive -perspective states that decision makers do not choose among various alternatives to make decision but refer to typical ways of responding. ...
... diagnosis, mental state, medical journal, individual risk factors) [68,69]. To attempt anticipating suicide, and to adapt and respond to the suicidal crisis of patients in the wards, HCPs apply multiple sensemaking strategies to improve their situational awareness [70,71]. The complexity and ambiguity of the cues involved in making sense of suicidal behaviour highlight that it is difficult to standardise screening questions or limit a set of cues to look for (proximal risk factors) in the setting of inpatient suicide prevention with high specificity [72]. ...
... Accordingly, environmental uncertainty has been widely portrayed as a threat to firms' management processes (Slagmulder & Devoldere, 2018) and ability to identify customers' preferences/needs (Bao et al., 2020). However, some scholars have argued that whether uncertainty is perceived as a challenge or as an opportunity depends on the extent to which a firm obtains sufficient access to information resources (Darvishmotevali et al., 2020;Lipshitz et al., 2007); hence, there is a positive aspect of environmental uncertainty in relation to associated opportunities and advantages. Nevertheless, few studies have examined how and why enterprises turn threats into opportunities under conditions of environmental constraint (Schmitt et al., 2018). ...
... In these instances, decision makers have to adopt an alternative form of decision-making. In Cohen and Lipshitz's (2011) proposed trimodal theory of decision-making, these decisions most closely resemble their third choice-based decision-making. "Trimodal" refers to three methods of choosing between various courses of action. 1 The first is "matching," which follows a set of "if A, then B" rules. ...
... The quality level of organizational learning (OL) within an organization is an important indicator of its capacity to capitalize on the learning carried out within it (Naot et al., 2004). Given that OL encompasses a broad variety of management approaches, OL seems helpful for both guiding the implementation of efficient management methods and providing a superior analytical framework to ascertain the effectiveness of certain human resource practices (Bell et al., 2002;Havar-Simonovich & Simonovich, 2016;Wang & Ellinger, 2008); while also helping the attainment of more strategic objective. ...
... This contract occurs according to the employee's perception and refers to the promises and rights of the employee and the company. (Siqueira, 2004) Popper andLipshitz (1992) give the concept of organizational commitment taking into account three ramifications. The first links the concept with the affective state taking into account the behavior of remaining in the organization and the connection it has with it. ...
... Study context also poses implications for whether and how phenomena of interest can be examined (Luciano et al., 2018). This relates to what Lipshitz (2010) calls "substantive rigor," the extent to which methods offer the best potential for obtaining trustworthy answers to research questions within the constraints of the context (Lipshitz, 2010). Methods that disrupt the realism of practitioner responses within any field study, including live disaster exercises, reduce how credibly data capture cognition, emotion, and behavior in situ (Crandall, Klein, & Hoffman, 2006). ...
... . ( (Weick et al. ,2008;Weick, 2007 ( Lipshitz, 2008;Weick & Putnam, 2006 ) ‫החלטות‬ ‫קבלת‬ , ( . Klein, 2009;Lipshitz, Klein, & Carroll, 2006 ) ‫חינוך‬ , ( Langer, 1993;1998;Langer & Moldoveanu, 2000 ) ‫צוות‬ ‫עבודת‬ , ( Krieger, 2005;Langer, 2010;Langer, Russel, & Eisenkraft, 2009 ) , ‫ועד‬ ‫מטיפולי‬ ‫כחלק‬ ‫וקבוצתיות‬ ‫אישיות‬ ‫טיפוליות‬ ‫פסיכולוגיות‬ ‫התערבויות‬ ‫הקוגניטיבי‬ ‫הטיפול‬ ‫במסורת‬ ‫השלישי"‬ ‫"הגל‬ -‫גוברת‬ ‫תנופה‬ ‫באחרונה‬ ‫מקבל‬ ‫אשר‬ ‫התנהגותי‬ ‫ההתערבויות‬ ‫של‬ ‫גדול‬ ‫למספר‬ ‫בקשיבות‬ ‫השימוש‬ ‫של‬ ‫והולכת‬ Cullen, 2008;Djikic, Langer, & Stapleton, 2008;Hayes, 2006;Hayes, Follette, & Linehan, 2004;Hayes, Strosahl, & Wilson, 2003;Lillis & Hayes, 2007 ) . ...
... They define political influence as ''deliberate attempts to manage or control the meaning shared by others'' in the organization (Ferris and Judge, 1991, p. 449). The shared meaning is a socially constructed aspect of the organizational reality that reflects how organizational members accept the way in which they are governed and led in the organization (Friedman & Lipshitz, 1994; Frost, 1989). In this perspective, the political influence of HRM in a global organization can be viewed as a value-neutral, specific form of social influence, achieved by the use of instrumental and structural symbolic means (i.e., the skill of signaling, persuasion, bargaining, and negotiation; Jennings, 1994). ...
... This leadership style plays an essential role in school development and educational change (Leithwood & Sleegers, 2006). There is a very high relationship between transformational leadership, organizational learning mechanisms, and organizational values (Lipshitz, Popper, & Friedman, 2002). ...