R von Frenckell's research while affiliated with University of Liège and other places

Publications (106)

Article
The current main neurochemical theories of the biological correlates of suicidal behavior involve serotonergic and, to a lesser extent, dopaminergic systems. Few data are available about the possible implication of the noradrenergic function. In the present study, we assessed the growth hormone response to clonidine, a selective alpha 2-adrenergic...
Article
The antidepressant activity and safety of nefazodone, a novel serotonin (5-HT)-type 2 receptor antagonist and inhibitor, were compared to imipramine treatment involving a study of 85 depressed outpatients in a double-blind parallel group design. The results demonstrate that nefazodone has efficacy similar to imipramine and is a very well tolerated...
Article
Based on the evidence that serotonergic antidepressants are effective in obsessive-compulsive disorder, we found that major depressive patients with an underlying compulsive personality responded significantly better to fluvoxamine than major depressive patients without personality disorder.
Article
Among other confounding factors, the influence of the intake of estrogen-containing oral contraceptives on the dexamethasone suppression test (DST) results has never been specifically studied. Therefore, we performed 1 mg DSTs in 14 healthy women taking oral contraceptives and 14 age-matched women taking no oral contraceptives. Mean 0800h basal tot...
Article
Several lines of evidence suggest that dopamine might be involved in anxiety states. In this study, we assessed the growth hormone (GH) response to apomorphine (a dopaminergic agonist) 0.5 mg SC in nine drug-free inpatients meeting Research Diagnostic Criteria (RDC) for panic disorder who were age-matched and gender-matched with nine major depressi...
Article
Apomorphine challenge tests (0.5 mg SC) were performed in 14 normal male volunteers and in 9 male schizophrenic inpatients, drug-free for at least 2 wk. In the normal volunteers, apomorphine induced an increase of serum growth hormone (GH) (maximum at 40 min), of vasopressin-neurophysin (hNpI) (maximum at 20 min), and oxytocin-neurophysin (hNpII) (...
Article
The relationship between growth hormone (GH) response to clonidine and the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) was assessed in 20 major depressive inpatients. GH response to clonidine was negatively correlated with the depression, the psychasthenia as well as the social introversion MMPI scale scores, and positively correlated with t...
Article
The usefulness of the dexamethasone suppression test (DST) in the prediction of treatment response to selective antidepressants was tested in 56 major depressive inpatients. Following DST, patients were randomly assigned to treatment by either nomifensine, a catecholaminergic antidepressant, or zimeldine, a serotonergic antidepressant during a 3-we...
Article
Full-text available
Assessed the relationships between hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) activity and memory performance using 16 inpatients (mean age 45.9 yrs) with major depressive syndrome and a memory profile developed by A. Rey (1966). Within 2 wks following hospital admission, HPA assessments (both basal and post dexamethasone suppression test [DST] cortisol l...
Article
In order to assess the clinical usefulness of benzodiazepine brief therapy with planned tapering, prazepam as drops was administered to 40 psychiatric outpatients suffering from generalized anxiety disorder. After a one-week placebo period, the patients received prazepam 40 mg daily (i.e., 10 drops in the morning, 10 drops at noon and 20 drops in t...
Article
A multicenter controlled study was designed to test the hypothesis that a loading dose of an antidepressant could shorten the latency of its clinical efficacy. Three parallel groups of about 40 endogenous depressive inpatients received either a loading dose of milnacipran (300 mg daily for 2 weeks and 150 mg daily during the 2 following weeks), the...
Article
PK 11195 is a selective ligand for the peripheral-type benzodiazepine binding sites which exhibits anticonflict activity in animals. In a pilot open study, PK 11195 was administered to 10 psychiatric inpatients characterized by a rating of at least "moderate" for the item "felt loss of vitality" and a rating of at least "moderate" for the items "an...
Article
The anxiolytic activity and tolerance of four doses of suriclone (0.1, 0.2, 0.3 and 0.4 mg tid), diazepam (5 mg tid), and placebo were compared in six parallel groups of 54-59 outpatients with generalized anxiety disorder (DSM III-R). After a 1-week placebo run-in period, the patients were treated for 4 weeks, with assessments at baseline and after...
Article
The anxiolytic activity, the tolerance, and the withdrawal symptoms of buspirone and oxazepam were compared in two groups of 14 and 12 outpatients, respectively, suffering from generalized anxiety in a double-blind study with random allocation of patients. The 6-week active period was preceded and followed by 1 and 2 weeks on placebo, respectively....
Article
The clinical activity and the tolerance of cloxazolam (4 mg/day), a new anxiolytic benzodiazepine, was compared to bromazepam (12 mg/day) in two parallel groups of 427 and 410 psychiatric outpatients, respectively. The duration of the study was 4 weeks with clinical assessments at inclusion and after 2 and 4 weeks of therapy by the Hamilton anxiety...
Chapter
Since the 1960s, benzodiazepines have become the drugs of choice for the treatment of anxiety symptoms. Their advantages are obvious: proven efficacy, immediate activity and very low toxicity. However, over the last few years more attention has been focused on the negative aspects of benzodiazepine therapy. Besides the well-known drowsiness, partic...
Article
In a recent report, we confirmed the role of dopamine in the pathophysiology of depression by demonstrating a blunted response of growth hormone (GH) to apomorphine, a selective dopaminergic agonist, in endogenous depressive patients. Few data are available on the possible psychopathological correlates of disturbances in the apomorphine test. In th...
Article
Ten outpatients with panic disorder were treated over an 8 week-period with milnacipran, an antidepressant active on both noradrenergic and serotonergic systems, at a dose between 100 and 150 mg/d. Clinical assessments included the Hamilton Anxiety Scale and the Cottraux Rating Scale for phobias, panic attacks, and generalized anxiety. Results show...
Article
Conducted a double-blind randomized study to assess the efficacy of fluvoxamine in the treatment of patients (aged 18–65 yrs) with anxious and depressive features connected to psychocutaneous disorder. 33 Ss received placebo and 37 fluvoxamine for 4 wks. Both groups showed a significant evolution regarding the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression a...
Article
Methods which have been used to determine megakaryocyte ploidy in animals and humans are reviewed. Although the number of megakaryocyte nuclear units counted in bone marrow squashes is roughly proportional to ploidy, accurate determinations of DNA content require the use of microphotometry or flow cytometry. New techniques should make it possible t...
Article
Using the [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose method and positron emission topography, we studied cerebral glucose utilization during sleep and wakefulness in 11 young normal subjects. Each of them was studied at least thrice: during wakefulness, slow wave sleep (SWS) and rapid eye movement sleep (REMS), at 1 week intervals. Four stage 3–4 SWS and 4 REMS fulfi...
Article
Milnacipran is a new potential antidepressant selected for its equipotent inhibition of noradrenaline and serotonin uptake and its lack of effect at any postsynaptic receptor. We recently compared milnacipran 100 and 50 mg/d and amitriptyline 150 mg/d in three parallel randomized groups of major depressive inpatients and found a statistically signi...
Article
One hundred and twelve in-patients, diagnosed with major depressive disorders (75% with melancholia), endogenous according to the Newcastle criteria, were given either milnacipran (100 mg p.d) or clomipramine (150 mg p.d for up to 3 months) under double-blind condition. After 1 case from the clomipramine-treated patients (who dropped-out on d 3 for...
Article
Résumé Cent douze patients hospitalisés pour un épisode dépressif majeur (75% appartenant au sous-type mélancolique), d’origine endogène selon les critères de Newcastle, ont reçu du milnacipran (100 mg/24 h) ou de la clomipramine (150 mg/24 h) pendant une durée maximale de 3 mois lors d‘un essai réalisé en double-insu. Après exclusion d‘une observa...
Article
Résumé Cette étude a pour buts de valider la structure factorielle de l'échelle Fard en confirmant la présence des pôles somatique, relationnel, cognitif et de vigilance ainsi que de tester la pertinence du nombre de degrés utilisés pour chacun des items de même que le codage choisi pour ceux-ci. Ces buts ont été atteints grâce à une étude de phase...
Article
Tianeptine is a new antidepressant that, in animals, has a faciliting effect on both working and reference memory. To investigate the effects of tianeptine on vigilance and memory in humans, a placebo-controlled cross-over study was performed in 20 healthy volunteers. The duration of each treatment period was 7 days and the dosage of tianeptine 37....
Article
A factor analysis performed in two groups of depressed patients first pointed out the validity of the total score of the scale, then pointed out four factors which are very similar to those used in the HARD diagram and clinically constructed by the authors.
Article
A multicenter study compared the antidepressant efficacy and the tolerance of two doses of milnacipran (50 mg and 100 mg/day) and amitriptyline (150 mg/day) in three parallel groups of 45 major depressive inpatients defined by Research Diagnostic Criteria. After a wash-out period of 4-7 days on placebo with lorazepam and/or nitrazepam if necessary,...
Article
Fifty-eight inpatients with a DSM-III diagnosis of major depressive disorder participated in a 5-week double-blind trial of milnacipran and placebo. Milnacipran was superior to placebo on all measures of depression. The first index of milnacipran superiority was the difference of dropouts due to treatment failure between milnacipran (10.3%) and pla...
Article
Unlike conventional antidepressants, rolipram (a new approach in the treatment of depression) stimulates both the presynaptic and the postsynaptic component of monoaminergic transmission. Several double blind trials are under way to assess the clinical efficacy and safety of this compound. The present study was a randomized, 4-week interindividual...
Article
Three successive double-blind, cross-over vs placebo trials with amphetamine 10 mg, amineptine 200 mg, clonidine 150 mcg were made in 12 x 3 healthy volunteers by means of a multiple sleep latency test (MSLT) associated with quantitative EEG. Data were evaluated by a 3-way ANOVA for repeated measurement. The aim of the study was to find out the mos...
Article
This new instrument to evaluate anxiety, the F.A.R.D. (Ferreri anxiety rating diagram - 1987) has been conceived to appreciate the repercussions of anxiety on the activity of the subject. It realizes a special image of anxiety. It has been studied, by both psychiatrists and general practitioners in 320 patients included on generalised anxiety disor...
Article
Full-text available
We measured the growth hormone (GH) response to clonidine (an alpha-2-adrenergic agonist) and to apomorphine (a dopaminergic agonist) in 15 major endogenous and 15 minor depressive in-patients matched for gender and age. Results showed a significantly smaller GH response in the major depressives to both clonidine (P less than 0.01) and apomorphine...
Article
Unlike conventional antidepressants, rolipram (a new approach in the treatment of depression) stimulates both the presynaptic and the postsynaptic component of monoaminergic transmission. Several double blind trials are under way to assess the clinical efficacy and safety of this compound. The present study was a randomized, 4-week interindividual...
Article
Among the various disturbances in sleep architecture among major depressive patients, the shortening of REM latency seems the most specific feature. Therefore, several groups have tested the usefulness of this parameter as a "biological marker" of major depression. The divergent results of those studies probably result from the marked differences i...
Chapter
Classically, the biochemical pathophysiology of depression is based on central disturbances in catecholaminergic and serotonergic neurotransmission (van Praag, 1980a, b). However, antidepressants are only effective in 60 to 75% of depressive disorders and their success rates are very similar in double-blind studies (Davis, 1985). Recent ‘second-gen...
Article
Résumé Le sytème AMDP est né à Nuremberg en 1960; il comporte 2 parties: la première relative aux données anamnestiques et la seconde aux donnée psychopathologiques et somatiques. L’échelle psychopathologique (AMDP-4) contient 100 items + 15 items de réserve propres à la version française; l’échelle somatique (AMDP-5) contient 40 + 7 items, tous so...
Article
Among the various disturbances in sleep architecture among major depressive patients, the shortening of REM latency seems the most specific feature. Therefore, several groups have tested the usefulness of this parameter as a «biological marker of major depression. The divergent results of those studies probably result from the marked differences in...
Article
Several lines of evidence suggest catecholamine overactivity (noradrenergic and/or dopaminergic) in mania. We studied the growth hormone (GH) response to clonidine (an alpha-adrenergic agonist) and apomorphine (a dopaminergic agonist) in seven inpatients meeting Research Diagnostic Criteria for mania. They had been completely drug free for at least...
Article
Sixteen adults patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and 16 healthy controls, matched for sex and age, were asked to collect their urine during the night and during the day at rest, at weekly intervals on four occasions. Subjects with heart failure, kidney disease, hypertension, abnormal urinanalysis (Albustix positive) or poorly contro...
Article
We assessed the 8:00 AM ratio of free cortisol/18-hydroxy-11-deoxycorticosterone (18-OH-DOC) in 56 endogenous depressive inpatients and in 22 normal volunteers. A ratio higher than 40 was associated with a diagnostic sensitivity for endogenous depression of 75%, a specificity of 95.5%, and a diagnostic confidence of 97.7%. These diagnostic results...
Article
Full-text available
Clearance of immune complexes made of antiinsulin antibodies and 123I-insulin was studied with scintillation scanning in anesthetized rats. Complexes made with purified guinea pig antiinsulin IgG2 (cytophilic isotype) were rapidly cleared by the liver whereas those made with IgG1 remained in the plasma, as did 123I-labeled IgG1 or IgG2 of control a...
Article
The influence of low-dose oxytocin perfusion (32 mIU/min) on ACTH and cortisol plasma levels was tested in 8 normal male volunteers (age 18-26). The 1-h oxytocin perfusion periods were preceded and followed by two 1-h saline control periods. During the first period, there was a slight ACTH concentration decrease in 4 individuals. Oxytocin perfusion...
Article
Four multicentre double blind trials (two studies comparing placebo to a marketed activating drug and two comparing placebo to a new drug with central adrenergic modulating properties) were pooled, totalling 77 placebo Ss, 30 reference drug Ss and 73 study drug Ss. The AMDP-4 and -5 scales were filled out at day 0 and 7 by trained raters. Four stat...
Article
Full-text available
The rating of the videotaped interview of the Mar. case during three meetings of the French-speaking section of the AMDP has revealed the problem of the relationships between phobia and obsession. These ratings triggered a critical reflection based on the theoretical framework from the literature, on the clinical material (the videotaped interview)...
Article
Full-text available
The multifactorial, comprehensive description--as allowed by the AMDP scales--of two samples of depressed patients (95 endogenous vs. 86 nonendogenous according to ICD-9) illustrates a common pattern dominated by anxiety, depression, retardation and hostility but also significant differences: endogenous depressives reach higher Depression and Apath...
Article
The efficacy and tolerance of the first thienodiazepine, clotiazepam, is well established but its clinical spectrum and the possibility of a rebound effect upon its cessation needed further research. Moreover, the validity of the AMDP Anxiety scale had been tested but not yet its sensitivity to change. Clotiazepam was given in an "open" design to 4...
Article
Rolipram facilitates the postsynaptic neurotransmission of NA through a completely new mechanism of action, namely, an inhibition of the inactivation of the second messenger (the cyclic AMP) by phosphodiesterase. In the present study, Rolipram is compared to a classical tricyclic antidepressant which facilitates the NA transmission through an inhib...
Article
The Newcastle index comprises 10 items (with a positive or negative score) the sum of which enables us to separate endogenous and neurotic depressive patients. We applied this index to a sample of 41 depressive inpatients who met Research Diagnostic Criteria (RDC) for major depression. According to Newcastle index, 20 patients were considered to be...
Article
The complexity of the anxious disease does not facilitate the clinical approach. That the reason why the authors have developed a rating scale based on a descriptive symptomatology to find out a diagnosis, to rate the severity of illness and to facilitate the pharmaceutical prescription. To develop a skill needed by general practitioners as well as...
Article
Five normal volunteers received at a 2-week interval a single dose of sublingual or oral prazepam in double-blind and cross-over conditions. All subjects completed a battery of 15 visual analogue scales before drug intake and 7.5, 15, 22.5, 30, 45, 60, 90 min, 2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 and 24 h following intake whereas a computerized assessment of vi...
Article
Résumé Les propriétés psychostimulantes de trois doses (25, 50 et 75 mg) d’un agoniste partiel des benzodiazépines, la pipequaline (PK-8165, figure 1), ont été comparées à celles mesuràes sous placebo chez 18 volontaires sains. Les mesures réalisées avant la prise, 2, 5 et 7 heures après la prise, comprenaient une batterie d’échelles visuelles anal...
Article
Full-text available
Among 63 former prisoners of war, aged 54 to 65 years, submitted to a psychometric battery, 16 died within the next three years. The comparison of the deceased and surviving groups indicates that personality variables (MMPI) are more predictive of death than mental deterioration.
Article
A total of 95 schizophrenic or manic patients received zuclopenthixol (cis(Z)-clopenthixol) either intramuscularly or orally during a period of 2 to 4 weeks in mean daily doses of 25 mg (i.m.) or 75 mg (p.o.). They were rated with the CGI, VAS, MSS, BPRS, and AMDP scales. Zuclopenthixol proved to be a potent antimanic, anti-aggressive and antidelus...
Article
The sedative properties of two doses (50 and 150 mg) of a benzodiazepine partial agonist, PK 8165 (pipequaline), were compared to diazepam 10 mg and placebo in 12 normal volunteers. The assessment, performed before drug intake and 2 and 5 hours after drug intake, included a battery of visual analogue scales and standardized computerized tests (laby...
Article
The dexamethasone suppression test (1 mg at 23 h and 4 P.M. blood collection) was performed in 22 normal subjects. In contrast to a previous study using 0.5 mg dexamethasone and a 8-9 A.M. post-dexamethasone blood sample, age and basal cortisol level did not significantly predict postdexamethasone cortisol levels.
Article
In 42 major depressive inpatients, we analyzed the relationship between dexamethasone suppression test (DST) results and Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) scales. Cortisol levels following DST were positively correlated with the depression as well as the social introversion MMPI scale scores, and negatively correlated with the hypo...
Article
The anxiolytic activity of methylclonazepam was compared to lorazepam and placebo in a double-blind, randomized cross-over study, using a latin square design, in 18 inpatients meeting Research Diagnostic Criteria for Generalized Anxiety Disorders. Patients presented at least 1 year of symptomatology and had a minimum score of 20 on the Hamilton Anx...
Article
Full-text available
Anesthetized rats were treated with saline, antiinsulin receptor serum, or antiinsulin serum, and the biodistribution of high pressure liquid chromatography-purified 123I-Tyr A14-insulin was studied by scintillation scanning. Time activity curves over organs of interest were calibrated by sacrificing the rats at the end of the experiment and direct...
Article
Full-text available
The authors have applied to 493 Belgian and French patients the French version of the AMDP Psychopathology and Somatic scales, made of 140 items from the original German version and of 22 items specific to its French adaptation, among others anxiety items. By applying a principal components factor analysis to this sample, a 17-items. Anxiety Scale...
Article
The anxiolytic activity of methylclonazepam was compared to lorazepam and placebo in a double-blind, randomized cross-over study, using a latin square design, in 18 inpatients meeting Research Diagnostic Criteria for Generalized Anxiety Disorders. Patients presented at least 1 year of symptomatology and had a minimum score of 20 on the Hamilton Anx...
Article
Release of human neurophysin I (hNp I) and neurophysin II (hNp II) during insulin-induced hypoglycemia was studied in 10 unipolar depressed women before and after 4-5 weeks of standard antidepressant drug treatment with daily intravenous infusions of clomipramine. Before treatment, a significant increase of hNp I but not of hNp II serum levels in r...
Article
The relationship between haloperidol plasma levels, plasma prolactin, and therapeutic efficacy was evaluated in 20 paranoid schizophrenics in a fixed-dose study for 6 weeks. We found a significant intrapatient cross-correlation of therapeutic efficacy, as measured by decrease in MSS and BPRS rating scales and time-dependent haloperidol and pro lact...
Article
The anxiolytic activity and tolerance of two dosage schedules of prazepam, a long plasma half-life benzodiazepine, were compared under double-blind conditions in two groups of 10 inpatients each who met Research Diagnostic Criteria for Generalized Anxiety Disorder and presented chronic and severe symptomatology. Patients received prazepam 40 mg per...
Article
Imaging and quantitative analysis of insulin-receptor interaction was studied in vivo in lean and obese Zucker rats, using a recently developed technique in which purified Tyr A14 123I-monoiodoinsulin is intravenously injected and the tracer followed by scintillation scanning. The obese rats were 72% overweight, had near normal blood glucose concen...
Article
This article has no abstract; the first 100 words appear below. To the Editor: On a pharmacokinetic basis and as a function of their plasma half-lives, benzodiazepines have been divided into two groups; short-acting (such as oxazepam, lorazepam, temazepam, and triazolam) and long-acting (such as chlordiazepoxide, diazepam, clorazepate, and medazepa...
Article
The relationship between haloperidol plasma levels, plasma prolactin, and therapeutic efficacy was evaluated in 20 paranoïd schizophrenics in a fixed-dose study for 6 weeks. We found a significant intrapatient cross-correlation of therapeutic efficacy, as measured by decrease in MSS and BPRS rating scales and time-dependent haloperidol and prolacti...