R. Tousey's research while affiliated with United States Naval Research Laboratory and other places

Publications (177)

Article
The history of spectroscopy is reviewed with particular reference to the observation and identification of the Fraunhofer lines in the solar spectrum. The contributions of Joseph von Fraunhofer, H. A. Rowland, and Charlotte E. Moore are discussed. The observational material is reviewed and includes the ultraviolet solar spectra obtained from rocket...
Article
In 1882, through the entrance of H. A. Rowland, there began a completely new period of spectral analysis. Using a new principle, Rowland succeeded in producing a practically error-free screw. With this screw he built an engine for ruling optical gratings which placed all prior accomplishments deep in shadow. A principal accomplishment of Rowland wa...
Article
Full-text available
A compendium of new ultraviolet data on specific solar features observed at high spatial and spectral resolution has been prepared from the 1175-1710 A spectra of the High Resolution Telescope and Spectrograph and the Skylab Apollo Telescope Mount. The observations have included a sunspot, plages, flares, quiet regions, coronal holes, and the limb....
Article
The final listing of solar lines recorded in the NRL echelle spectra photographed at high resolution from Aerobee rockets flown in 1961 and 1964 is presented. The wavelength range covered is 3059A to 2095A. It is intended to accompany NRL report no. 7788, An Atlas of the Solar Spectrum Between 2226 and 2922 Argstroms, which presents the solar irrad...
Article
Atmospheric transmittances integrated over wavelength intervals corresponding approximately to the (15-0) through (4-0) Schumann-Runge bands of O2 have been determined from EUV solar spectra (wavelengths between 1768 and 1948 A) photographed at seven altitudes between 102 and 76 km with a rocket-borne spectrograph having a resolution of 0.07 A. The...
Article
Sixteen new coronal lines are observed in ATM UV spectra. Identifications, wavelengths, and intensities are presented. Two additional lines observed previously are proposed as transitions within the 3p(3)3d configuration of Fe XI.
Article
Sixteen new coronal lines are observed in ATM UV spectra. Identifications, wavelengths, and intensities are presented. Two additional lines observed previously are proposed as transitions within the 3p/sup 3/3d configuration of Fe XI.
Article
To gain insight into the relationships between solar activity, the occurrence and variability of coronal holes, and the association of such holes with solar wind features such as high-velocity streams, a study of the period 1963–1974 was made. This period corresponds approximately with sunspot cycle 20. The primary data used for this work consisted...
Article
Spectral line profiles of Si ii and Si iii are presented which were observed both at solar center and near the quiet solar limb with the Naval Research Laboratory EUV spectrograph of ATM/SKYLAB. Absolute intensities and line profiles are derived from the photographic data. A brief discussion is given of their center-to-limb variations and of the op...
Article
Forbidden lines characteristic of plasmas at temperatures of 50,000 to 3 million K are observed in ATM UV spectra. Identifications, accurate wavelengths, ionization classes, intensities, and half-widths are presented. Coronal blends with He II at 1640 A are noted. Variations in nonthermal velocities with limb distance are observed. Doppler shifts i...
Article
A persistent image-converter device was utilized to make visible to the astronaut solar images that were isolated, instantaneous flashes on the ATM TV monitors. In addition, these instantaneous images, as well as normal TV images, were recorded with a Polaroid SX-70 camera for study by the astronauts.
Article
The Naval Research Laboratory XUV solar spectrograph (S082A) and spectroheliograph (S082B) in the Apollo Telescope Mount of Skylabrequired Schumann-type photographic film in quantities greater than had ever before been needed. The procurement, testing, handling, and processing of this film are described. Eastman Kodak type 104 and a small quantity...
Article
Full-text available
Laboratory and solar data are presented which form the basis for identifying chromospheric Si I absorption lines in UV rocket spectra of the solar limb. Prints of the Si I laboratory spectrum between 1520 and 1570 A are matched with those of the chromospheric spectrum, and a striking line-to-line coincidence is observed. Individual absorption serie...
Article
The extreme ultraviolet, double-dispersion, photographic spectrograph, Apollo Telescope Mount (ATM) Experiment S082B on Skylab is described. Novel features were the use of a predisperser grating with a ruling whose spacing varied approximately linearly with distance for the purpose of increasing the instrument speed by reducing the astigmatism and...
Article
An instrument for recording extreme ultraviolet television images of the sun was flown in the Apollo Telescope Mount on Skylab. Solar radiation in the 171-630 A wavelength range, defined by the transmission band of three thin-film aluminum filters, was focused onto a p-quaterphenyl photon conversion layer by a platinum-coated mirror at normal incid...
Article
This introductory paper describes Skylab and the course of events that led to this complex space project. In particular it covers the Apollo Telescope Mount and its instruments and the method of operation of the ATM mission.
Article
The XUV spectroheliograph, Apollo Telescope Mount experiment S082A, is described. The instrument was a slitless Wadsworth grating spectrograph that employed photographic recording. The grating was of 4-m radius, ruled with 3600 grooves/mm. By rotating the grating to positions where the normal was at 255 A or 400 A, the spectral ranges 175-335 A and...
Article
Almost perfect operation of Skylab Experiment S082A resulted in the return of 1032 extreme ultraviolet solar spectroheliograms, providing an enormous wealth of new information about the sun in the wavelength range 171 to 630. The present User's Guide was written for guest investigators and other ATM experimenters who will collaborate in interpretin...
Article
Interplanetary scintillation observations of the solar wind velocity during 1973 and the first part of 1974 reveal several corotating high-speed streams. These streams, of heliographic latitudes from +40 deg to -60 deg, have been mapped back to the vicinity of the sun and have been compared with coronal holes identified in wide band XUV solar image...
Article
The solar profile of hydrogen Ly ..beta.. has been photographed by the Naval Research Laboratory slit spectrograph on Skylab. The line profile has a shape that is similar to the profile recorded in 1962 by Tousey et al. (1964). (AIP)
Article
XUV lines characteristic of 3--20 x 10/sup 6/ K plasma are observed in 1973 August 9 and June 15 ATM flare spectra. New solar identifications and wavelengths in the LiI, BeI, and BI sequences, including NiXXVI, are proposed. Unidentified lines are classified with respect to their estimated temperatures. (AIP)
Article
Solar limb-brightening curves are discussed for XUV spectral lines formed in the upper chromosphere and transition zone of a quiet region and a polar coronal hole. The spectra were recorded with a slit spectrograph on Skylab. The lines considered are emitted from ions formed within the temperature range from 10,000 to 220,000 K. The limb-brightenin...
Article
The intensities of XUV transition-zone lines from limb spectra of a quiet-sun region and a polar coronal hole are compared. The spectra were obtained with a slit spectrograph on Skylab and cover a region from -12 sec within the limb to 20 sec above it. The lines selected for comparison are formed at temperatures that range from 36,000 to 220,000 K....
Article
Several dozen flares and subflares were observed by the S082A spectroheliograph (171-630 A) and the S082B ultraviolet spectrograph (970-1970 A) during the Skylab missions. Time-lapse sequences of spectroheliograms are shown to illustrate the spatial characteristics of these flares in various emitting wavelengths. Time-lapse sequences of XUV spectra...
Article
The Naval Research Laboratory provided three major instruments for the Apollo Telescope Mount of Skylab under the experiment S082. The spectroheliograph photographed monochromatic images of the sun with high spatial resolution in the range 170-630 A. The spectrograph recorded on film the spectrum of selected features with high spatial and spectral...
Article
The reports presents a day-to-day summary of coronal data for the first 15 months of OSO-7 operation (11 October 1971--15 January 1973). (GRA)
Article
A complex eruptive event took place on January 17, 1974 at approximately 19:20 UT in McMath Hulbert Plage No. 12 686, located near N 06o and behind the west limb. The effects were recorded by the XUV spectroheliograph on Skylab from 19:44 UT to 20:46 UT. An eruptive prominence of spray was observed in Heii 304 to reach >1R s. It was also photograph...
Article
The absorption spectrum of Sii in the wavelength region 1500–1900 has been photographed at high resolution. The silicon vapour was produced in a 122 cm long King furnace at 1800–2300C. Forty-two Rydberg series have been observed from the ground state terms 3p 2 3 P and1 D to terms associated with the 3pns and 3pnd configurations. All of the series...
Article
This paper describes Skylab/ATM observations of the events associated with a disappearing filament near the center of the solar disk on January 18, 1974. As the filament disappeared, the nearby coronal plasma was heated to a temperature in excess of 6 × 106K. A change in the pattern of coronal emission occurred during the 11/3 hr period that the so...
Article
Profiles obtained from NRL Skylab solar spectra of the 1640.4 A feature identified as the H-alpha line of He II are discussed and compared with theoretical profiles derived assuming (1) collisional excitation and (2) radiative recombination as the dominant excitation mechanism. Relative intensities of this line as a function of altitude above and b...
Article
The reports presents a day-to-day summary of coronal data for the first 15 months of OSO-7 operation (11 October 1971 - 15 January 1973).
Article
He II 304 A spectroheliograms, obtained with the NRL extreme-ultraviolet slitless spectrograph during the Skylab mission, show spikelike structures at the sun's polar limb which resemble the familiar H-alpha spicules. However, the relatively large size and long life of these He II features has led to distinguishing them by the name 'macrospicules'....
Article
Skylab XUV coronal spectroheliograms and photospheric magnetograms are compared. This comparison shows that, as new bipolar magnetic fields emerge through the solar surface into the corona, the new coronal fields interact with the old ones in a manner that suggests the reconnection of the field lines.
Article
A small, externally occulted Lyot-type coronagraph, designed for use in the seventh unmanned Orbiting Solar Observatory (OSO-7), is described. Optical configuration, suppression of stray light, SEC vidicon detector, and data system are discussed, as well as integration of the instrument into the spacecraft and operation in orbit. Orbital operation...
Article
The hydrogen Lyman-alpha emission line of comet Kohoutek (1973f) was observed and resolved by the high-dispersion Skylab/ATM S082B spectrograph shortly after the comet's perihelion passage (29-31 December 1973). The Lyman-alpha line width was determined from three different exposures of the comet nuclear region. A simplified analysis of the optical...
Article
Spectroheliograms obtained with the Naval Research Laboratory's Extreme Ultraviolet Spectrograph (S082A) on Skylab are compared with Kitt Peak National Observatory magnetograms. A principal result is the characteristic reconnection of flux from an emerging bipolar magnetic region to previously existing flux in its vicinity. Examples of the disappea...
Article
Eight interesting flares were observed with the S082A spectroheliograph (171 to 630 A) and the S082B ultraviolet spectrograph (970 to 1970 A) during the Skylab missions. Time-lapse sequences of spectroheliograms are shown to illustrate the characteristics of these flares in various emission wavelengths. Time-lapse sequences of XUV spectra are used...
Article
An NRL slitless spectrograph obtained monochromatic images of the sun in the extreme ultraviolet (XUV) 170 - 630 A. The solar poles exhibited a complex variety of phenomena: (i) He II 304 A showed a depressed intensity and lack of supergranular network that is characteristic of so-called coronal holes; (ii) ″super spicules″ of He II 304 A exist thr...
Article
The absorption spectrum of Si I in the wavelength region 1500–1900 Å has been photographed at high resolution. The silicon vapor was produced in a 122-cm-long King furnace at 1800–2300°C. Forty-two Rydberg series have been observed from the ground-state terms 3p23P and 1D to terms associated with the 3pns and 3pnd configurations. All of the series...
Article
The photochemistry of the earth's upper atmosphere is controlled fundamentally by the incident radiation from the Sun, especially the ultraviolet that is absorbed at levels above the tropopause. This atlas presents the incident solar irradiance with the high spectral resolution necessary to calculate the reaction produced when this energy is absorb...
Article
The Otraviolet solar radiation from 1000Å up to the atmospheric cutoff at 3000A is of great interest to solar physics. In order to record this spectral region in a form most advantageous to solar physics, the NRL Extreme Ultraviolet Spectrograph was designed with several major goals in mind. Among these were: the most complete spectral coverage pos...
Article
Using high resolution (3–5) rocket spectroheliograms obtained by NRL, we have analyzed hundreds of small, bright, quiet Sun features to determine the heights of formation of five transition zone lines: He i 584, He ii 304, O v 630, Ne vii 465, and Mg ix 368. The results are in excellent agreement with theoretical model calculations.
Article
The Naval Research Laboratory prepared three instruments for ATM and also a series of rocket payloads for purposes of calibration, under the overall direction of R. Tousey, the Principal Investigator. In this preliminary report a summary of results from operations during the first mission (SL/2) and sample results are presented.
Article
Full-text available
The Naval Research Laboratory prepared three instruments for ATM and also a series of rocket payloads for purposes of calibration, under the overall direction of R. Tousey, the Principal Investigator. In this preliminary report a summary of results from operations during the first mission (SL/2) and sample results are presented.
Article
Some of the first observations obtained with the Naval Research Laboratory's Extreme Ultraviolet Spectrograph (S082A) during the first Skylab mission are presented and compared with magnetograms and other ground-based data. The instrument is a slitless objective-type grating spectrograph covering 170–630 and described in Solar Phys. 27, 251 (1972)....
Article
A TV image of the entire sun while an importance 2N solar flare was in progress was recorded in the extreme ultraviolet (XUV) radiation band 171-630 A and transmitted to ground from an Aerobee-150 rocket on 4 November 1969 using S-band telemetry. The camera tube was a Westinghouse Electric Corporation SEC vidicon, with its fiber optic faceplate coa...
Chapter
This is the Silver Anniversary year of the commencement of space research, and today’s Symposium comes exactly nine days after the first observation of the sun’s ultraviolet spectrum, made by the Naval Research Laboratory [1] from a V-2 rocket launched on October 10, 1946. Until then, the solar spectrum below 2900 Å had been hidden by the earth’s o...
Article
A rocket-borne coronagraph utilizing external occulting disks was used to photograph the solar corona from 3 to 9 R s at 1931 UT on 7 March, 1970. Comparison of the rocket and ground-based observations shows a one-to-one correspondence between major streamers from the inner to the outer corona. In particular streamers over the poles are clearly vis...
Article
The white-light corona from 3–9 R s and the XUV (170–500 ) corona, photographed from a rocket at 1930 UT on 7 March, 1970, are compared with the X-ray corona photographed from a rocket flown at 1900 UT by AS & E, the H Ly- corona obtained during totality by Speer et al., the Fexiv 5303 corona from Hawaii, and total eclipse photographs in white-ligh...
Article
The present state of knowledge of the Sun's extreme ultraviolet spectrum is reviewed, and areas for future work are indicated. Recent extreme ultraviolet spectroheliograms, including one that shows an importance 2N flare, are discussed.
Article
Following a brief historical review, new observations of the sun in the wavelength range 3000 to 20 Å are surveyed for the period since about 1958. Vehicles employed have been sounding rockets, the OSO (Orbiting Solar Observatories), balloons for the window 2300–1900 Å and for λ > 2700 Å, and small orbiting observatories such as Solrad, for XUV sol...
Article
In view of the limitation on length set by the cost of producing the IAU Reports, the present report can only be a selection of the most important advances during the past three years and not a complete review of the field. Attempting to pick out a few points of interest, since the last report improvements have been made in recording solar X-ray sp...
Article
Lunar crescent and earthshine at 2 degrees solar elongation, discussing occulted coronagraph photography, mean solar brightness and surface fluorescence
Article
Extreme UV heliograms obtained by rocket-borne instruments to study excitation mechanisms of ionic resonance lines
Article
A photograph of the white-light corona from a rocket on May 9, 1967 showed many streamers, all straight and nearly radial, extending across the field of view, 3 to 9R ⊙. At the North there were three spectacular streamers, making angles with the polar axis of 21° E, 20° W and 27° N. Projected inward, they were radial and passed through the probable...
Article
A comparison between XUV and Ca-K spectroheliograms for 9 dates from 1963 to 1967 showed an excellent correlation between plage intensities in Ca-K and Hen 304 Å, except for plages near the limb and a few others. Around the limb all but the highest ionization XUV emission lines form a bright ring, usually weaker over the poles. This is an unresolve...
Article
A comparison between XUV and Ca-K spectroheliograms for 9 dates from 1963 to 1967 showed an excellent correlation between plage intensities in Ca-K and He II 304 Å, except for plages near the limb and a few others. Around the limb all but the highest ionization XUV emission lines form a bright ring, usually weaker over the poles. This is an unresol...
Article
The most important first discoveries in optical space research are reviewed for the twenty years since the beginning in 1946. Only research conducted from space vehicles is included: rockets, earth orbiting vehicles, both unmanned and manned, space probes, and lunar landings. The optical fields involved are: measurements of extreme uv and x rays fr...
Article
An echelle grating spectrograph is ideal for use in a rocket when high resolution is required becaus itoccupies a minimum of space. The instrument described covers the range 4000-2000 A with a resolution of 0.03 A. It was designed to fit into the solar biaxial pointing-control section of an Aerobee-150 rocket. The characteristics of the spectrograp...
Article
The sharp emission lines in the range 200 to 1700 Å originate from regions of the sun where quarks may be found mainly as bound to the nuclei of carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen. Electronic transitions of such species are predicted and a search is carried out in the far uv solar spectrum.
Article
The transmittance characteristics in the extreme ultraviolet of unbacked films are discussed; data are presented for films of Al, In, Bi, Ge, Si, and certain organic materials. Generally, the metals begin to transmit shortward of their critical wavelengths, determined by the electron eigenloss, and reach maximum transparency at the nearest x-ray ed...
Article
As a result of research carried out with rocket-borne grating spectrographs, the nature of the extreme ultraviolet spectrum of the Sun is now known to a short wavelength limit of 33.7 Å, the Lyman-alpha line of C VI. Most of the emission lines of wavelengths greater than 400 Å have been identified, as have those from 80 Å to 33.7 Å. Between 149 Å a...

Citations

... Coronal holes above the limb were first quantitatively measured by Waldmeier [33] with the imaging observations in Fe XIV 5303 Å. In the space age starting from the 1960s, coronal holes were observed as discrete dark patches on the solar disk in UV, EUV, or X-ray [34], [35]. As expected, coronal holes are brighter than the quiet Sun in He I 10830 Å [36]. ...
... In the early 1960s, magnetic structures driving shocks were inferred from observations in the metric radio observations and geomagnetic storm sudden commencements (Gold 1962;Fokker 1963). The transient events with mass moving through the solar corona and actually leaving the Sun, i.e., CMEs, that were associated with the prominence/filament eruptions were discovered only in the early 1970s with the advent of the space era (see Tousey 1971;MacQueen et al. 1974). Recent reviews on the history of prominences and their role in Space Weather can be found in (Vial and Engvold 2015;Gopalswamy 2016, and references therein). ...
... Throughout most of the history of white light CME observation, their measurement has been limited to the following quantities: frequency of occurrence, distance (height), speed (and acceleration), geometry, and mass. The methods for measuring these properties were established early (e.g., Gosling et al. 1974Gosling et al. , 1975Gosling et al. , 1976Hildner et al. 1975;Howard et al. 1976;Poland et al. 1981), and by the early 1990s several statistical compilations had been produced (e.g., MacQueen 1980; Rust et al. 1980;Howard et al. 1985;Hundhausen et al. 1994). Hence, by the launch of the next generation of spacecraft coronagraphs in the mid-1990s (LASCO (Brueckner et al. 1995) on board SOHO, launched December 1995), the tools for basic CME measurement were well established and were used invariably by the vast majority of workers using LASCO data. ...
... Point-like features called bright points (hereafter BPs) were first observed in EUV (Tousey & Koomen 1971) and X-ray (Vaiana et al. 1973). It was found that a BP consists of several small dynamic loops with short life times that are comparable to the cooling time expected for such plasmas (Sheeley & Golub 1979). ...
... These include X-ray flare data provided by the GOES spacecraft and ground-based Ha flare and disappearing filament data. The relationship between flares, filaments and CMEs has been known since the discovery of CMEs [Howard et al., 1975; Munro et al., 1979; Dryer, 1982]. The lists of these events were obtained from the Solar Geophysical Database (U.S. ...
... The Lß profile on Figure 26 is the first photoelectric record with high spectral resolution. This should yield a line shape with a higher confidence level than previous photographic records (especially in this wavelength domain where photographic calibration is difficult; Nicolas et al. 1976). The central core of the profile is affected by the geocoronal Lß absorption line which is not resolved here, and from the La: geocoronal line, we can estimate its contribution as between 10% and 20% (Bonnet et al. 1978). ...
... During total eclipses, they were also detected in the white-light photographs taken of the corona. In the 1960's, CHs were identified on photographs made in EUV and XUV from rocket-borne experiments [Viana et al., 1973;Broussard et al., 1977]. However, a greater appreciation for their importance to solar astronomy and solar-terrestrial physics was given in the early 1970's after a series of satellite experiments that enabled scientists to continuously view the corona. ...
... www.nature.com/scientificreports/ transparency at these wavelengths 77,78 . Up to 120 nm, MgF 2 and LiF optics are commonly used to focus or disperse VUV, but the transmission of these materials decreases at shorter wavelengths, falling to zero at 104 and 116 nm for LiF and MgF 2 , respectively 79 . ...
... However, the laboratory rest wavelength used for absolute wavelength calibration is 1392.817Å (Sandlin et al. 1986), which is 1mÅ larger than that derived using off-limb observations recorded with HRTS (see, e.g., Herzberg 1962;Kaufman & Ward 1966;Persson 1971;Brown et al. 1974). This difference translates to an uncertainty of ∼0.2 kms −1 in velocity measurements. ...
... Especially critical are line parameters for the neutral iron atom, due to its high cosmic abundance and its complex line spectrum. In the Sun, the Fe I lines of neutral iron have long been known to dominate both the optical region (e.g., Moore et al. 1966) and the UV (e.g., Tousey 1988). While energy levels, wavelengths, and transition probabilities (gf values) can often be derived theoretically for light, simple atoms, the Fe I spectrum is best characterized observationally. ...