R. Benjamin Shapiro's research while affiliated with University of Colorado Boulder and other places

Publications (36)

Article
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Creating learning environments that integrate arts, sciences, and computing in education can improve learning in these disciplines. In particular, transdisciplinary integrations of these disciplines can lead to expansive alterations or dissolutions of epistemological, ideological, and methodological boundaries. We wish to support teachers in the cr...
Article
Full-text available
Transdisciplinary learning environments have potential to bring together the arts, sciences, and computing within schools. We investigate the student and teacher enactment of sensemaking practices that break down disciplinary silos. We describe a pedagogical approach, Luminous Science, where students make dynamic, computationally-rich artistic repr...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Feminist science approaches recognize the value of integrating empathy, closeness, subjectivity, and caring into scientific sensemaking. These approaches reject the notion that scientists must be objective and dispassionate, and expand the possibilities of what is considered valuable scientific knowledge. One avenue for engaging people in empatheti...
Conference Paper
We show how non-traditional approaches to engaging young women in computing and engineering can impact their sense of what STEM is and who can do it. We designed and implemented a four-day Animal Investigators camp in which rural youth designed technologies for the animals in their lives. We wanted to understand the ways in which young peoples' pri...
Article
In order to foster interest in machine learning among young people, presented are simple and effective ways to engage kids using sensors on their own bodies.
Chapter
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Wearables have increasingly been appearing in various forms as technologies that have the potential to support teaching and learning. This chapter surveys a number of recent and current wearable technology projects in the educational technology, learning sciences, and human-computer interaction literatures to illustrate the diversity of wearable te...
Conference Paper
Machine Learning-based (ML) technologies impact many facets of our lives. Given ML's ubiquity, and the ways it offers creative computational possibilities distinct from programming, we believe it could be a powerful tool for youth to leverage in making, creativity, and play. We investigate how youth with no programming experience can incorporate ML...
Article
Formative assessment and instruction have turned out to be a remarkably difficult practice to implement in schools. Fundamental to this challenge is the fact that formative assessment is inherently a local, concrete instructional practice, as is the work or transforming assessment data into pedagogically responsive action. This paper explores teach...
Article
The Cambridge Handbook of Computing Education Research - edited by Sally A. Fincher February 2019
Article
The growing importance of machine learning creates challenging questions for computing education.
Conference Paper
Paper-based fabrication techniques offer powerful opportunities to prototype new technological interfaces. Typically, paper-based interfaces are either static mockups or require integration with sensors to provide real-time interactivity. The latter can be challenging and expensive, requiring knowledge of electronics, programming, and sensing. But...
Conference Paper
Paper-based fabrication techniques offer powerful opportunities to prototype new technological interfaces. Typically, paper-based interfaces are either static mockups or require integration with sensors to provide real-time interactivity. The latter can be challenging and expensive, requiring knowledge of electronics, programming, and sensing. But...
Article
Networked systems like social media and games are ubiquitous in the lives of young people. Yet no currently available programming tools exist that have been specifically created to enable youth to create such systems. Similarly, industrial and academic programming practices often involve the simultaneous production and subsequent integration of cod...
Article
Computer music research realizes a vision of performance by means of computational expression, linking body and space to sound and imagery through eclectic forms of sensing and interaction. This vision could dramatically influence computer science education, simultaneously modernizing the field and drawing in diverse new participants. In this artic...
Conference Paper
Online communities dedicated to the creation of fanworks (e.g., fiction or art inspired by media such as books or television shows) often serve as communities of practice for learning communication, artistic, and technical skills. In studying one successful fan fiction archive that was designed and built entirely by (predominantly women) fans, we o...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
We comparatively apply methods for assessing equity to find ways that allow us to better interrogate, describe, and understand the construct’s complexities. To do so, we replicate prior work assessing equity in programming pairs (Lewis & Shah, 2015; Shah, Lewis, & Caires, 2014) by creating distributions of coded (1) computer use, (2) turns of talk,...
Article
How the future of general-purpose programming tools could include blocks-based structured editing, and how we should study students transitioning to text-based programming tools.
Article
The use of data to improve learning, instruction and student achievement has been a popular educational intervention in countries across the globe. Yet, with all the available data generated by standardized tests or through the course of instruction, systematic use of data as a lever for school change still remains elusive. This article is an intro...
Chapter
MOOCs, crowdsourcing systems, online games, and the maker movement are just a subset of the many genres for mass collaboration that have emerged over the past few years. All of these environments succeed in generating large participation and production. However, they vary considerably in the extent to which they are well-designed learning environme...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Research on students' learning in computing typically investigates how to enable individuals to develop concepts and skills, yet many forms of computing education, from peer instruction to robotics competitions, involve group work in which understanding may not be entirely locatable within individuals' minds. We need theories and methods that allow...
Conference Paper
CS teacher development has become a major effort for the SIGCSE community in part due to NSF's CS10K efforts and expanding CSTA involvement. However there are few examples of university courses explicitly designed to train CS teachers. We do not yet have clarity on the topics CS education methods courses should cover and how best to prepare teacher...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Researchers and teachers are increasingly in agreement that classrooms should adopt more open-ended, ill-structured, creative problem solving pedagogies (Kapur, 2008). However, we lack sufficient understandings of how to assess the variegated outputs of learning activities that afford students considerable discretion over what they will produce, an...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
BlockyTalky is a low cost software and hardware toolkit that enables users to create their own networked devices. The platform may be used to create devices that interact purely in the physical world, such as autonomous robots, or that bridge the virtual and physical worlds, such as devices that provide a tangible, interactive representation of...
Conference Paper
Interactive technologies have become an important part of teaching and learning. However, the data that these systems generate is increasingly unstructured, complex, and therefore difficult of which to make sense of. Current computationally driven methods (e.g., latent semantic analysis or learning based image classifiers) for classifying student c...
Conference Paper
In this paper we present an initial study of how metaphors are used by university-level Computer Science instructors. The goal of this research is to gain a better understanding of the role that metaphors play in Computer Science education, to catalog the kinds of metaphors that are used, and to assess their effectiveness in supporting learning. We...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Open, online learning environments, such as massive open online courses (MOOCs) and open learning communities have been promoted as a way to expand equitable access to quality education. Such learning experiences are potentially enriched via extensive networks of peer learners. Even though challenges exist to realize these aspirations, open, online...
Article
Full-text available
Educational institutions, whether they are formal or informal, present a work environment in which technology, and social and cultural interactions mediate unfolding work. The interaction between CSCW and the work of education can hold great potential for both improving the educational institutions as well as providing greater explanatory power to...
Article
How should research studying adolescent players of online educational games be conducted responsibly?
Article
We describe a student activity visualization tool that we constructed to provide a context for ethnomethodological inquiry - a design-based breach experiment (Crabtree et al, 2004) - into how teachers might think and communicate about student thinking when they have tools that give them better access to student activity. We use the Learning to Noti...
Conference Paper
Formative instruction has proven to be a remarkably difficult practice to implement in schools. This paper explores teachers' thinking in their uses of a new data analysis tool to enact evidence-based instructional practices, describing possible relationships between teachers' existing beliefs, expertise, and routines and their construction of new...

Citations

... This study results from a research-practice co-design partnership, which brought teachers together with researchers to design, implement and study an arts-integrated data literacy curriculum with attention to aligning institutional and infrastructural contexts (Finch et al., 2021). Specifically, we explore the potential of data-art inquiry by examining the synergies and tensions between data literacy, technology and the arts, as these are shaped by school contexts during implementation. ...
... Eight studies focused on primary schoolers (Mariescu-Istodor and Jormanainen, 2019; Lee et al., 2020;Ho & Scadding, 2019;Toivonen, et al., 2020;Chai, et al., 2020;Druga et al., 2019;Tedre, et al., 2020;Hitron, et al., 2018) while only two studies were found that targets Kindergarten (Williams et al., 2019a(Williams et al., , 2019b. Four studies focused each on elementary, middle (Sabuncuoglu, 2020;Rodríguez-García et al., 2020aSakulkueakulsuk et al., 2018), middle/high (Opel et al., 2019;Zimmermann-Niefield et al., 2019aZimmermann-Niefield, et al., 2020) and teachers Kandlhofer et al., 2019;Zhou, et al., 2021) and only one that covers all levels from elementary to high school. ...
... 83% of the papers included in the study have used a form of a quantitative assessment of empathy, such as the selfadministered IRI or QCAE -questionnaires, or a subset of them. Around 14% of the papers focused on qualitative assessments of empathy, such as interviews [39,62] or analysis of behaviour [65,112]. One-third of the papers used both quantitative and qualitative methods to understand the empathic effect. ...
... Though teachers' reflections (n = 23), lesson plans (n = 12), and discourses (n = 8) were not the most adopted data sources, they were frequently reported in mixed studies. Data sets pertaining to teachers' plans, discourses, and reflections can facilitate the understanding of their pedagogical beliefs and reasoning (Finch, Moreno, & Shapiro, 2020). However, most of the studies used the single-group case study method and did not include a control group. ...
... Just as previous developments in computing have triggered changes in computing education, machine learning is now acting as a catalyst for change throughout the education system both in K-12 and higher education. The focus of computing education has shifted before, new shifts will come in the future, and it has been suggested that the next frontier in computer science education research is how to teach artificial intelligence [15], [82], [83]. ...
... Eight studies focused on primary schoolers (Mariescu-Istodor and Jormanainen, 2019; Lee et al., 2020;Ho & Scadding, 2019;Toivonen, et al., 2020;Chai, et al., 2020;Druga et al., 2019;Tedre, et al., 2020;Hitron, et al., 2018) while only two studies were found that targets Kindergarten (Williams et al., 2019a(Williams et al., , 2019b. Four studies focused each on elementary, middle (Sabuncuoglu, 2020;Rodríguez-García et al., 2020aSakulkueakulsuk et al., 2018), middle/high (Opel et al., 2019;Zimmermann-Niefield et al., 2019aZimmermann-Niefield, et al., 2020) and teachers Kandlhofer et al., 2019;Zhou, et al., 2021) and only one that covers all levels from elementary to high school. ...
... In terms of how wearables can specifically be used to support learning, across the two elicitation approaches that we used in the survey, the overlapping ways of use were for 'question-asking', 'capturing media', 'displaying info', 'providing notifications', and 'health and fitness'. From our review of prior work, common ways that wearables have been investigated for use to support learning in the literature are to provide step-by-step instructions (e.g., Spitzer et al. (2018)), to provide contextually-relevant information (e.g., Garcia et al. (2018); Leue et al. (2015)), to enable capture of one's thoughts and environment (e.g., Vallurupalli et al. (2013)), to facilitate communication (e.g., Spitzer et al. (2018); Bower and Sturman (2015)), and to provide just-in-time notifications (e.g., Lee and Shapiro (2019)). Ways of wearable use for learning from our survey responses seem to generally align with these prior works, except for 'question-asking' and 'health and fitness'. ...
... In practical terms, AI technologies can be deployed in a wide range of areas such as autonomous vehicles, fraud detection, and speech recognition. Scholarly attention has turned into examining AI literacy in K-12 to help youth, the first generation to grow up surrounded by AI, understand the working mechanism of AI technologies and critically evaluate automated decisions made by computers (Estevez et al., 2019;Long & Magerko, 2020;Zimmermann-Niefield et al., 2019). In particular, AI algorithms highly rely on students' capacity to generate and refine models based on the features that they retrieve from data (Bird et al., 2021;Gadanidis, 2017) argues that data modeling practice wherein students create, test, and refine models is central to learning about AI. ...
... It is the practice of creating instructional experiences which make the acquisition of knowledge and skill more efficient, effective, and appealing. The mechanism of designing includes identifying the current situation of the student and his/ her needs then identify the intended goals of the learning process (Shapiro & Wardrip, 2019). Also, plan and design the steps that should be followed to reach the envisaged outcomes (Merrill & Twitchell, 1994). ...
... Many of these new applications will require less programming and more understanding of how to use them and their associated challenges. 3 Few K-12 students will need to develop their own machine learning algorithms, but most will need to understand the critical issues around training and evaluating the algorithms, and bias and equity. For AI, students must tackle the already growing issues such as who would be held responsible for self-driving car accidents and how can historical biases affect models of future events? ...