R. Aderjan's research while affiliated with Deutsche Gesellschaft für Rechtsmedizin and other places

Publications (89)

Article
Full-text available
Die meisten alkoholhaltigen Getränke, insbesondere die Gärungsalkoholika, enthalten neben Ethanol auch Methanol und aliphatische Alkohole mit mehr, z.B. drei bis fünf Kohlenstoffatomen, die im forensischen Sprachgebrauch als Begleitstoffe bezeichnet werden. Es gibt aber auch hochprozentige Alkoholika ohne praxisrelevante Begleitstoffgehalte. Nach d...
Article
14 German blood alcohol laboratories took part in an interlaboratory study for blood alcohol (ethanol) determination using a spiked quality control serum sample containing 1.36 g ethanol/L serum (1.10 g ethanol/kg whole blood). They examined the sample during 20 days in order to examine the scheduled value which was confirmed (1.11 g ethanol/kg who...
Article
A fast, sensitive and specific method for headspace blood alcohol analysis with deuterated internal standard was developed and validated. 120 blood samples were measured and the retrieved data were analysed statistically and compared with the common used techniques (ADH- and GC-FID-method). Gas chromatography was performed in isothermal mode (50°C)...
Article
Recently updated Guidelines for the Forensic Blood Alcohol Determination in Germany (BAC-Guidelines) claim within day quality controls, however, DIN EN ISO/IEC 17025 and mandatory accreditation guidance documents point out day to day controls handled at best by using appropriate charts. Control charts usually are designed for only one method. We ha...
Article
Knowledge on the limits of detection (LOD) and limits of quantification (LOQ) are necessary to fully describe quantitative analytical chemical methods. The LOD is defined as a 50% probability of the analyte being detected based on an accepted probability for a false positive decision. The probability of false positive results declines with higher c...
Article
In congener analysis different sample preparation techniques and varying methods of headspace analysis and chromatography are used. In addition, biological material, which can be rather difficult to handle, is analysed. Nevertheless, results of proficiency tests proved congener analysis to be a very reliable technique for the investigation of relev...
Article
Forensic inter-laboratory proficiency tests (ring tests) can either be evaluated using the criteria given by the "Harmonized Protocol" [14] or according to the ISO guideline 5725. For a given drug, the latter requires two replicate determinations of each sample, however, limited by the sample volume or other analytical needs like consecutive determ...
Article
According to the ISO 17025 the method validation procedure corresponds to in-house aptitude testing. Testing the blood alcohol determination was performed using headspace gas chromatography and the ADH enzymatic method and data obtained from daily case study. Given the fact that there is no definition of a validation procedure mentioned in the Germ...
Article
The committee for "questions of threshold values for medical and addictive drugs" consists of delegates from specialist German scientific societies, namely the Gesellschaft für toxikologische und forensische Chemie (GTFCh), Deutsche Gesellschaft für Rechtsmedizin (DGRM) and Deutsche Gesellschaft für Verkehrsmedizin (DGVM). This committee recommends...
Article
The metabolism of dihydrocodeine to dihydromorphine, a high affinity mu-opioid receptor ligand in membrane homogenates, is catalyzed by CYP2D6. However, it is not clear whether an active CYP2D6 enzyme is required for opioid receptor-mediated effects in man after standard dihydrocodeine doses. Whole cell opioid-receptor affinity and effects on cAMP...
Article
The antidiarrheal drug loperamide is frequently used to treat ritonavir-associated diarrhea in patients with human immunodeficiency virus. The absence of marked central opioid effects has been attributed to its low bioavailability and its poor penetration of the blood-brain barrier, both of which might be altered by ritonavir, a potent P-glycoprote...
Article
Full-text available
A selective LC-MS-MS method, with methadone as internal standard, has been developed for the determination of loperamide and its two desmethylated metabolites, desmethylloperamide and didesmethylloperamide, in human plasma and urine. The body fluids were made alkaline and the analytes were extracted with acetic acid ethyl ester and separated on a Z...
Article
In the present study, concentrations of dihydrocodeine and its metabolites in saliva and serum were compared after single low-dose and chronic high-dosage administration of the drug. In the first investigation, blood and saliva were collected periodically from six subjects after oral administration of 60 mg dihydrocodeine. In the second study, 20 s...
Article
A police officer was suspected of drink driving after he was found drunk at home. The result of breath alcohol testing carried out at the local police station was 0.72 mg/L. Two blood samples were taken at 30-minute intervals and stored overnight in a refrigerator, which was not locked. An examination for ethanol was carried out resulting in 32 and...
Article
An intoxication following administration of morphine, tramadol and atracurium in a suicide case is reported. The route of administration and the amount of the particular drug were known from the investigation of the death scene and the findings of the postmortem examination. Tramadol was present in the gastric contents as well as in blood, liver, k...
Article
Ethyl glucuronide (EtG) is considered to be a promising candidate marker of alcohol consumption, but exhibits a short window of detection in blood or urine. Keratinized tissues are known to retain foreign substances and to provide a greater retrospective window of detection than body fluids. Therefore, post-mortem hair, skin swabs, and stratum corn...
Article
Urine specimens were collected from 49 persons up to 10 days after abstaining from cannabis use. Urine samples (n = 135) were investigated for free and conjugated 9-carboxy-11-nor tetrahydrocannabinol (THCCOOH) by LC/MS/MS and for free and glucuronidated tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and 11- hydroxy-THC (11-OH-THC) by GC/MS prior to and after enzyme h...
Article
In the presented study a comparison was made between 4 different methods of sample processing. Drug free serum was spiked with either free or glucuronidated THCCOOH. 20 authentic specimens and 20 spiked samples were subjected to 2 different solid-phase extraction methods as well as to a liquid-liquid extraction prior to and following incubation wit...
Article
Urine specimens were collected from 49 persons up to 10 days after abstaining from cannabis use. Urine samples (n = 135) were investigated for free and conjugated 9-carboxy-11-nor tetrahydrocannabinol (THCCOOH) by LC/MS/MS and for free and glucuronidated tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and 11-hydroxy-THC (11-OH-THC) by GC/MS prior to and after enzyme hy...
Article
A rapid and sensitive determination procedure using liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS) has been developed for the determination of ethyl glucuronide (EtG) in human serum. Samples were precipitated with methanol, centrifuged and the supernatant was evaporated to dryness followed by reconstitution with distill...
Article
The levels of dihydrocodeine found in impaired individuals and in fatalities show a wide overlap in the ranges. Among other factors, the genetically controlled metabolism of dihydrocodeine should play an important role in dihydrocodeine toxicity. For the first time, the most important metabolites of dihydrocodeine were investigated in femoral blood...
Article
For the determination of the THC in serum 7 calibrations measured under practical conditions were evaluated within the whole spectrum of up to 10 ng/ml. The limits of detection calculated according to DIN 32645 included a probability of a false positive result of 1% (α-error). The LOD was found to be within a span of 0.7 and 1.7 ng/ml for the most...
Article
An intoxication following an apparent overdose of clozapine (Leponex) and perazine (Taxilan) is reported. There was a wide range of variation in postmortem blood and tissue concentrations of clozapine, desmethyclozapine and perazine. Clozapine/norclozapine blood and tissue ratios and perazine-pill-fragments in the gastric content could be used as a...
Article
An ELISA was developed in analogy to the standard practice of immuno- chemical pre-testing of drugs and pharmaceutical substances. It was developed for the detection of ethyl glucuronide (EtG). The test kit's usefulness was examined using native sample materials as a screening test. This required the determination of EtG by means of ELISA using 22...
Article
A simple, rapid and sensitive analysis for ethyl glucuronide, a minor metabolite of ethanol, was investigated by using electrospray (ESI) - LC/MS. Serum samples were deproteinized by adding methanol, and the supernatants were evaporated to dryness. The residue was reconstituted in distilled water, and a 5 μ l aliquot was injected to LC/MS. Ethyl gl...
Article
The kinetic profile of ethanol and ethyl glucuronide (EtG) in serum was investigated in three subject groups: 1) Healthy, moderately drinking volunteers (daily intake less than 30 g ethanol) who ingested a single dose of ethanol. In this group the maximum of serum ethyl glucuronide concentration (SEtGC) and of serum ethanol concentration (SEC) did...
Article
In 1995, while on duty, a drug squad officer (Mr. S.) caused a car accident in which his front-seat passenger was killed. 3 1/4 hours after the accident a blood sample was taken from the unconscious man which contained 1.44 permille ethanol. This led to the conviction, the charges being driving while intoxicated and manslaughter through culpable ne...
Article
The postmortem distribution of morphine and its metabolites was investigated in four cases of heroin overdose to evaluate some of the factors that influence intravasal blood concentrations. Variables included were the chemical stability of morphine conjugates, hemoconcentration, incomplete distribution of the drug and diffusion processes. Blood sam...
Article
The aforementioned case proves very convincingly that a very high dose of alcohol consumed within a short time span can be absorbed completely within 2 hours. Numerical models based on low to moderate alcohol consumption were lower than expected in cases of severe alcohol intake. The claim of alcohol consumption after an event can best be verified...
Article
A case of fatal sodium azide poisoning is reported. From the hospital staff, a 57 year old patient had obtained 1 g of sodium azide in order to put it as a preservative, in his 24 hour urinal. Probably due to an error, he swallowed the total dose. A cardiovascular collapse was cause of the death after five hours of intensive treatment and reanimati...
Article
A young man, aged 18 years, was admitted to hospital for suspected hepatitis, having developed increasing jaundice without any pain. His urine was light brown in colour and the stools often liquid and pale. Every 14 days for the last 4 months he had been taking 2 tablets of "ecstasy" (methylenedioxyamphetamine; MDMA). Physical examination was unrem...
Article
Anamnese und klinischer Befund: Ein 18jähriger Patient wurde aufgrund des Verdachts auf eine Hepatitis stationär aufgenommen, nachdem seit etwa einer Woche ein zunehmender Ikterus ohne Schmerzen bestand. Der Urin war bierbraun verfärbt gewesen, der Stuhlgang mehrfach dünnflüssig und entfärbt. Der Patient hatte seit 4 Monaten alle 14 Tage 2 Tablette...
Article
A method for the simultaneous detection and quantification of cocaine and benzoylecgonine from human blood and urine has been developed. Cocaine and benzoylecgonine were extracted from blood and urine with solid-phase columns containing C18 packing material. Clean, emulsion-free extracts were obtained. The analytes were derivatized with PFPA/HFIP o...
Article
After sniffing of glue solvents (mixture of aliphatic hydrocarbons: boiling fraction 60-90 degrees C, ethylacetate and toluene) a blood alcohol concentration of 1.96 permille was indicated with an instrument using the infrared wavelength of 3.4 micrometer for the spectrophotometrical determination of breath alcohol. Testing of the individual solven...
Article
For the precision and accuracy testing of the gaschromatographic and the ADH-enzymatic ethanol determination respectively, we used two commercially available control sera (approximately 0.6 g/L and 1.5 g/L respectively). During one year of testing during 1990 at 200 different days, they were daily and routinely used together with the specimen analy...
Article
For the precision testing of the gas-chromatographic and the ADH-enzymatic method respectively we used commercially available control sera. During one year of testing (1990) they were daily and routinely used together with the specimen analysed. With the automatized GC-method the precision required according to the jurisdiction of the Bundesgericht...
Article
The processing of blood alcohol measurements by alcohol dehydrogenase method (ADH) was improved by using a tailored software program. The program is written in Turbo BASIC and requires an IBM Personal Computer (PC/XT/AT) or compatible with at least 640K memory and a graphic adapter (EGA or Hercules). All features of the program are available from t...
Article
Morphin und Codein wurde mittels C18-Sulenextrak-ktion isoliert und mit Pentafluorpropionsureanhydrid (PFPA) derivatisiert. Die PFPA-Derivate wurden gaschromatographisch und massenspektrometrisch untersucht und hinsichtlich ihrer optimalen Nachweismglichkeit verglichen. Aufgrund unserer Untersuchungsergebnisse ist die C18-Sulenex-traktion in Kombin...
Article
Morphine and codeine were isolated from blood with C18 Bond Elut columns and derivatised with pentafluoropropionic anhydride (PFPA). The PFPA-derivatives were examined by means of gas chromatography/mass spectrometry using electron impact and chemical ionisation (positive and negative mode). The negative chemical ionisation, as most sensitive, was...
Article
We report on a data base system for general registration including blood alcohol results which is in operation at the Institute of Forensic Medicine at Heidelberg University since january 1987. It is run on personal computers using dBase III plus as data base software. Working with the system has been adapted to the mode of operation hitherto. It's...
Article
Fallbericht ber eine tdlich verlaufene suicidale Vergiftung mit Demeton-S-Methyl (Metasystox) nach oraler Aufnahme. Mittels Gaschromatographie an einer wide bore Kapillare CP-sil 5, 0.53 mm ID, 1 m Filmdicke, wurde der unvernderte Wirkstoff in Krperflssigkeiten und Organen einfach und quantitativ bestimmt.A case of lethal suicidal intoxication with...
Article
Full-text available
The Comopac electrochemical device for CO determination in the workplace was adapted for CO and COHb determination in blood. The method enables the determination of COHb from 1 to 95% in 0.5 mL of blood in 20 min. Comparison of results obtained with the Comopac, spectrophotometry, and gas chromatography showed comparable accuracy and precision. The...
Article
After an act of violence, a delinquent swallowed about 250 ml ethylene glycol (EG) — probably to commit suicide before being arrested. During an interrogation by the police he appeared to be inebriated. A blood sample taken at this time did not contain ethanol but 5.1 g/l EG, as revealed by the analytical results. Only after a second examination wa...
Article
Full-text available
Thirty-seven selected acidic and neutral drugs were analyzed by HPLC with two-step gradient elution and nine different ODS silica columns. The retention index values (RI) for drugs were calculated against a series of alkyl-arylketones and corrected according to the procedure described earlier. The correction procedure decreased the intercolumn vari...
Article
After an act of violence, a delinquent swallowed about 250 ml ethylene glycol (EG) - probably to commit suicide before being arrested. During an interrogation by the police he appeared to be inebriated. A blood sample taken at this time did not contain ethanol but 5.1 g/l EG, as revealed by the analytical results. Only after a second examination wa...
Article
A case of lethal suicidal intoxication with demeton-S-methyl is reported. Capillary chromatography on wide-bore columns (CP-sil 5, 0.53 mm ID, 1 micron film thickness) was used for the quantitative determinations of this substance in the body fluids and tissues.
Article
The influence of different laboratory set-ups on HPLC retention index values of selected acidic and basic drugs was investigated. The RI values of drugs were calculated using the alkyrarylketone scale. Two columns filled with different batches of the same Hypersil ODS phase were consecutively used in two laboratories under identical conditions, but...
Article
Bericht ber eine tdliche suizidale Vergiftung mit Protriptylin und Haloperidol nach oraler Aufnahme. Durch gaschromatographische und radioimmunologische Untersuchungen konnten die Wirkstoffe in Organen und Krperflssigkeiten quantitativ nachgewiesen werden. Die hchsten Konzentrationen fanden sich in Lunge und Leber. Ihre Bedeutung fr den Todeseintri...
Article
In this paper the authors report on a case of lethal suicidal toxification with protriptyline and haloperidol after oral ingestion. Gas chromatographic and radioimmunologic investigations were used for quantitative determination of protriptyline and haloperidol in blood, urine, and tissues. The highest concentrations were found in lung and liver. T...
Chapter
Prajmaliumbitartrat ist ein Antiarrhythmikum, das in Neo-Gilurytmal-Tabletten enthalten ist. Es leitet sich von Ajmalin ab, einem Alkaloid aus den Wurzeln der Pflanze Rauwolfia serpentina. Durch Propylierung eines von 2 im Molekül vorhandenen Stickstoffatomen wird es in eine kationische quartäre Ammoniumverbindung (Abb. 1) übergeführt, die toxische...
Article
Diphenylbutylpiperidines and butyrophenones are neuroleptics properly to be screened in biological materials by radioimmunological technics with antisera for commercially available haloperidol, benperidol and pimozide. The specificity of these antisera however demands the isolation of the individual compound from extracts by HPLC for a correct quan...
Article
The clarification of a suspicion of poisoning at all times poses a problem to the forensic toxicologist, when a narrow margin of therapeutic safety and a low dosage coincide as in cases of digoxin poisoning. Statistical methods may serve as an aid. The postmortem digoxin concentration in the tissues of heart, kidney, liver and in blood of 45 patien...
Article
The clarification of a suspicion of poisoning at all times poses a problem to the forensic toxicologist, when a narrow margin of therapeutic safety and a low dosage coincide as in cases of digoxin poisoning. Statistical methods may serve as an aid. The post mortem digoxin concentration in the tissues of heart, kidney, liver and in blood of 45 patie...
Chapter
Der Stellenwert von radioimmunologischen Glykosid-Konzentrationsmessungen in Geweben ist eng mit der zu beantwortenden Fragestellung verbunden. Will man das Ausmaß und die Beziehung der Kontraktionskraftzunahme und der Herzrhythmusstörungen mit der Anzahl besetzter Glykosidrezeptoren erklären, so helfen die myokardialen Glykosidkonzentrationen nich...
Article
Several poisonings by diphenhydramine were reported shortly after it had been introduced as an antihistamine in 1945. In the Federal Republic of Germany its combination with 8-chlorotheophylline (dimenhydrinate) is available as a hypnotic without prescription. Replacing the dangerous diethylpentenamide diphenhydramine is a drug which is also often...
Article
Several poisonings by diphenhydramine were reported shortly after it had been introduced as an antihistamine in 1945. In the Federal Republic of Germany its combination with 8-chlorotheophylline (dimenhydrinate) is available as a hypnotic without prescription. Replacing the dangerous diethylpentenamide diphenhydramine is a drug which is also often...
Article
The digoxin concentration in the blood of ten patients with terminal illness were determined by radioimmunoassay sampling the specimens 10–30 min before death, 30 min after death (subclavial catheter), and at autopsy (femoral vein and heart). At autopsy increased levels were found: In heart blood 6.64±4.45 ng/ml, in femoral vein blood 4.42±2.45 ng/...
Article
The digoxin concentration in the blood of ten patients with terminal illness were determined by radioimmunoassay sampling the specimens 10-30 min before death, 30 min after death (subclavial catheter), and at autopsy (femoral vein and heart). At autopsy increased levels were found: in heart blood 6.64 +/- 4.45 ng/ml, in femoral vein blood 4.42 +/-...
Article
The blood levels and the elimination kinetics of flurazepam and its major metabolites in blood were investigated in 10 volunteers after application of 60 mg flurazepam (Dalmadorm). Hydroxyethylflurazepam and desalkylflurazepam are the metabolites suitable for proving a previous flurazepam ingestion. Splitting of glucuronides is helpful for the dete...
Article
A death case following a suicidal overdose of flurazepam (Dalmadorm) is reported. The body was found after 3 month near a highway. The course of the intoxication is in question as benzodiazepines are believed to be relatively save drugs. The death might have occured rapidly because of the acute toxic actions of the drug overdose as well as after a...
Article
Es wird ein Fall einer tdlich verlaufenen Vergiftung nach Flurazepam (Dalmadorm)-berdosierung in suicidaler Absicht beschrieben. Auf der Basis von chemisch-toxikologischen Analysen, pharmakokinetischen berlegungen, Sektionsbefunden und Fallumstnden wird der mgliche Vergiftungsverlauf diskutiert. Es wird die Frage errtert, ob sich der Todeseintritt...
Article
A simple and specific radioimmunoassay (RIA) was developed for the determination of oxazepam and other 1,4-benzodiazepines in human blood serum and urine (e.g., diazepam, desmethyldiazepam, chlorazepate). For serum a 1:10 dilution, for urine a 1:100 dilution is recommended. Blood and hemolyzed samples need prior extraction by Amberlite XAD-2. The a...
Article
The recovery measurements in rat tissues performed via i.p. injected radioactive digoxin derivates (3H-digoxin, 125J-digoxin derivative) showed that approximately 50% of the total glycoside content will be extracted. Thus, an addition of digoxin standards to drug-free tissues may lead to false negative determinations. By comparison of the radioacti...
Article
A simple and specific radioimmunoassay (RIA) was developed for the determination of oxazepam and other 1,4-benzodiazepines in human blood serum and urine (e.g., diazepam, desmethyldiazepam, chlorazepate). For serum a 1:10 dilution, for urine a 1:100 dilution is recommended. Blood and hemolyzed samples need prior extraction by Amberlite XAD-2. The a...
Article
Even after the introduction of radioimmunological methods the question of a cardiac glycoside causing or contributing to the death of a patient can not be answered satisfactorily. By means of a special radioimmunoassay procedure for digoxin as well as for the structurally related methyl- and acetylderivatives we measured the concentrations in human...
Article
The amount of abuses of and suicides with the agent diethyl allyl acetamid (previously known as Novonal) rose by leaps and bounds in the year 1978. In the first six months there came to the authors 13 fatal poisonings for examination; in total, blood concentrations were estimated in 25 cases by gas chromatography and mass fragmentography. When pati...
Article
The recovery measurements in rat tissues performed via i.p. injected radioactive digoxin derivates (3H-digoxin,125-digoxin derivative) showed that approximately 50% of the total glycoside content will be extracted. Thus, an addition of digoxin standards to drug-free tissues may lead to false negative determinations. By comparison of the radioactivi...
Article
A fast, sensitive and specific method for headspace blood alcohol analysis with deuter- ated internal standard was developed and validated. 120 blood samples were measured and the retrieved data were analysed statistically and compared with the common used techniques (ADH- and GC-FID-method). Gas chromatography was performed in isothermal mode (50°...