Pramode K. Verma's research while affiliated with University of Oklahoma and other places

Publications (125)

Chapter
This chapter gives the mathematical background necessary for understanding quantum mechanics used in the rest of the book. The abstract concept of a qubit as the quantum extension of a classical bit is first introduced. Characteristics of photons are then covered to lay the foundation for the multi-photon communication. An exposition of the polariz...
Chapter
This chapter extends the application space of the multi-stage multi-photon protocol to wireless communication. In particular, it examines the viability of using the multi-stage multi-photon protocol for secure key distribution in the IEEE 802.11i protocol.
Chapter
This chapter presents a security analysis of the multi-stage protocol assessing its vulnerability to known security attacks. It shows that the multi-stage protocol can offer quantum level security under certain conditions. The material presented in this chapter is based on the authors’ work previously published in [12, 13].
Chapter
This chapter introduces the three-stage multi-photon protocol, its operation and implementation in a laboratory environment. The implementation uses free-space optics as the transmission medium. Parts of this chapter are based on the authors’ work previously reported in [1].
Chapter
Preceding chapters of the book have explored using the polarization channel of an optical fiber for transmitting secure information without the need for encryption keys. In addition, Chap. 10 has offered a means to use the polarization channel for detecting any malicious attempt to pilfer information in transit over an optical fiber. This chapter i...
Chapter
Advantage creation through intrusion-level detection used by BB84-based QKD protocols is only one possibility permitted by quantum effects. In the early 2000s, another class of quantum cryptography protocols, called keyed communication in quantum noise (KCQ) based on quantum detection and communication theory, was proposed. A main advantage of the...
Chapter
This chapter generalizes the three-stage protocol into a family of multi-stage protocols. It compares the multi-stage protocol with single-photon protocols and illustrates how a multi-photon protocol can be made secure against man-in-the-middle attack. Since a multi-photon protocol is, in general, subject to photon-siphoning attacks, the protocol i...
Chapter
This chapter discusses an application of the polarization property of light in detecting intrusion on an optical fiber with the objective of stealing information flowing through it. Detection of intrusion, if timely accomplished, will offer an effective means to prevent information from being captured by a malicious agent. The material presented in...
Chapter
This chapter analyzes intercept-and-resend and photon number splitting attacks in the multi-stage multi-photon protocol. It lays down the conditions under which the multi-stage multi-photon protocol can approach the strength of a quantum-secure protocol. The material presented in this chapter is based on the authors’ work previously published in [1...
Chapter
Conventional implementations of cryptography are only computationally secure. The security of quantum cryptography (QC), on the other hand, is based on the inherent uncertainty in quantum phenomena at the physical layer of a communication system.
Chapter
This chapter presents an ultra-secure router-to-router key exchange system. The key exchange process can be initiated by either router at will and can be carried out as often as required. The cryptographic strength of the proposed protocols lies in the use of multi-stage transmission where the number of variables exceeds the number of stages by one...
Article
Full-text available
This paper presents a comparative evaluation of possible encryption algorithms for use in a self-contained, ultra-secure router-to-router communication system, first proposed by El Rifai and Verma. The original proposal utilizes a discrete logarithm-based encryption solution, which will be compared in this paper to RSA, AES, and ECC encryption algo...
Conference Paper
In quantum information processing, one of the most common methods to represent a qubit is by means of the polarization degree of freedom of a photon. Efficient methods to determine the photon polarization state are hence the fundamental tools in the studies of qubit systems. In fact, both theoretically optimal and practical polarization measurement...
Article
This paper presents a new encryption scheme called Compact Coding that encodes information in time, phase, and intensity domains, simultaneously. While these approaches have previously been used one at a time, the proposed scheme brings to bear for the first time their strengths simultaneously leading to an increase in the secure information transf...
Article
In this article, we present a privacy preserving genomic data dissemination algorithm based on compressed sensing. We participated in the challenge at the iDASH on March 24, 2014 in La Jolla, California and the result of the challenge are available online 1. In our proposed method, we are adding noise to the sparse representation of the input vecto...
Article
A universal and optimal method for the polarimetry of light with arbitrary photon statistics is presented. The method is based on the continuous maximum-likelihood positive operator-valued measure (ML-POVM) for pure polarization states over the surface of the Bloch sphere. The success probability and the mean fidelity are used as the figures of mer...
Conference Paper
Optical fiber channels are used as media to transfer the information globally. This paper presents an implementation of a novel procedure using which a secured communication between two parties can be carried out using polarized beam of light over an optical fiber. The paper presents the experimental results obtained of the procedure in the lab env...
Conference Paper
We present a generalized entangled state that can approach the Heisenberg limit in quantum metrology. We prove the entangled squeezed vacuum state can achieve a higher precision than entangled (squeezed) coherent state and NOON state.
Article
The first part of this paper presents two efficient cryptographic protocols, based on quantum entanglement, for secure exchange of secret keys. While the first protocol requires storage of entangled qubits, the second protocol has no storage requirements and presents a probabilistic model. We show that there is a tradeoff between security against e...
Article
This paper presents the integration of multi-photon tolerant quantum key distribution QKD protocols into three wireless communication standards. An analysis of the mode of operation and implementation of multi-photon tolerant QKD protocols in IEEE 802.11, WiMAX, and LTE wireless networks is presented along with the benefits and challenges of the pr...
Conference Paper
We present an optimal measure for the estimation of the polarization of light with arbitrary photon statistics. The success probability and the mean fidelity are calculated, and comparisons against an adaptive measurement are made.
Article
This paper proposes a generalized multi-stage multi-photon protocol that uses arbitrary polarization states to securely communicate between a sender and a receiver. Because the polarization measurement of an arbitrarily polarized state results in altering the state in an irreversible way, any such measurement produces noise in the measured state. T...
Article
We describe a layer-1-based intrusion detection system for fiber-optic-based networks. Layer-1-based intrusion detection represents a significant elevation in security as it prohibits an adversary from obtaining information in the first place (no cryptanalysis is possible). We describe the experimental setup of the intrusion detection system, which...
Conference Paper
This paper proposes and analyzes the potential of a multi-photon tolerant quantum communication protocol to secure satellite communication. For securing satellite communication, quantum cryptography is the only known unconditionally secure method. A number of recent experiments have shown feasibility of satellite-aided global quantum key distributi...
Article
This paper presents an ultra-secure router-to- router key exchange system. The key exchange process can be initiated by either router at will and can be carried out as often as required. We compare the efficacy of the proposed approach with contemporary quantum key distribution (QKD) systems and show that quantum-level security is attainable withou...
Article
Full-text available
This paper presents a multi-stage, multi-photon quantum key distribution protocol based on the double-lock cryptography. It exploits the asymmetry in the detection strategies between the legitimate users and the eavesdropper. The security analysis of the protocol is presented with coherent states under the intercept-resend attack, the photon number...
Article
This paper proposes a quantum secure communication protocol using multiple photons to represent each bit of a message to be shared. The multi-photon tolerant approach to quantum cryptography provides a quantum level security while using more than a single photon per transmission. The protocol proposed is a multi-stage protocol; an explanation of it...
Article
In Smart Grid environments, homes equipped with windmills are encouraged to generate energy and sell it back to utilities. Time of Use pricing and the introduction of storage devices would greatly influence a user in deciding when to sell back energy and how much to sell. Therefore, a study of sequential decision making algorithms that can optimize...
Conference Paper
This article presents two efficient cryptographic protocols, based on quantum entanglement, for secure exchange of secret keys. While the first protocol requires storage of entangled qubits, the second protocol has no storage requirements and presents a probabilistic model. We show that there is a tradeoff between security against eavesdropping and...
Conference Paper
This paper presents a model of integration of the Three-stage quantum cryptography protocol and its variants into the IEEE 802.11 wireless communication standard. The three-stage protocol is introduced during the quantum handshake as a replacement to the BB'84 protocol. Compared to the quantum handshake using BB'84, integrating the three-stage prot...
Conference Paper
This paper presents the concept and implementation of a Braided Single-stage Protocol for quantum secure communication. The braided single-stage protocol is a multi-photon tolerant secure protocol. This multi-photon tolerant protocol has been implemented in the laboratory using free-space optics technology. The proposed protocol capitalizes on stre...
Conference Paper
3D Denoising as one of the most significant tools in medical imaging was studied in the literature. However, most existing 3D medical data denoising algorithms have assumed the additive white Gaussian noise. In this work, we propose an efficient 3D medical data denoising method that can handle a noise mixture of various types. Our method is based o...
Conference Paper
Normalized Cross Correlation (NCC) has been extensively used for image registration, but applying NCC alone does not result in sufficient accuracy for many scenarios. In this paper, we propose a simple yet accurate dense image registration method by introducing diversity to “candidates” of NCC matches. We then select the best match using Belief Pro...
Article
This paper introduces an m-ary version of the Three-stage Quantum Cryptography protocol. The three-stage protocol was first proposed in 2006 and implemented in 2012. The m-ary version of the three-stage protocol proposed in this paper results in enhanced data transfer between a sender Alice and a receiver Bob since each pulse carries more than one...
Article
Denoising as one of the most significant tools in ultrasound imaging was studied widely in the literature. However, most existing ultrasound image denoising algorithms have assumed the additive white Gaussian noise. In this work, we propose two efficient ultrasound image denoising methods that can handle a noise mixture of various types. Our method...
Conference Paper
A recent paper has discussed the implementation of the three-stage protocol as a multi-photon tolerant protocol. In this paper, we present a powerful algorithm to further enhance the security of the three-stage protocol. Using this algorithm, the three-stage protocol will be provided with yet another layer of security by provisioning an initializat...
Conference Paper
Contemporary implementations of Quantum Key Distribution are based on BB84, first proposed in 1984, and commercially implemented for limited market applications in the early 2000s. A major limitation of BB84 is that it requires no more than a single photon per time slot. But no device can reliably generate single photons with guaranteed periodicity...
Conference Paper
We propose an enhancement to the BB84 protocol that uses superdense coding over dual-quantum channel. The enhanced protocol offers higher key efficiency, real-time detection of the man-in-the-middle attack, and high resistance to the photon number splitting attack.
Article
Super-resolution as an exciting application in image processing was studied widely in the literature. This paper presents new approaches to video super-resolution based on sparse coding and belief propagation. First, find candidate match pixels on multiple frames using sparse coding and belief propagation. Second, incorporate information from these...
Conference Paper
Super resolution reconstruction produces a higher resolution image based on a set of low resolution images, taken from the same scene. Recently, many papers have been published, proposing a variety algorithms of video super resolution. This paper presents a new approach to video super resolution, based on sparse coding and belief propagation. First...
Conference Paper
Denoising as one of the most significant task in video processing was studied widely in the literature. We propose an efficient video denoising method based on decomposition approach for matrix completion. A noisy video is processed in blockwise manner and for each processed block we find similar blocks in other frames. The similar blocks then will...
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The paper presents the implementation of a quantum cryptography protocol for secure communication between servers in the cloud. As computing power increases, classical cryptography and key management schemes based on computational complexity become increasingly susceptible to brute force and cryptanalytic attacks. Current implementations of quantum...
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Recently, various medical imaging such as CT and MRI imaging has been used more and more widely in clinical and medical research. As a result, there is an increasing interest in accurately relating information in different images for diagnosis, treatment, and the sake of basic science. As images are typically acquired at different times and often b...
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Full-text available
This paper reports a variant of the three-stage quantum cryptography protocol which can be used in low intensity laser output regimes. The variant, which tracks the intensity of the laser beam at the intermediate stages, makes the task of the eavesdropper harder than the standard K06 protocol. The constraints on the iAQC protocol are much less than...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper, we propose a system using video cameras to perform vehicle identification. We tackle this problem by reconstructing an input by using multiple linear regression models and compressed sensing, which provide new ways to deal with three crucial issues in vehicle identification, namely, feature extraction, online vehicle identification d...
Article
This paper investigates the impact of network structure on latency in complex networks under two different routing strategies. The performances of both scale-free networks and random networks are compared and evaluated under the shortest path routing strategy and least cost routing strategy. Our study shows that under the shortest path routing stra...
Conference Paper
Quantum key distribution (QKD) provides unconditional physical layer security for the distribution of encryption keys between legitimate parties. This paper presents a quantum key distribution protocol over a two-way quantum channel. This protocol does not require any classical communication channel for key sifting and key reconciliation. Utilizing...
Article
This article initiates a study on interconnecting Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) islands through the use of free space optical communication links. A cluster of wireless sensors, also known as motes, can be distributed in a certain location creating an IEEE 802.15.4-based wireless sensor network island that can convey information among its nodes. In...
Article
Image registration as a basic task in image processing was studied widely in the literature. It is an important preprocessing step in different applications such as medical imaging, super resolution, and remote sensing. In this paper we proposed a novel dense registration method based on sparse coding and belief propagation. We used image blocks as...
Article
Complex networks describe a variety of systems in nature and society. The past ten years have seen a dramatic increase in research on these networks. Network science is now an emerging discipline that addresses the defining characteristics of complex networks. This paper presents some of the characteristics of complex networks that affect their per...
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Full-text available
We present new results on cryptography and system state estimation using polarization states of photons. Current quantum cryptography applications are based on the BB84 protocol which is not secure against photon siphoning attacks. Recent research has established that the information that can be obtained from a pure state in repeated experiments is...
Article
This paper investigates backbone wireless mesh networks using directional antenna systems. A heuristic design algorithm is proposed to construct a low interference network configuration with high connectivity and high link bit rate under multiple constraints including limited number of antennas at each node, transmission range constraint, and an an...
Conference Paper
This paper investigates gateway placement problem in backbone wireless mesh networks using directional antenna systems. A heuristic gateway placement algorithm is proposed in order to minimize the total number of gateways, and the average and maximum hop count between any mesh router and its closest gateway.
Article
Passive optical networks (PONs) offer a popular broadband access solution allowing for high bandwidth and long transmission range to meet user fast evolving needs. However, in certain applications, PON deployment cannot reach the end user, because geographic restrictions make fiber installation non-cost effective. Recently, hybrid fiber–wireless (F...
Article
In Smart Grid environments, with distributed gen- eration, homes are encouraged to generate power and sell it back to utilities. Time of Use pricing techniques and the introduction of storage devices would greatly influence a user in deciding when to sell back power and how much to sell. Therefore, a study of sequential decision making algorithms t...
Article
This paper investigates pricing issues in class-based networks. Classes of packets having lower impatience and longer average delay receive monetary compensations. The inter-class price differential is determined by the inter-class compensations. The paper also presents rules for allocating network resource to each class. The corresponding payoff (...
Conference Paper
In this paper, we propose an integrated Mobile WiMAX and free space optics (FSO) broadband access network where the FSO network is used to provide high capacity backhaul for the Mobile WiMAX front end. The integrated network extends the coverage of Mobile WiMAX networks to larger areas in applications where the fiber network is expensive and diffic...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Smart Grid with Time-of-Use (TOU) pricing brings new ways of cutting costs for energy consumers and conserving energy. It is done by utilities suggesting the user ways to use devices to lower their energy bills keeping in mind its own benefits in smoothening the peak demand curve. However, as suggested in previous related research, user's comfort n...
Article
This study considers a multi-class network resource in a competitive market where each user endowed with an initial budget will purchase bandwidth from each class of the network resource to maximise its utility function. The authors use revenue as the utility function for the service provider, and enhance Kelly's utility function by including delay...
Article
This chapter presents a closed form solution relating the impact of bounded delays on throughput in VoIP networks modeled by M/M/1. Traffic that exceeds the delay threshold is treated as lost throughput. The results addressed can be used in scaling resources in a VoIP network for different thresholds of acceptable delays. Both single and multiple s...
Article
This chapter investigates the impact of bounded delays on throughput in VoIP networks modeled by M/D/1. Chapter 4 modeled the VoIP traffic as an M/M/1 system. Although the M/M/1 system is easier to analyze, the M/D/1 assumption for analyzing VoIP system might be more realistic in some cases. In contrast to contemporary literature that largely focus...
Article
The notion of quality is an important factor in the design of any complex communication system. Since communication systems are increasingly dependent on packet switching as the underlying transport mechanism, this chapter explores the impact of levels of quality that a packet switched system can provide on cost. Several interesting results are pre...
Chapter
This book has studied the performance of the VoIP networks from three aspects, Quality of Service, price, and security. As a real-time application, VoIP networks are challenged by the legacy voice quality as exhibited by the traditional PSTN. This book has introduced the notion of upper bound of delay and jitter, termed threshold, to characterize t...
Article
So far, this book has been devoted to developing an understanding of the consumption of bandwidth resources related to VoIP systems. As important as this resource is, numerous other factors determine the price that the VoIP user would pay. This chapter reviews those factors and shows how they influence pricing. The first few sections of the chapter...
Chapter
This chapter presents an overview of the architecture and protocols involved in implementing VoIP networks. After the overview, the chapter discusses the various factors that affect a high quality VoIP call. Furthermore, the chapter introduces various codecs and the engineering tradeoffs between delay and bandwidth. Finally, the chapter gives a det...
Article
This chapter presents the characterization of traffic in packet-switched networks. It provides an overview of queuing theory, including the terminology and notations, which will be used in the analyses presented in the succeeding chapters. In order to study the relationship between delay and throughput in the context of VoIP networks, applicable qu...
Conference Paper
Generation of chaos from nonlinear optical systems with an optical or electronic feedback has been studied for several years. Such chaotic signals have an important application in providing secure encryption in free-space optical communication systems. Lyapunov exponent is an important parameter for analysis of chaos generated by a nonlinear system...
Article
A classification of consumers in the power market into different classes from a pricing perspective has been a frequent source of controversy between the energy producer and consumer interest groups since electricity is considered to be a commodity product. Although differences of demand elasticity and variation in costs of service among the differ...
Article
Generation of chaos from acousto-optic modulators with an electronic feedback has been studied for several years. Such chaotic signals have an important application in providing secure encryption in free-space optical communication systems. Lyapunov exponent is an important parameter for analysis of chaos generated by a nonlinear system. The Lyapun...
Conference Paper
This paper investigates the implications of topologies on the average path length of networks, which is the dominant parameter affecting performance. Based on the available literature, classic network topologies are reviewed and analyzed. Furthermore, a new class of communication networks is introduced, and a topology design algorithm is proposed t...
Article
There is a significant need for a system to recognize Braille documents in order to preserve them and make them available to a larger group of visually impaired people. A new system for Braille document recognition is proposed. We introduce a highly-adaptive Braille documents parameters estimation method to automatically determine the rotation angl...
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Full-text available
In this paper we describe a free-space optics (FSO) based mobile sensor network that is not subject to RF interference common to wireless sensor networks. FSO-based mobile sensor networks can potentially be used in applications where security of communication, including freedom from susceptibility to jamming, is important. The design of nodes conta...
Article
Propagation of a monochromatic Gaussian beam through a stack of alternating layers of positive-refractive-index dielectrics and negative-refractive-index metamaterials is analyzed using paraxial ray-optics approach. Expressions for the change of the spot-size of the Gaussian beam are derived. Sensors for measuring parameters that affect the thickne...
Conference Paper
This paper explores and fortifies the need for a robust communications infrastructure for the upcoming smart grid and computes the bandwidth requirement for a hypothetical grid infrastructure. It presents the architecture of the current distribution system and shows that even for a medium-sized grid, the latency requirements of messages on the smar...
Article
Transmission and reflection spectra of periodic and random stacks comprising positive index materials and metamaterials have been extensively studied. In this paper we investigate the effectiveness of periodic stacks of PIM/NIM for use as a sensor. The transfer matrix method is used to find the transmittance and reflectance. Differences between the...
Article
In recent years, the integration of Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (WiMAX) and Ethernet Passive Optical Network (EPON) has become one of the most promising broadband access solutions. The EPON network provides tremendous bandwidth while the WiMAX network can support mobility. Integration of PON and WiMAX combines the best of both t...
Article
IMS as an IP connectivity and service control architecture is increasingly drawing more attention as the future architecture of the core network. At the same time, the cellular backhauled Wi-Fi has been constantly gaining ground as data rates of commercial cellular network continue to increase rapidly while the cost of data services declines at a s...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper presents six heuristic algorithms for designing minimum cost free spaces optics (FSO) networks. The criterion used for minimizing cost is the same as minimizing the total number of links in the network or, equivalently, minimizing the number of transceiver pairs.
Article
Summary Optical burst switching (OBS) is the most promising optical switching technology for the future Internet, but it suffers from security vulnerabilities. In this paper, we propose to embed a security framework which incorporates the strengths of classical and the emerging quantum cryptography techniques in the native OBS network architecture,...
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Full-text available
We discuss the design of an acousto-optic cell based free space optical communication link where the data beam is made secure through chaos encryption. Using external signal modulation of the diffracted light from a hybrid acousto-optic cell chaos (or directly via incorporation in the sound-cell driver's bias voltage) encryption of data is possible...
Article
Full-text available
Free-space optical communication links are well established as high bandwidth data transfer facilities. They also provide secure communication in hostile environments where radio frequency-based communication can be easily tapped into or jammed by a hostile agent. Mobile optical communication will thus provide a highly desirable system in such an e...