Pietro Ghezzi's research while affiliated with Università degli Studi di Urbino "Carlo Bo" and other places

Publications (426)

Article
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Background There is a growing literature on the potential medical uses of Cannabis sativa and cannabinoid compounds. Although these have only been approved by regulatory agencies for a few indications, there is a hype about their possible benefits in a variety of conditions and a large market in the wellness industry. As in many cases patients sear...
Article
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Objective Countries have major differences in the acceptance of face mask use for the prevention of COVID-19. This work aims at studying the information online in different countries in terms of information quality and content. Design Content analysis. Method We analysed 450 webpages returned by searching the string ‘are face masks dangerous’ in...
Article
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It is thought that excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) can be a causal component in many diseases, some of which have an inflammatory component. This led to an oversimplification whereby ROS are seen as inflammatory and antioxidants anti-inflammatory. This paper aims at reviewing some of the literature on thiols in host defense. T...
Article
Many studies reported that redox enzymes, particularly thioredoxin and peroxiredoxin, can be released by cells and act as soluble mediators in immunity. Recently, it became clear that peroxiredoxins can be secreted via the exosome-release route, yet it remains unclear how this exactly happens and why. This review will first introduce briefly the po...
Book
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been implicated in almost every human disease phenotype, without much, if any, therapeutic consequence foremost exemplified by the failure of the so-called anti-oxidants. This book is a game changer for the field and many clinical areas such as cardiology and neurology. The term ‘oxidative stress’ is abandoned and...
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Objective: Many online and printed media publish health news of questionable trustworthiness and it may be difficult for laypersons to determine the information quality of such articles. The purpose of this work was to propose a methodology for the automatic assessment of the quality of health-related news stories using natural language processing...
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Background: Vitamin D deficiency increases the risk of developing multiple sclerosis (MS) but it is unclear whether vitamin D supplementation improves the clinical course of MS, and there is uncertainty about the dose and form of vitamin D (D2 or D3) to be used. The mechanisms underlying the effects of vitamin D in MS are not clear. Vitamin D3 inc...
Preprint
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Countries have major differences in the acceptance of face mask use for the prevention of COVID-19. We analyzed 450 webpages returned by searching the string “are face masks dangerous” in Italy, the UK and the USA using three search engines (Bing, Duckduckgo and Google). The majority (64-79%) were pages from news outlets, with few (2-6%) pages from...
Article
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Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been correlated with almost every human disease. Yet clinical exploitation of these hypotheses by pharmacological modulation of ROS has been scarce to nonexistent. Are ROS, thus, irrelevant for disease? No. One key misconception in the ROS field has been its consideration as a rather detrimental metabolic by-produ...
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The fact that Internet companies may record our personal data and track our online behavior for commercial or political purpose has emphasized aspects related to online privacy. This study investigates the relationship between search engines' approach to privacy and the scientific quality of the information they return. Our study suggests that desi...
Chapter
Open image in new window The previous oxidative stress model has helped neither to diagnose nor to treat possibly ROS-related or ROS-dependent diseases. The redox balance concept that low ROS levels are beneficial or tolerable and high levels are disease triggers and best reduced is apparently wrong. Physiological ROS signalling may become dysfunct...
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Patients who have experienced a first cerebral ischemic event are at increased risk of recurrent stroke. There is strong evidence that low-level inflammation as measured by high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) is a predictor of further ischemic events. Other mechanisms implicated in the pathogenesis of stroke may play a role in determining...
Preprint
Full-text available
There is a growing literature on the potential medical uses of Cannabis sativa and cannabinoid compounds. Although these have only been approved by regulatory agencies for few indications, there is a hype about their possible benefits in a variety of conditions and a large market in the wellness industry. As in many cases patients search for inform...
Article
Full-text available
Environmental agents, including socioeconomic condition, and host factors can act as causal agents and risk factors in disease. We use biomarkers and sociomarkers to study causal factors, such as overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) which could play a role in disease through oxidative stress. It is therefore important to define the exact...
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Probiotics are over-the-counter products marketed for enhancing human health. Online information has been key in promoting probiotics worldwide. However, only few rigorous clinical studies have met the stringent criteria required to establish the efficacy and safety of probiotics. The present study was undertaken to assess the information quality o...
Preprint
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The fact that internet companies may record our personal data and track our online behavior for commercial or political purpose has emphasized aspects related to online privacy. This has also led to the development of search engines that promise no tracking and privacy. Search engines also have a major role in spreading low-quality health informati...
Article
Oxidative stress is defined as an imbalance between the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and antioxidant defences. The view of oxidative stress as a cause of cell damage has evolved over the past few decades to a much more nuanced view of the role of oxidative changes in cell physiology. This is no more evident than in the field of immunity,...
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The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate an optimized 3D bioprinting technology in order to fabricate novel scaffolds for the application of endothelial cell repair. Various biocompatible and biodegradable macroporous scaffolds (D = 10 mm) with interconnected pores (D = ~500 µm) were fabricated using a commercially available 3D bioprinter...
Preprint
The Internet has become a prime source of health information available to the public. Our aims were to assess the content and quality of online information for the treatment of depression. We searched, 'How to cure depression' on Google and analysed the first 200 websites according to the website typology and a standard health information assessmen...
Preprint
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Vitamin D deficiency increases the risk of developing multiple sclerosis (MS) but there is uncertainty about what dose and form of vitamin D could improve the clinical course of MS. The mechanisms underlying the effects of vitamin D in MS are not clear. Vitamin D3 increases the rate of differentiation of primary oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPC...
Article
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Background: The concept that one can “boost” immunity is a popular one. Although the only evidence-based approach to this is vaccination, the lay public is exposed to a wide range of information on how to boost immunity. The aim of this study was to analyze such information available on the Internet. Methods and findings: We visited 185 webpages re...
Article
Peroxiredoxin 1 (PRDX1) is an antioxidant enzyme that, when secreted, can act as a proinflammatory signal. Here we studied the regulation of intracellular PRDX1 by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and interferon-gamma (IFNγ) in the RAW 264.7 mouse macrophage cell line. While LPS or IFNγ alone did not affect PRDX1 protein levels, their combination led to an...
Article
Introduction: The ABSORB bioresorbable vascular scaffold (BVS) is associated with greater neointimal proliferation and thrombotic rate than metal stent. The role of inflammatory biomarkers on neointimal proliferation has not been studied in the setting of BVS implantation. Patients and methods: Thirty patients had arterial blood sampling before...
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Fibromyalgia is a multi-factorial illness primarily characterised by widespread chronic pain and fatigue, with several symptoms and associated conditions. Due to a lack of clinical awareness and an absence of objective diagnostic measures, fibromyalgia patients often engage with online health information. The aim is to investigate the completeness...
Article
Objective To investigate the effects of soluble uric acid (UA) on expression and activation of the NODlike receptor (NLR) pyrin domain containing protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome in human monocytes to elucidate the role of hyperuricemia in the pathogenesis of gout. Methods Primary human monocytes and the THP-1 human monocyte cell line were used to d...
Article
Inflammation is associated with production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and results in the induction of thioredoxin (TXN) and peroxiredoxins (PRDXs) and activation of nuclear factor-like 2 (Nrf2). In this study we have used the mouse RAW 264.7 macrophage and the human THP-1 monocyte cell line to investigate the pattern of expression of three Nr...
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The pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1β (IL-1β) plays important roles in immunity but is also implicated in autoimmune disease. The most well-established mechanism of IL-1β secretion is via activation of the NOD-like receptor family pyrin domain containing-3 (NLRP3) inflammasome which requires an initial priming signal followed by an activatin...
Chapter
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Glutathione (GSH) deficiency may play a pivotal role in a variety of apparently unrelated clinical conditions and diseases. Orally administered N-acetylcysteine (NAC), which replenishes the cysteine required for GSH synthesis, has been tested in a large number of randomized placebo-controlled trials involving these diseases and conditions. This cha...
Chapter
Besides understanding the effectiveness of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) for the treatment of disease and its effect on physiological systems, other considerations of NAC are important, including the pharmacology, formulations, and adverse effects of NAC. This chapter will review these important aspects of NAC. Few published trials have examined the pharm...
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Background Endothelial injury is an early and enduring feature of cardiovascular disease. Inflammation and hypoxia may be responsible for this, and are often associated with the up-regulation of several transcriptional factors that include Hypoxia Inducible Factor-1 (HIF-1). Although it has been reported that HIF-1α is detectable in plasma, it is k...
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Background: The pro-myelinating effects of leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) and other cytokines of the gp130 family, including oncostatin M (OSM) and ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF), have long been known, but controversial results have also been reported. We recently overexpressed erythropoietin receptor (EPOR) in rat central glia-4 (CG4) oligo...
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Introduction: The popularity of seeking health information online makes information quality (IQ) a public health issue. The present study aims at building a theoretical framework of health information quality (HIQ) that can be applied to websites and defines which IQ criteria are important for a website to be trustworthy and meet users' expectation...
Article
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The 1998 Lancet paper by Wakefield et al., despite subsequent retraction and evidence indicating no causal link between vaccinations and autism, triggered significant parental concern. The aim of this study was to analyze the online information available on this topic. Using localized versions of Google, we searched “autism vaccine” in English, Fre...
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Systems medicine has a mechanism-based rather than a symptom- or organ-basedapproach to disease and identifies therapeutic targets in a nonhypothesisdrivenmanner. In this work, we apply this to transcription factor nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (NRF2) by cross-validating its position in a protein-protein interaction network (the NRF2...
Article
Biomarkers are widely used not only as prognostic or diagnostic indicators, or as surrogate markers of disease in clinical trials, but also to formulate theories of pathogenesis. We identify two problems in the use of biomarkers in mechanistic studies. The first problem arises in the case of multifactorial diseases, where different combinations of...
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The systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) is a potentially lethal response triggered by diverse forms of tissue injury and infection. When systemic inflammation is triggered by infection, the term sepsis is used. Understanding how inflammation is mediated and regulated is of enormous medical importance. We previously demonstrated that circ...
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There are expectations that stem cell therapy (SCT) will treat many currently untreatable diseases. The Internet is widely used by patients seeking information about new treatments, and hence, analyzing websites is a representative sample of the information available to the public. Our aim was to understand what information the public would find wh...
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Several studies have shown that erythropoietin (EPO) has neuroprotective or neuroreparative actions on diseases of the nervous system, and that improves oligodendrocyte differentiation and myelination in vivo and in vitro. This study aims at investigating the early molecular mechanisms for the pro-myelinating action of EPO at the gene expression le...
Article
Offering breast cancer patients treatment choice has become a priority as the involvement of patients in the decision-making process is associated with improved physical and psychological outcomes. As the Internet is increasingly being used by patients as a source of medical information, it is important to evaluate the quality of information relati...
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The European Cooperation in Science and Technology (COST) provides an ideal framework to establish multi-disciplinary research networks. COST Action BM1203 (EU-ROS) represents a consortium of researchers from different disciplines who are dedicated to providing new insights and tools for better understanding redox biology and medicine and, in the l...
Data
NF-kB target genes upregulated by LPS. For each transcript, the table reports the log2-transformed average gProcessed signal from three biological replicates, the fold change between the various experimental groups expressed as log2 ratio (LPS vs control and BSO/LPS vs LPS) and the respective P-value for each comparison, obtained by two-tailed Stud...
Data
Full list of the 124 + 177 transcripts from Figure 2. Transcripts most affected by BSO among those significantly regulated by LPS (BSO + LPS vs LPS alone, FC > 1.5, P < 0.05 from Figure 2, at both time points). Transcripts in bold are those also significantly affected by BSO alone (BSO vs control, with a cutoff of FC 1.5, P < 0.05). The log2-transf...