Pierre L. Siklos's research while affiliated with Australian National University and other places

Publications (312)

Article
Full-text available
I revisit the 1918–20 pandemic and ask whether it led to a reversal in the rise of trade and financial globalization that preceded it. Using annual data for 17 countries for the 1870–1928 period, a variety of tests and techniques are used to draw some robust conclusions. Overall, the pandemic a century ago interrupted, but did not put an end, to th...
Article
Full-text available
The threat of nuclear annihilation has never been higher than in 1962, when US President Kennedy and Soviet Premier Khruschev engaged in brinkmanship over the placement of Soviet missiles in Cuba during October 16-28. Although the resolution of the crisis was followed by a sustained recovery in the US, Canadian and Mexican stock markets, the stock...
Article
Central Bank Digital Currencies (CBDC) have attracted considerable interest and its deployment on a global scale is imminent. However, CBDC face several challenges. They include: legal, technological, and political considerations. We summarize those challenges and add a few more that have not received much attention in the literature. We then focus...
Article
Demographic determinants (i.e., gender, income, education, race, age) of one year ahead inflation expectations in South Africa are explored. Surveys covering the period 2006-2016 are examined via a mix of time and cross-sectional methods. In doing so, we uncover clear behavioural biases in how respondents view the inflation outlook. Education and i...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper, we investigate the international effects of euro rate forward guidance (FG) and compare them to spillovers from a conventional monetary policy shock (MP). We identify the forward guidance shock via a combination of zero and sign restrictions that use the relationship between expectations and observed data and additionally draw on ins...
Article
We simulate the impact on the nonbank liabilities of banks in a multiplex interbank environment arising from changes in currency exposure. Currency shocks as a source of financial contagion in the banking sector have not, so far, been considered. Our model considers two sources of contagion: shocks to nonbank assets and exchange rate shocks. Interb...
Article
This paper reconsiders the narratives surrounding Japan's economic performance since the 1980s in relation to the experiences of the U.S. and the Eurozone. There are important differences between these three economies and some striking parallels. It is found that the poor reputation of the Bank of Japan (BoJ) is, at times, underserved. To be sure,...
Article
This study estimates a variety of small dynamic factor macro models where the factors are time-varying. The sample consists of 20 economies from around the world. Using quarterly data since the late 1990s, I find that the focus of some policymakers on the negative spillovers from monetary shocks is exaggerated. Four separate types of shocks are ide...
Article
Monetary policy relies on managing the inflation expectations of the public in order to influence prices (inflation). Relying on the South African experience, we argue that most of the general public are exposed to the communication of the South African Reserve Bank (SARB) only via the media. This state of affairs is fairly typical around the globe...
Article
This article studies the effects of increasing political uncertainty on the functioning of German futures markets. We examine a unique event, namely the discussions around and the final coming into force of the German Exchange Act of 1896. Using static and time‐varying vector error correction models, the empirical analysis shows that, although earl...
Article
Inflation is a monetary policy outcome, but in the short to medium term, price and wage decisions are co-determined by the public and private sectors. Many central banks have adopted transparency as a strategic policy approach, whereby communication of monetary policy goals is used as a public anchor. While the central bank’s strategy involves care...
Article
Full-text available
In addition to being the world's greatest consumer and producer of industrial metals, China now also features the most actively traded industrial metal futures contracts worldwide. To examine China's role in the global price formation process of industrial metal futures markets, we use a sample of 29 futures contracts traded on exchanges in the Uni...
Article
The greater availability of bank Senior Loan Officer (SLO) surveys in the past decade is enhancing our understanding of the international bank lending channel of monetary policy. Using a Global VAR (GVAR), we find evidence that expansionary monetary policies in general resulted in lower credit standards, which in turn reinforced the thrust of monet...
Article
A new dataset of weekly wheat prices during the 1898–1914 is generated. Using variance decompositions from vector autoregressive models, a network of nine wheat markets during the sample period is constructed and information spillovers between these markets are analyzed. Our results indicate that trade costs are a significant determinant of the rel...
Preprint
Full-text available
In this paper, we investigate the international effects of euro rate forward guidance(FG) and compare them to spillovers from a conventional monetary policy shock(MP). We identify the forward guidance shock via a combination of zero and signrestrictions that use the relationship between expectations and observed data andadditionally draw on insight...
Article
Voting by shadow monetary policy committees (SMPCs) provide hints about monetary policy decisions. We examine data for Australia, Canada and the euro area. SMPCs release individual members’ recommendations. Their central banks do not. How much variation is there in preferences towards inflation and output gaps? Do committees tend towards less extre...
Article
Content analysis is used to analyze 60 years of Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC) minutes. Since there is no unique algorithm to quantify content, two different algorithms are applied. Wordscores compares content relative to a chosen benchmark, while DICTION is an alternative algorithm that is specifically designed to capture various elements th...
Article
We use a factor model and elastic net shrinkage to model a high‐dimensional network of European CDS spreads. Our empirical approach allows us to assess the joint transmission of bank and sovereign risk to the non‐financial corporate sector. Our findings identify a sectoral clustering in the CDS network, where financial institutions are in the cente...
Research
Full-text available
Inflation is a monetary policy outcome, but in the short to medium term, price and wage decisions are co-determined by the public and private sectors. Many central banks have adopted transparency as a strategic policy approach, whereby communication of monetary policy goals is used as a public anchor. While the central bank’s strategy involves care...
Article
Full-text available
Inflation is a monetary policy outcome, but in the short to medium term, price and wage decisions are co-determined by the public and private sectors. Many central banks have adopted transparency as a strategic policy approach, whereby communication of monetary policy goals is used as a public anchor. While the central bank’s strategy involves care...
Article
In this paper we investigate dynamics of inflation and short-run inflation expectations. We estimate a global vector autoregressive (GVAR) model using Bayesian techniques. We then explore the effects of three source of inflationary pressure that could drive up inflation expectations: domestic aggregate demand and supply shocks as well as a global i...
Article
Previous literature on price discovery in commodity markets is mainly focused on the question of whether the spot or the futures market dominates the price discovery process. Little attention, however, has been paid to the question of how the price discovery process is affected by futures speculation. Using different measures for speculation and he...
Article
Full-text available
We evaluate monetary policy divergence in the G4. A Taylor rule is extended that admits a global element and also allows for unconventional monetary policy to be reflected in a shadow policy rate. We propose a policy divergence index based on observed, fitted, or shadow policy rates but which interprets the stance of monetary as dictated by the rea...
Article
Full-text available
Recent events have the potential to reverse the positive macroeconomic performance of the global economy and trigger a slowdown in both global growth and international trade. In particular, the implications of ongoing trade disputes that have undermined trust in the existing multilateral cooperation system and the incentive for countries to align w...
Chapter
This chapter analyses the empirical literature on the effectiveness of unconventional monetary policies (UMP) in responding to financial crises and boosting economic activity. It considers the circumstances under which these policies have been found to be successful. The chapter also analyses the financial‐market and macro‐economic effects of UMP i...
Article
This paper examinesthe monetary policy transmission mechanism in four systemically important economies. The impact of monetary policy is found to be broadly comparable for China, the US, the Eurozone, and Japan. Identifying a role for the financial sector is essential to unpacking various channels through which monetary policy operates. Global fact...
Article
Full-text available
Since the global financial crisis of 2008-2009, a balance sheet focus is sometimes the benchmark by which the conduct of monetary policy that relies on non-standard measures is assessed. This paper explores this metric by examining the challenges of interpreting the conduct of monetary policy in recent years. It concludes that while the shift in em...
Article
We examine shocks to capital flows from the United States, the Eurozone, and China. A US interest rate rise is contractionary for the United States but produces positive growth elsewhere. Cross-border claims and US interest rate shocks have been more subdued since the global financial crisis, consistent with the portfolio rebalancing hypothesis. Ne...
Article
The November 2014 Shanghai-Hong Kong Stock Connect represented an important step in China’s capital account liberalization, allowing relatively free movement of investor funds between the two markets for the first time. We offer a quantification of the effects of the new program, examining Northbound and Southbound flows of funds over the first two...
Article
Full-text available
The global financial crisis put paid to the notion that financial shocks are benign most of the time and revived the idea that microprudential policies needed to be paired with macroprudential policies. These policy developments have been referred to as financial repression, in part because the pre-crisis belief that markets ought to be unfettered...
Article
This study examines the effectiveness of unconventional monetary policies (UMP). It considers whether these policies have been successful and where their effects remain uncertain. We survey both the domestic financial market and macro‐economic effects of UMP in the economies where these policies were introduced and their international spillover eff...
Article
Cambridge Core - Economic Theory - Sveriges Riksbank and the History of Central Banking - edited by Rodney Edvinsson
Article
This paper begins with the observation that short-selling bans spread globally in 2008. We find some evidence that the bans were unsuccessful at least insofar as they did not take into account the global component a short-selling ban which reduced equity returns in about a third of the 17 countries sampled, most notably in some of the major advance...
Article
This paper examines the macroeconomic implications of exchange rate shocks in a sample of 13 emerging market and 6 advanced economies since the early 1990 s. Factor-augmented vector autoregressions are estimated with three separate factors identified. They are: real, monetary and financial factors. The main conclusion is that there is no ‘one size...
Article
Chinese futures markets for agricultural commodities are among the fastest growing futures markets in the world and trading behaviour in those markets is perceived as highly speculative. We empirically investigate whether speculative activity in Chinese futures markets for agricultural commodities destabilizes futures returns. To capture speculativ...
Article
Empirical evidence on the potential impact of central bank policies on government bond yields at the effective lower bound (ELB) is presented for nine economies. We quantify the content of central bank communications and consider international policy spillovers. Yields at the medium-to-longer end of the yield curve remain responsive to news for a f...
Article
Full-text available
A new measure of credibility is constructed as a function of the differential between observed inflation and some estimate of the inflation rate that the central bank targets. The target is assumed to be met flexibly. Credibility is calculated for a large group of both advanced and emerging countries from 1980 to 2014. Financial crises reduce centr...
Article
Empirical evidence on the potential impact of central bank policies on government bond yields at the effective lower bound (ELB) is presented for nine economies. We quantify the content of central bank communications and consider international policy spillovers. Yields at the medium-to-longer end of the yield curve remain responsive to news for a f...
Article
Full-text available
In recognition of the severe consequences of the recent international financial crisis, the topic of macroprudential policy has elicited considerable research effort. The data set reports, for 46 economies around the globe, an index of the capacity to deploy macroprudential policies. The index aims to represent the essence of what constitutes a mac...
Article
Full-text available
In recognition of the severe consequences of the recent international financial crisis, the topic of macroprudential policy has elicited considerable research effort. The present study constructs, for 46 economies around the globe, an index of the capacity to deploy macroprudential policies. Building on elements that have been the subject of recent...
Article
Full-text available
The zero lower bound (ZLB) may restrict the responsiveness of exchange rates to news. A proxy for central bank communication is added as a determinant in a model of exchange rate movements. Two reserve currencies, the British pound and euro, and two currencies of small open economies, the Canadian dollar and Swedish krona, are examined. Reserve cur...
Article
Existing models of herding suffer from the drawback that conventional measures assume it is constant over time and independent of the state of the economy. This paper proposes a Markov switching herding model which supports the view that herding is not constant. By means of time-varying transition probabilities, the model is able to link changes in...
Article
Relying on quarterly data since 1998 we estimate, for China and the U.S., small scale econometric models that economize on the number of variables employed and yet are rich enough to provide useful insights about spillover effects between the two countries under different maintained assumptions about the exogeneity of the macroeconomic relationship...
Article
Our study investigates the role of the exchange rate regime to explain the empirical link between financial crises and economic activity. We examine the relationship between real per capita GDP growth, exchange rate regimes, and the incidence of crises. Asymmetries are also explored. While exchange rate regimes of all types can promote positive eco...
Article
Soaring prices in European alternative energy stocks and their subsequent tumble have attracted attention both from investors and academics. We extend recent research to an international setting and analyze whether the explosive price behavior of the mid-2000s was driven by rising crude oil prices and overall bullish market sentiment. Inflation-adj...
Article
A macroeconomic model that explicitly incorporates financial sector influences is estimated. A survey of lending standards in the Eurozone countries is informative about aggregate economic activity. I also ask whether policy rate shocks influence lending standards, and whether these standards also have an effect on monetary policy. Briefly, the pap...
Article
Words are critical in how the public perceives the work of central banks and the quality of monetary policy. Press releases that accompany policy rate decisions and, where available, the minutes of central bank committee meetings, are focal points for the media in public discussions about the conduct of monetary policy. Using data from five countri...
Article
This paper examines whether the introduction of Chinese stock index futures had an impact on the volatility of the underlying spot market. To this end, we estimate several Generalized Auto-Regressive Conditional Heteroscedasticity (GARCH) models and compare our findings for mainland China with Chinese index futures traded in Singapore and Hong Kong...
Article
The communications challenges facing central banks that share macroprudential responsibilities with other agencies are daunting. Central bank surveys and an index of central bank transparency reveal that central banks have adopted the necessary institutional arrangements to communicate effectively a price stability objective. However, their communi...
Chapter
Words are critical in how the public perceives the work of central banks and the quality of monetary policy. Press releases that accompany policy rate decisions and, where available, the minutes of central bank committee meetings, are focal points for the media in public discussions about the conduct of monetary policy. Using data from five countri...
Article
We examine policy rate recommendations of the Bank of Canada’s Governing Council (GC) and its shadow, the C.D. Howe Institute’s Monetary Policy Council (MPC). Individual recommendations of the MPC are observed but not those of the GC. Differences in the two committee’s recommendations are small but persistent. The MPC is more responsive to the outp...
Article
One way of evaluating how well monetary authorities perform is to provide the public with a regular and independent second opinion. The European Central Bank (ECB) and the Bank of England (BoE) are shadowed by professional and academic economists who provide a separate policy rate recommendation in advance of the central bank announcement. In this...
Article
Short sellers are routinely blamed for destabilizing stock markets by exacerbating deviations from fundamental values. In response, regulators periodically impose short sale constraints aimed at preventing excessive stock market declines. One explanation is that policy makers regard short sellers as behaving like positive feedback traders. Relying...
Article
This paper examines past evidence of prolonged periods of reserve accumulation in Asian emerging market economies and the direct and indirect implications for monetary stability through the potential impact of such episodes on financial stability. The empirical research focuses on identifying periods of prolonged interventions and correlations with...
Article
This paper explores the behaviour of inflation forecasts from a variety of sources (ie Consensus and other professional forecasters, international and domestic financial institutions, central banks) with the aim of measuring the size and evolution of forecast disagreements and their proximate sources (ie economic versus institutional determinants)....
Article
This paper examines the policy rate recommendations of the Bank of Canada’s Governing Council (GC) and the C.D. Howe Institute’s Monetary Policy Council (MPC) since 2003. We find, first, that differences in the median recommendations between the MPC and the GC are persistent but small (i.e., 25 bps). The median MPC recommendation is based on a high...
Article
One way of evaluating how well monetary authorities perform is to provide the public with a regular and independent second opinion. The European Central Bank (ECB) and the Bank of England (BoE) are shadowed by professional and academic economists who provide a separate policy rate recommendation in advance of the central bank announcement. In this...
Article
Recent events highlight the importance of understanding the relationship between credit availability and real economic activity. This paper estimates macroeconomic models for Canada to investigate the relationship between changes in non-price lending standards, business loans and output. We ask whether macroeconomic and financial market conditions...
Article
Short sellers are routinely blamed for destabilizing stock markets by exacerbating deviations from fundamental values. In response, regulators periodically impose short sale constraints aimed at preventing excessive stock market declines. One explanation is that policy makers regard short sellers as behaving like positive feedback traders. Relying...
Article
Even before the events of the past few years, economists and policy makers were musing about the apparent contradiction between globalization, as it is generally understood, and the seemingly different paths in overall economic activity taken by the emerging and more mature economies of the world. The present paper reconsiders whether it is, in fac...
Article
Central to the conduct of monetary policy are inflation forecasts. Inflation forecast are not unique. Central banks and professional organizations generate inflation forecasts while households are surveyed about their inflation outlook. This paper estimates inflation forecast disagreement for nine economies over the 1999-2009 period, five of which...
Article
Existing models of market herding suffer from several drawbacks. First, measures assuming herd behavior to be constant over time are not only economically unreasonable but also badly describe the data, since only a two regime test can clearly reject a unit root in the time series of dispersions around the market. Second, existing models of time-var...