Philippe Grandjean's research while affiliated with Midlands State University and other places

Publications (550)

Article
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Artisanal and small-scale mining (ASM) takes place under extreme conditions with a lack of occupational health and safety. As the demand for metals is increasing due in part to their extensive use in ‘green technologies’ for climate change mitigation, the negative environmental and occupational consequences of mining practices are disproportionatel...
Article
Introduction Exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) has been associated with lower bone mineral density (BMD) in animal and human studies, but prospective data from children are limited. Objectives To determine associations between prenatal and early postnatal PFAS exposure and BMD at age 7 years. Methods In the Odense Child Cohort, Denmark...
Article
Background Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are endocrine disrupting chemicals with elimination half-lives ranging from four to eight years. Experimental studies found PFAS able to interfere with thyroid hormone-binding proteins. During the first 20 weeks of gestation (GW), the fetus is reliant on placental transfer of maternal thyroid hormones, ma...
Chapter
Epidemiological methods are crucial to extract as much valid information as possible from human metal exposures. Thus, modern epidemiological approaches have elucidated human health effects that were not apparent in the past. At the same time, metal toxicology has served as a useful arena for testing and further refining methods for study design an...
Chapter
Prevention of the toxicity of metals begins with identification of the populations at highest risk of exposure and those at greatest vulnerability to adverse effects. Industrial workers, long a principal focus of concern, remain a group at high risk due to their frequently high-level exposures. Nonoccupationally exposed populations—infants, young c...
Article
Background/Aims Early life exposures to marine contaminants can adversely impact child health but modes of action are unclear. Human milk contains extracellular vesicles (EVs) that can transport biologically relevant cargo from mother to infant, including microRNAs (miRNAs), and may partly mediate the effects of pollutants on child health. However,...
Article
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Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are highly persistent in the environment and may cause depressed immune function. Previous studies have linked PFAS exposure to lower vaccine responses in children, but research in adults is limited. Therefore, the present study evaluated the associations between exposure to PFASs and serum antibody conce...
Article
Background Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are synthetic compounds used in a wide variety of industrial and consumer applications. An association between PFAS exposure and risk of ulcerative colitis (UC) has been reported in a highly exposed population. However, data are limited on risk of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) among individuals with...
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Context Human exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) has been associated with reduced duration of breastfeeding, though not consistently so, and mechanisms by which PFAS might affect breastfeeding are unknown. Objective To examine the association between early pregnancy serum-PFAS concentrations and breastfeeding termination and elucidate th...
Article
Introduction: The potential impact of exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) on childhood Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity-Disorder (ADHD) is unclear and deserves scrutiny. The majority of previously conducted longitudinal studies found no association between maternal serum-PFAS concentrations and ADHD symptoms in the offspring, but some stud...
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Two tendencies have emerged in environmental epidemiology that hamper the translation of research findings into prevention of environmental hazards. One is the increased focus on highlighting weaknesses of epidemiology research that is clearly meant to explain away the research conclusions and weaken their possible implications for interventions to...
Article
Reference intervals that indicate the anticipated results of clinical chemistry parameters in a healthy background population are essential for the proper interpretation of laboratory data. In the present study, we analysed major trace elements in blood samples from 400 randomly selected members of the general Danish population. Reference intervals...
Article
Background Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) exposure has been linked to metabolic health outcomes such as obesity, and changes in adipokine hormones may be one of the underlying biological mechanisms. We prospectively evaluated the associations between prenatal and early childhood exposures to PFASs and adipokines in children. Material a...
Article
Previous studies have shown immunotoxic effects of environmental chemicals, and the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) recently identified a need for more studies on PFAS immunotoxicity in different populations. In the Arctic, populations are exposed to several environmental chemicals through marine diet, and the objective of this study was ther...
Article
As a guide to establishing a safe exposure level for fluoride exposure in pregnancy, we applied benchmark dose modeling to data from two prospective birth cohort studies. We included mother–child pairs from the Early Life Exposures in Mexico to Environmental Toxicants (ELEMENT) cohort in Mexico and the Maternal-Infant Research on Environmental Chem...
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Background Previous studies of association between exposure to poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) and gestational hypertension (GH) and preeclampsia (PE) have shown conflicting results, but most dichotomized outcome and did not study continuous blood pressure (BP) changes. Objectives To study the association between PFAS exposure in early...
Article
Background Prenatal exposure to organophosphate and pyrethroid insecticides has been associated with impaired neurodevelopment. Few longitudinal studies have investigated associations with early language development in populations with mainly low dietary exposure. Objective To investigate associations between biomarkers of maternal gestational exp...
Article
Background Exposures to per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) may affect metabolic outcomes, including lipid concentrations in the blood. However, few studies have evaluated potential associations between PFASs and lipids longitudinally. Objectives We estimated associations between PFAS and lipid concentrations at birth and at several points...
Article
Objective: To investigate the prospective associations of life-course perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) exposure with glucose homeostasis at adulthood. Methods: We calculated insulin sensitivity and beta-cell function indices based on 2-h oral glucose tolerance tests at age 28 in 699 Faroese born in 1986-1987. Five major PFASs were measured in c...
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Introduction The immunosuppressive properties of PFASs are widely recognized. Early-life exposure to PFAS has been linked to reduced immune response to childhood vaccinations and increased rates of common infectious diseases, but implications for hospitalizations are unclear. Objectives To investigate the association between maternal serum concent...
Article
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Human milk plays a critical role in infant development and health, particularly in cognitive, immune, and cardiometabolic functions. Milk contains extracellular vesicles (EVs) that can transport biologically relevant cargo from mother to infant, including microRNAs (miRNAs). We aimed to characterize milk EV-miRNA profiles in a human population coho...
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Aims: Due to new evidence on fluoride neurotoxicity during early life, this study examined maternal exposure to fluoride through tea consumption in a low-fluoride region and measured fluoride releases from commercially available teas (tea bags and loose teas) to determine the need to limit fluoride exposure. Methods: Maternal urine fluoride (MUF...
Article
Introduction Poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are persistent organic pollutants with pervasive exposure and suspected associations with metabolic abnormalities and adverse pregnancy outcomes. The goal of the present study was to examine the relationship between serum-PFAS concentrations measured in late pregnancy with relevant outcomes....
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Background The course of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) seems to be aggravated by air pollution, and some industrial chemicals, such as the perfluorinated alkylate substances (PFASs), are immunotoxic and may contribute to an association with disease severity. Methods From Danish biobanks, we obtained plasma samples from 323 subjects aged 30–7...
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Background: Pollution – unwanted waste released to air, water, and land by human activity – is the largest environmental cause of disease in the world today. It is responsible for an estimated nine million premature deaths per year, enormous economic losses, erosion of human capital, and degradation of ecosystems. Ocean pollution is an important, b...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Pollution – unwanted waste released to air, water, and land by human activity – is the largest environmental cause of disease in the world today. It is responsible for an estimated nine million premature deaths per year, enormous economic losses, erosion of human capital, and degradation of ecosystems. Ocean pollution is an important, b...
Article
Full-text available
Pollution – unwanted waste released to air, water, and land by human activity – is the largest environmental cause of disease in the world today. It is responsible for an estimated nine million premature deaths per year, enormous economic losses, erosion of human capital, and degradation of ecosystems.Ocean pollution is an important, but insufficie...
Article
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A scientific journal like Environmental Health strives to publish research that is useful within the field covered by the journal's scope, in this case, public health. Useful research is more likely to make a difference. However, in many, if not most cases, the usefulness of an article can be difficult to ascertain until after its publication. Alth...
Preprint
Full-text available
As a safe exposure level for fluoride in pregnancy has not been established, we used data from two prospective studies for benchmark dose modeling. We included mother-child pairs from the Early Life Exposures in Mexico to Environmental Toxicants (ELEMENT) cohort in Mexico and the Maternal-Infant Research on Environmental Chemicals (MIREC) cohort in...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background The course of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) seems to be aggravated by air pollution, and some industrial chemicals, such as the perfluorinated alkylate substances (PFASs), are immunotoxic and may contribute as well. Methods From Danish biobanks, we obtained plasma samples from 323 subjects aged 30-70 years with known SARS-CoV-2 inf...
Article
Full-text available
Background Patients at high risk of severe forms of COVID-19 frequently suffer from chronic diseases, but other risk factors may also play a role. Environmental stressors, such as endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), can contribute to certain chronic diseases and might aggravate the course of COVID-19. Objectives To explore putative links betwee...
Article
Background: Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are a group of widely used persistent chemicals with suspected immunotoxic effects. Objectives: The present study aimed to examine the association between infant PFAS exposure and antibody responses to measles vaccination as well as morbidity in a low-income country. Methods: In a randomized control...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: Patients at high risk of severe forms of COVID-19 frequently suffer from chronic diseases, but other risk factors may also play a role. Environmental stressors, such as endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), can contribute to certain chronic diseases and might aggravate the course of COVID-19. Objectives: To explore putative links betwe...
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Full-text available
An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.
Article
Background: Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAA) are repellants that cross the placental barrier, enabling interference with fetal programming. Maternal PFAA concentrations have been associated with offspring obesity and dyslipidemia in childhood and adulthood, but this association has not been studied in infancy. Objectives: We investigated associations...
Article
BACKGROUND: The complement and coagulation systems share evolutionary origin with many components showing structural homology. Certain components, including complement factor H (FH) and coagulation factor XII (FXII), have separately been shown to have auxiliary activities across the two systems. OBJECTIVES: The interaction between FXII and FH...
Article
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Background: The associations of perfluoroalkyl substance (PFAS) exposure with blood lipids and lipoproteins are inconsistent, and existing studies did not account for metabolic heterogeneity of lipoprotein subspecies. This study aimed to examine the associations between plasma PFAS concentrations and lipoprotein and apolipoprotein subspecies. Met...
Article
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Background: After the discovery of fluoride as a caries-preventing agent in the mid-twentieth century, fluoridation of community water has become a widespread intervention, sometimes hailed as a mainstay of modern public health. However, this practice results in elevated fluoride intake and has become controversial for two reasons. First, topical...
Chapter
The topic of this book is of great significance to public health and should garner the attention of decision-makers. Beyond the importance of the book itself, scientists studying adverse impacts on the next generation have a responsibility to inform and interpret new findings and communicate them in the light of other relevant information, i.e., wh...
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The objective of this study was to identify geographic, dietary, and other predictors for childhood exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and methylmercury in Greenlandic children. The study includes cross-sectional data from 367 Greenlandic children aged 7 to 12 years examined during 2012–2015. A parent o...
Chapter
The immune system is vulnerable to toxicant exposures during early development, but environmental chemicals have only recently been considered as possible immunotoxicants. So far, immunotoxicity is not routinely considered in the risk assessment of industrial chemicals, even less so developmental exposures, despite evidence on dioxins and related c...
Article
Background Adequate thyroid function during pregnancy is essential for optimal fetal growth. Gestational exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) can negatively affect birth size and disrupt maternal and neonatal thyroid function, although the interrelationship is unclear. Objective We aimed to quantify the associations between maternal serum...
Article
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Background: The Global Burden of Disease (GBD) study, coordinated by the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation (IHME), produces influential, data-driven estimates of the burden of disease and premature death due to major risk factors. Expanded quantification of disease due to environmental health (EH) risk factors, including climate change,...
Data
Supplementary material for article entitled "Associations of exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances with thyroid hormone concentrations and birth size" doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.9855833.v1
Article
Abstract Background Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are a growing public health concern. Some longer chain PFASs bioaccumulate and many compounds persist in the environment for long time periods. Recent studies have established their ability to pass through placenta, yet data on the transplacental transfer efficiency and partitioning of...
Article
Background: Exposure to mercury (Hg) is associated with adverse developmental effects. However, Hg occurs with a multitude of chemicals. We assessed the associations of developmental exposure to multiple pollutants with children's neurodevelopment using a novel approach. Methods: Hg, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and perfluoroalkyl substance...
Article
Background: Pyrethroids and chlorpyrifos are widely used insecticides, but the potential impact of prenatal exposure on child neurodevelopment has only been addressed in few longitudinal studies. Objectives: To investigate associations between prenatal exposure to pyrethroids and chlorpyrifos and traits of ADHD in 2-4-year-old children. Methods...
Article
Background: Recent studies suggested an inverse association between exposures to perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) and bone mineral density (BMD). Whether exposures to PFASs are also associated with changes in BMD has not been examined. Methods: Five major PFASs (perfluorooctanesulfonic acid, PFOS; perfluorooctanoic acid, PFOA; perfluorohexanesu...
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Genetic predisposition may affect neurodevelopmental outcomes of prenatal methylmercury exposure. We examined suspected heterogeneities for modification of exposure-related neurodevelopment in children from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC, 1991-2000), Bristol, United Kingdom. A subgroup (n = 1127 from a pilot study and 1...
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Background: Birth cohort studies have linked exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) with child anthropometry. Metabolic hormone dysregulation needs to be considered as a potential adverse outcome pathway. We examined the associations between PFAS exposures and concentrations of adipokine hormones from birth to adolescence. Methods: We stu...
Article
Background: Between 2013 and 2015, concentrations of poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in public drinking water supplies serving at least six million individuals exceeded the level set forth in the health advisory established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Other than data reported for contaminated sites, no systematic or pro...
Article
The trillions of cells in the human body are formed by cell division and differentiation during lengthy and complex development, where gene expression is synchronized to allow different tissues and organs to form. Clearly, during this extended process, perhaps in particular during the early embryological stages, the human body is extremely vulnerab...
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Aims The prevalence of type 2 diabetes is increasing worldwide but little known about the status in the Faroe Islands. The aim was therefore to determine the prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus and prediabetes in two non-random populations aged 44–77 years. Methods This cross-sectional survey was conducted between 2011 and 2012 and included two...
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Authorization of pesticides for market release requires toxicity testing on animals, typically performed by test laboratories on contract with the pesticide producer. The latter provides the results and summary to the regulatory authorities. For the commonly used pesticide chlorpyrifos, an industry-funded toxicity study concludes that no selective...
Article
Bisphenol A (BPA) is a non-persistent chemical with endocrine disrupting abilities widely used in a variety of consumer products. The fetal brain is particularly sensitive to chemical exposures due to its rapid growth and complexity. Some studies have reported associationbetween maternal BPA exposure and behavior but few have assessed impact on cog...
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Identification and characterization of environmental hazards that impact human health must rely on the best possible science to inform and inspire appropriate public health intervention. The perfluorinated alkylate substances (PFASs) are persistent emerging pollutants that are now being recognized as important human health hazards. Although the PFA...
Article
Much progress has happened in understanding developmental vulnerability to preventable environmental hazards. Along with the improved insight, the perspective has widened, and developmental toxicity now involves latent effects that can result in delayed adverse effects in adults or at old age and additional effects transgenerationally transferred t...
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Background: Developmental exposure to perfluorinated alkylate substances (PFASs) is associated with deficient IgG antibody responses to childhood vaccines. As this immunotoxicity outcome may represent a critical effect, calculation of benchmark dose (BMD) results would be useful for defining protective limits of exposure. However, exposures to the...