Philipp Latzin's research while affiliated with University of Iowa Children's Hospital and other places

Publications (355)

Article
Full-text available
Background Pneumococcal carriage has often been studied from a serotype perspective; however, little is known about the strain-specific carriage and inter-strain interactions. Here, we examined the strain-level carriage and co-colonization dynamics of Streptococcus pneumoniae in a Swiss birth cohort by PacBio single-molecule real-time (SMRT) sequen...
Article
Full-text available
In contrast to molecular changes associated with increased inflammatory responses, little is known about intracellular counter-regulatory mechanisms that control signaling cascades associated with functional responses of neutrophils. Active RHO GTPases are typically considered as effector proteins that elicit cellular responses. Strikingly, we show...
Article
Aims of the study: We know little about the level of physical activity, respiratory physiotherapy practices and nutritional status of people with primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD), although these are important aspects of patients with chronic respiratory disease. We assessed physical activity, respiratory physiotherapy practices and nutritional sta...
Preprint
Population-based studies of children presenting with dry night cough alone compared with those who also wheeze are few and inconclusive. Luftibus in the school is a population-based study of schoolchildren conducted between 2013–2016 in Zurich, Switzerland. We divided children into four mutually exclusive groups based on reported dry night cough (‘...
Article
Full-text available
Background The management of asymptomatic congenital lung malformations is debated. Particularly, there is a lack of information regarding long-term growth and development of the remaining lung in children following lung resection for congenital lung malformations. In addition to conventional pulmonary function tests, we used novel functional magne...
Article
Rationale Fetal growth restriction (FGR) and resulting low birth weight are risk factors for impaired lung development. However, both are often correlated with other factors, especially prematurity. Therefore, the question whether lung function changes in individuals with FGR are driven by gestational age, fetal growth, or both, often remains unans...
Preprint
Aims of the study We know little about the level of physical activity, respiratory physiotherapy practices, and nutritional status of people with primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD), although these are important aspects of patients with chronic respiratory disease. We assessed physical activity, respiratory physiotherapy practices, and nutritional sta...
Article
Full-text available
Background The effect of elexacaftor/tezacaftor/ivacaftor (ELX/TEZ/IVA) on glucose tolerance and/or cystic-fibrosis-related diabetes (CFRD) is not well understood. We performed an observational study on the short-term effects of ELX/TEZ/IVA on glucose tolerance. Methods Sixteen adolescents with CF performed oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT) befo...
Article
Full-text available
Nasal nitric oxide (nNO) measurements are used in the assessment of patients suspected of having primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD), but recommendations for performing such measurements have not focused on children and do not include all current practices. To guide the development of a European Respiratory Society-supported technical standard for nNO...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: To introduce a widely applicable workflow for pulmonary lobe segmentation of MR images using a recurrent neural network (RNN) trained with chest CT datasets. The feasibility is demonstrated for 2D coronal ultrafast balanced SSFP (ufSSFP) MRI. Methods: Lung lobes of 250 publicly accessible CT datasets of adults were segmented with an ope...
Article
Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) presents with symptoms early in life and the disease course may be progressive, but longitudinal data on lung function are scarce. This multinational cohort study describes lung function trajectories in children, adolescents, and young adults with PCD. We analysed data from 486 patients with repeated lung function m...
Preprint
Rationale The lung clearance index (LCI) is increasingly being used in the clinical surveillance of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). However, there are limited data on long-term variability and clinically relevant changes in LCI during routine clinical surveillance. Objectives To evaluate long-term variability of LCI and propose a threshold for...
Article
Full-text available
Background References from the Global Lung Function Initiative (GLI) are widely used to interpret children's spirometry results. We assessed fit for healthy schoolchildren. Methods LuftiBus in the school (LUIS) is a population-based cross-sectional study done from 2013–2016 in the canton of Zurich, Switzerland. Parents and children aged 6–17 years...
Article
Background: Pollen exposure is associated with respiratory symptoms in children and adults. However, the association of pollen exposure with respiratory symptoms during infancy, a particularly vulnerable period, remains unclear. We examined whether pollen exposure is associated with respiratory symptoms in infants and if maternal atopy, infant's s...
Preprint
Background: Pneumococcal carriage has often been studied from a serotype perspective, however, little is known about strain-specific carriage and inter-strain interactions. Here, we examined strain-level carriage and co-colonization dynamics in a Swiss birth cohort by PacBio single molecule real time (SMRT) sequencing of the ply NCR marker and asse...
Article
Full-text available
Longitudinal data on pulmonary function after pediatric allogeneic or autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) are rare. We examined pulmonary function and associated risk factors in 5-year childhood cancer survivors (CCSs) longitudinally. We included 74 CCSs diagnosed between 1976 and 2010, treated with HSCT, and with at least two...
Article
Full-text available
Background: The recently described sensor-crosstalk error in the multiple-breath washout (MBW) device Exhalyzer D (Eco Medics AG, Duernten, Switzerland) could highly influence clinimetric properties and the current interpretation of MBW results. This study reanalyzes MBW data from clinical routine in the corrected software version Spiroware® 3.3.1...
Preprint
Background Multiple-breath nitrogen washout is an established and sensitive technique to assess functional residual capacity and ventilation inhomogeneity in the lung. Indirect calculation of nitrogen concentration requires precise calibration and accurate measurement of gas concentrations. Aim We investigated the accuracy of the carbon dioxide ga...
Article
Full-text available
Background Volumetric capnography (VCap) is a simpler alternative of multiple-breath washout (MBW) to detect ventilation inhomogeneity (VI) in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). However, its diagnostic performance is influenced by breathing dynamics. We introduce two novel VCap indices, the Capnographic Inhomogeneity Indices (CIIs) that may overco...
Article
Full-text available
Major congenital anomalies are known to play a role in the management and prognosis of airway obstruction. Most studies assess acquired forms of airway obstruction. Data on congenital or otherwise non-acquired forms of airway obstruction is sparse. In this retrospective, single-institution cohort study, we sought to evaluate and compare the pattern...
Preprint
Background: The recently described sensor-crosstalk error in the multiple-breath washout (MBW) device (Exhalyzer D, Eco Medics AG, Duernten, Switzerland) could highly influence clinimetric properties and the current interpretation of MBW results. This study reanalyzes MBW data from clinical routine in the corrected software version Spiroware® 3.3.1...
Article
Background: Inhalation therapy is one of the cornerstones of the daily treatment regimen in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Recommendations regarding the addition of bronchodilators, especially salbutamol are conflicting due to the lack of evidence. New diagnostic measures such as multiple-breath washout ( MBW) and functional magnetic resonanc...
Article
Full-text available
Background Diagnosis of primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is challenging since there is no gold standard test. The European Respiratory (ERS) and American Thoracic (ATS) Societies developed evidence-based diagnostic guidelines with considerable differences. Objective We aimed to compare the algorithms published by the ERS and the ATS with each othe...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is a rare, genetic, multiorgan disease with an estimated prevalence of 1 in 10 000. It affects mainly the upper and lower airways due to impaired mucociliary clearance. Almost all patients have sinonasal or otologic (ear-nose-throat, ENT) problems, although the ENT clinical phenotype may present great...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: References from the Global Lung Function Initiative (GLI) are widely used to interpret children's spirometry results. We assessed fit for healthy schoolchildren. Methods: LuftiBus in the school (LUIS) is a population-based study done from 2013-2016 in the canton of Zurich, Switzerland. Parents and children aged 6-17 years answered quest...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives In epidemiological studies, childhood asthma is usually assessed with questionnaires directed at parents or children, and these may give different answers. We studied how well parents and children agreed when asked to report symptoms of wheeze and investigated whose answers were closer to measurable traits of asthma. Methods LuftiBus in...
Article
Rationale Infants born prematurely have impaired capacity to deal with oxidative stress shortly after birth. Objectives We hypothesize that the relative impact of exposure to air pollution on lung function is higher in preterm than in term infants. Methods In the prospective BILD-birth-cohort of 254 preterm and 517 term infants, we investigated ass...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives Disease-specific, well-defined, and validated clinical outcome measures are essential in designing research studies. Poorly defined outcome measures hamper pooling of data and comparisons between studies. We aimed to identify and describe pulmonary outcome measures that could be used for follow-up of patients with primary ciliary dyskine...
Article
Full-text available
Nasal epithelial cells (NECs) are among the first cells to be exposed to air pollutants and respiratory viruses. Although it is known that air pollution exposure and rhinovirus infections increase the risk for asthma development independently, it is unclear how these risk factors interact on a cellular level. Therefore, we aimed to investigate how...
Preprint
Full-text available
Purpose: To introduce a widely applicable workflow for pulmonary lobe segmentation of MR images using a recurrent neural network (RNN) trained with chest computed tomography (CT) datasets. The feasibility is demonstrated for 2D coronal ultra-fast balanced steady-state free precession (ufSSFP) MRI. Methods: Lung lobes of 250 publicly accessible CT d...
Article
Full-text available
Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is a rare genetic disease characterized by dyskinetic cilia. Respiratory symptoms usually start at birth. The lack of diagnostic gold standard tests is challenging, as PCD diagnostics requires different methods with high expertise. We founded PCD-UNIBE as the first comprehensive PCD diagnostic center in Switzerland....
Article
Full-text available
Respiratory disease is common in children and strongly associated with lifestyle and environmental exposures. Thus, it is important to study the epidemiology locally. The LuftiBus in the School (LUIS) study was set up to assess the respiratory health of schoolchildren in the canton of Zurich, Switzerland. LUIS is a cross-sectional population-based...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: Lung impairment from functional MRI is frequently assessed as defect percentage. The defect distribution, however, is currently not quantified. The purpose of this work was to develop a novel measure that quantifies how clustered or scattered defects in functional lung MRI appear, and to evaluate it in pediatric cystic fibrosis. Theory:...
Article
Full-text available
Background Globally, the number of children born by cesarean section (CS) is constantly increasing. However, hormonal and physiological changes associated with labor and vaginal delivery (VD) are considered necessary for lung maturation. Objective We aimed to assess if the mode of delivery is associated with changes in respiratory and atopic outco...
Article
Background: The lung clearance index (LCI) assesses global ventilation inhomogeneity and is a sensitive biomarker of airway function in cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease. Objectives: We examined the association of LCI with the risk of death or lung transplantation (LTX) in individuals with CF. Methods: We performed a retrospective analysis in...
Preprint
Full-text available
Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) presents with symptoms early in life and the disease course may be progressive, but longitudinal data on lung function are scarce. This multinational cohort study describes lung function trajectories in children, adolescents, and young adults with PCD. We analysed data from 486 patients with repeated lung function m...
Article
Background Air pollution and greenness are associated with short- and long-term respiratory health in children but the underlying mechanisms are only scarcely investigated. The nasal microbiota during the first year of life has been shown to be associated with respiratory tract infections and asthma development. Thus, an interplay between greenness...
Preprint
Background: Lung clearance index (LCI) quantifies global ventilation inhomogeneity, a sensitive biomarker of airway function in cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease. Objectives: We examined the association of LCI with the risk of death or lung transplantation (LTX) in individuals with CF. Methods: We performed a retrospective analysis in a cohort of i...
Article
Full-text available
Background Lung disease can develop within the first year of life in infants with cystic fibrosis (CF). However, the frequency and severity of respiratory symptoms in infancy are not known. Methods We assessed respiratory symptoms in 50 infants with CF and 50 healthy matched controls from two prospective birth cohort studies. Respiratory symptoms...
Article
Background Multiple‐breath inert gas washout (MBW) is a sensitive technique to assess lung volumes and ventilation inhomogeneity in infancy. Poor agreement amongst commercially available setups and a lack of transparency in the underlying algorithms for the computation of infant MBW outcomes currently limit the widespread application of MBW as a su...
Article
Full-text available
Childhood cancer survivors treated with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation are at high risk for pulmonary morbidity and mortality. In this retrospective study we described transplant characteristics of pediatric patients who underwent hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in Switzerland and how these characteristics changed over time, compar...
Preprint
Full-text available
We assessed how prevalence estimates of cough in 6-17-year-olds vary depending on the question asked in the population-based Luftibus in the school (LUIS) study. 3427 parents answered three different questions on cough. The prevalence of parent-reported cough varied substantially depending on the question: 25% of parents reported cough without a co...
Preprint
Full-text available
In epidemiological studies, childhood asthma is usually assessed with questionnaires directed at parents or children, and these may give different answers. We studied how well parents and children agreed when asked to report symptoms of wheeze and investigated whose answers were closer to measurable traits of asthma. LuftiBus in the school is a cro...
Article
Rationale Asthma in pregnancy is associated with respiratory diseases in the offspring. Objective To investigate if maternal asthma is associated with lung function in early life. Methods Data on lung function measured at 5–6 weeks of age were combined from two large birth cohorts: the Bern Infant Lung Development (BILD) and the Australian Breath...
Preprint
Rationale: Nitrogen multiple breath washout (N2MBW) is an established technique to assess functional residual capacity (FRC) and ventilation inhomogeneity in the lung. Accurate gas sensors are essential for the appropriate calculation of clinical outcomes. Objectives: We investigated the accuracy of oxygen and carbon dioxide sensors used for the in...
Article
Rationale While lung clearance index (LCI) is a sensitive marker of small airway disease in individuals with cystic fibrosis (CF), less is known about longitudinal changes in LCI during routine clinical surveillance. Objectives To describe the longitudinal course of LCI in children with CF during routine clinical surveillance and assess influencin...
Preprint
Full-text available
Respiratory disease is common in children and strongly associated with lifestyle and environmental exposures. Thus, it is important to study the epidemiology locally. LuftiBus in the school (LUIS) was set up to assess the respiratory health of schoolchildren in the canton of Zurich, Switzerland. LUIS is a cross-sectional population-based study that...
Article
Background Multiple breath washout (MBW) is increasingly used in the clinical assessment of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Guidelines for MBW quality control (QC) were developed primarily for retrospective assessment and central overreading. We assessed whether real‐time QC of MBW data during the measurement improves test acceptability in the...
Article
Full-text available
It has been postulated that some children with recurrent cough but no wheeze have a mild form of asthma (cough variant asthma), with similar risk factors and an increased risk of future wheeze. This longitudinal study compared risk factors for isolated night cough and for wheeze in the Leicester Respiratory Cohort in children aged 1, 4, 6 and 9 yea...