Philip S. Hammond's research while affiliated with University of St Andrews and other places

Publications (128)

Article
Full-text available
Little Bahama Bank in the northern Bahamas supports several populations of bottlenose dolphins ( Tursiops truncatus ). We provide the first estimates of birth rate and age-class-specific apparent survival rates for the local South Abaco population using data from a long-term (1997–2014) photo-identification (photo-ID) study and use the estimated li...
Article
Full-text available
Historical abundance estimates are important for establishing baselines from which trends can be determined using more recent data. Long‐term studies based on photo‐identification were merged and used to estimate population size, survival rate and sex ratio (biopsy sampling) of fin whales in the North‐western Mediterranean. Merging four existing ph...
Article
Full-text available
Quantifying and dealing with uncertainty are key aspects of ecological studies. Population parameter estimation from mark-recapture analyses of photo-identification data hinges on correctly matching individuals from photographs and assumes that identifications are detected with certainty, marks are not lost over time, and that individuals are recog...
Article
This study used multisensory data tags with integrated 4K video to investigate feeding behavior and prey profitability in five adult male killer whales (Orcinus orca) at herring wintering grounds in Norway, in 2016 and 2017. Video recorded two killer whales engaged in carousel feeding, and two engaged in seiner feeding (i.e., feeding on herring dis...
Article
Full-text available
Bycatch, the undesirable and non-intentional catch of non-target species in marine fisheries, is one of the main causes of mortality of marine mammals worldwide. When quantitative conservation objectives and management goals are clearly defined, computer-based procedures can be used to explore likely population dynamics under different management s...
Article
Full-text available
Fisheries bycatch is the greatest current source of human-caused deaths of marine mammals worldwide, with severe impacts on the health and viability of many populations. Recent regulations enacted in the United States under the Fish and Fish Product Import Provisions of its Marine Mammal Protection Act require nations with fisheries exporting fish...
Article
Full-text available
• Quantifying consumption and prey choice for marine predator species is key to understanding their interaction with prey species, fisheries, and the ecosystem as a whole. However, parameterizing a functional response for large predators can be challenging because of the difficulty in obtaining the required data on predator diet and on the availabi...
Article
Full-text available
This study investigates survival and abundance of killer whales (Orcinus orca) in Norway in 1988–2019 using capture–recapture models of photo-identification data. We merged two datasets collected in a restricted fjord system in 1988–2008 (Period 1) with a third, collected after their preferred herring prey shifted its wintering grounds to more expo...
Article
Full-text available
The population of humpback whales ( Megaptera novaeangliae ) wintering off eastern South America was exploited by commercial whaling almost to the point of extinction in the mid-twentieth century. Since cessation of whaling in the 1970s it is recovering, but the timing and level of recovery is uncertain. We implemented a Bayesian population dynamic...
Article
Full-text available
Bycatch in marine fisheries is the leading source of human-caused mortality for marine mammals, has contributed to substantial declines of many marine mammal populations and species, and the extinction of at least one. Schemes for evaluating marine mammal bycatch largely rely on estimates of abundance and bycatch, which are needed for calculating b...
Article
Full-text available
Whales contribute to marine ecosystem functioning, and they may play a role in mitigating climate change and supporting the Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) population, a keystone prey species that sustains the entire Southern Ocean (SO) ecosystem. By analyzing a five-decade (1971–2017) data series of individual southern right whales (SRWs; Euba...
Article
• The paucity of baseline data on coastal cetaceans due to a lack of research in developing countries frequently precludes assessment of their status and informed management actions for conservation. • This study provides the first abundance estimates of Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins, Irrawaddy dolphins, and Indo-Pacific finless porpoises in the c...
Article
• The small population paradigm assumes that populations with low numbers of individuals intrinsically have a high probability of extinction. The small population of Lahille’s bottlenose dolphins Tursiops truncatus gephyreus that specializes in foraging with artisanal fishers in Laguna, southern Brazil, faces human pressures including bycatch in fi...
Article
Full-text available
Motivated by the need to estimate the abundance of marine mammal populations to inform conservation assessments, especially relating to fishery bycatch, this paper provides background on abundance estimation and reviews the various methods available for pinnipeds, cetaceans and sirenians. We first give an “entry-level” introduction to abundance est...
Article
Full-text available
Killer whale (Orcinus orca) populations specialize in both prey and prey acquisition tactics around the world and may be a primary evolutionary driver of the habits of small cetaceans. Entanglement in fishing gear is the most significant anthropogenic threat to the survival of cetaceans worldwide. Distinguishing between natural and human-caused sou...
Article
Full-text available
The effects of human-caused mortality, such as fisheries bycatch, of endangered, threatened and protected (ETP) species of marine mammals can be evaluated using population model-based stock assessments. The information available to conduct such assessments is often very limited. Available data might include fragmented time-series of abundance estim...
Article
Full-text available
Preventing declines in common species is key to sustaining the structure and function of marine ecosystems. Yet for many common marine mammals, including oceanic dolphins, statistical power to detect declines remains low due to patchy distribution and large variability in group sizes. In this study, population viability analyses (PVA) were used to...
Article
Little information exists on the current status of Southern Hemisphere sei whales (Balaenoptera borealis). We assessed their distribution and abundance along the west coast of the Falkland Islands (southwest Atlantic) during February and March 2018, using line transect and nonsystematic surveys. Abundance estimates were generated for a single surve...
Article
This study investigated the oceanic drivers of sei whale (Balaenoptera borealis) distribution in the central and eastern North Atlantic, and explored how distribution may have changed over almost three decades. Cetacean sightings data were available from Icelandic, Faroese and Norwegian surveys conducted throughout the central and eastern North Atl...
Article
A Management Strategy Evaluation is used to estimate success at achieving conservation goals for marine mammals while also aiming to minimize impacts on commercial fisheries. It is intended to improve understanding of US import rules that require nations exporting fish and fish products to the US to adhere to marine mammal bycatch standards “compar...
Article
Full-text available
A double-platform protocol was implemented in the Bay of Biscay and English Channel during SCANS-III survey (2016). Two observation platforms using different protocols were operating on-board a single aircraft: the reference platform ("Scans"), targeting cetaceans, and the "Megafauna" platform, recording all the marine fauna visible at the sea surf...
Article
The geographic location and oceanographic, physical, and chemical water properties make the Canary Islands one of the planet's biodiversity hotspots. The short‐finned pilot whale (Globicephala macrorhynchus) is one of the archipelago's most commonly encountered species and is potentially vulnerable to a range of anthropogenic pressures, including h...
Article
• Harbour seal populations have declined over the last 20 years in some regions around Britain. Causes are unknown but could include a reduction in prey availability which may potentially be influenced by competition with grey seals. The diets of these two marine predators overlap considerably, indicating that there could potentially be competition...
Article
The efficacy of marine protected areas (MPAs) depends on clear conservation objectives and ecologically meaningful boundaries. The east coast of Scotland bottlenose dolphin population expanded its distributional range during the 1990s beyond the boundaries of the Moray Firth Special Area of Conservation (SAC), originally proposed to contain their c...
Article
Full-text available
Significant ecosystem changes in the Gulf of St. Lawrence (GSL), Canada, have had far-reaching effects at all trophic levels. The abundance of fin whales Balaenoptera physalus has declined significantly in the northern GSL over the past decade. This study aimed to test the hypothesis that the observed decline was correlated to changing environmenta...
Article
Full-text available
Estimates of abundance and survivorship provide quantifiable measures to monitor populations and to define and understand their conservation status. This study investigated changes in abundance and survival rates of fin whales (Balaenoptera physalus) in the northern Gulf of St. Lawrence in the context of anthropogenic pressures and changing environ...
Article
Full-text available
Understanding the drivers underlying fluctuations in the size of animal populations is central to ecology, conservation biology, and wildlife management. Reliable estimates of survival probabilities are key to population viability assessments, and patterns of variation in survival can help inferring the causal factors behind detected changes in pop...
Article
Full-text available
Bryde’s whales (Balaenoptera edeni) are medium-sized balaenopterids with tropical and subtropical distribution. There is confusion about the number of species, subspecies and populations of Bryde’s whale found globally. Two eco-types occur off South Africa, the inshore and offshore forms, but with unknown relationship between them. Using the mtDNA...
Article
Full-text available
Heterogeneous data collection in the marine environment has led to large gaps in our knowledge of marine species distributions. To fill these gaps, models calibrated on existing data may be used to predict species distributions in unsampled areas, given that available data are sufficiently representative. Our objective was to evaluate the feasibili...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract 1. Many species and populations of marine megafauna are undergoing substantial declines, while many are also very poorly understood. Even basic information on species presence is unknown for tens of thousands of kilometres of coastline, particularly in the developing world, which is a major hurdle to their conservation. 2. Rapid ecological...
Article
Full-text available
The western South Atlantic humpback whale Megaptera novaeangliae population was severely depleted by commercial whaling in the late 19th and 20th centuries, and today inhabits a human-impacted environment in its wintering grounds off the Brazilian coast. We identified distribution patterns related to environmental features and provide new estimates...
Article
Full-text available
Diet composition in pinnipeds is widely estimated using hard prey remains recovered from feces. To estimate the size and number of prey represented in fecal samples accurately, digestion correction factors (DCFs) must be applied to measurements and counts of fish otoliths and cephalopod beaks. In this study, 101 whole prey feeding trials were condu...
Article
In spite of their oceanic habitat, deep diving cetacean species have been found to be affected by anthropogenic activities, with potential population impacts of high intensity sounds generated by naval research and oil prospecting receiving the most attention. Improving the knowledge of the distribution and abundance of this poorly known group is a...
Article
Full-text available
Accurate estimates of fecundity rate are key to population assessments and effectively direct conservation efforts. We present a new approach to estimate fecundity rate based on the probability of a female giving birth, conditional on a previous birth t years ago, from which an expected inter-birth interval (IBI) can be estimated. We use generalize...
Article
Full-text available
The number of Mexico's endemic porpoise, the vaquita (Phocoena sinus), is collapsing primarily due to bycatch in illegal gillnets set for totoaba (Totoaba macdonaldi), an endangered fish whose swim bladders are exported to China. Previous research estimated that vaquitas declined from about 567 to 245 individuals between 1997 and 2008. Acoustic mon...
Data
Appendix S1. Comparison with mgcv. Appendix S2. Model Selection. Fig. S1. The predicted received levels (dB re 1 μPa(p‐p)) during piling. Fig. S2. The predicted historic distribution of harbour seals on return trips from the Inner Wash. Fig. S3. The predicted distribution of harbour seals on return trips from The Southern Inner Wash during brea...
Chapter
Full-text available
The common bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) is the only cetacean present in the semiclosed waters of the Gulf of Ambracia, Western Greece. This increasingly degraded coastal ecosystem hosts one of the highest observed densities in the Mediterranean Sea for this species. Photo-identification data and tissue samples collected through skin-swab...
Article
Full-text available
As sublethal human pressures on marine wildlife and their habitats increase and interact in complex ways, there is a pressing need for methods to quantify cumulative impacts of these stressors on populations, and policy decisions about allowable harm limits. Few studies quantify population consequences of individual stressors, and fewer quantify sy...
Article
Full-text available
1.Robust estimates of the density or abundance of cetaceans are required to support a wide range of ecological studies and inform management decisions. Considerable effort has been put into the development of line-transect sampling techniques to obtain estimates of absolute density from aerial and boat-based visual surveys. Surveys of cetaceans usi...
Article
Full-text available
As part of global efforts to reduce dependence on carbon‐based energy sources there has been a rapid increase in the installation of renewable energy devices. The installation and operation of these devices can result in conflicts with wildlife. In the marine environment, mammals may avoid wind farms that are under construction or operating. Such a...
Presentation
Dedicated visual systematic and random ship surveys were carried out between 2007-2012 by the Madeira Whale Museum in coastal waters around the Madeira archipelago to study the distribution and abundance of cetacean species. Abundance was estimated using design-based distance sampling methods and the distribution of the density of individuals and g...
Article
Full-text available
Human activities that impact wildlife do not necessarily remove individuals from populations. They may also change individual behaviour in ways that have sublethal effects. This has driven interest in developing analytical tools that predict the population consequences of short-term behavioural responses. In this study, we incorporate empirical inf...
Article
Full-text available
Global warming poses particular challenges to migratory species, which face changes to the multiple environments occupied during migration. For many species, the timing of migration between summer and winter grounds and also within-season movements are crucial to maximise exploitation of temporarily abundant prey resources in feeding areas, themsel...
Article
The location of Iceland at the junction of submarine ridges in the North-East Atlantic where warm and cold water masses meet south of the Arctic Circle contributes to high productivity of the waters around the island. During the last two decades, substantial increases in sea temperature and salinity have been reported. Concurrently, pronounced chan...
Article
Full-text available
Capture-recapture methods are frequently employed to estimate abundance of cetaceans using photographic techniques and a variety of statistical models. However, there are many unresolved issues regarding the selection and manipulation of images that can potentially impose bias on resulting estimates. To examine the potential impact of these issues...
Article
Technological developments over the last 20 years have meant that telemetry studies have used a variety of techniques, each with different levels of accuracy and temporal resolution. This presents a challenge when combining data from these different tracking systems to obtain larger sample sizes or to compare habitat use over time. In this study, w...
Article
Full-text available
Smout, S., Rindorf, A., Hammond, P. S., Harwood, J., and Matthiopoulos, J. Modelling prey consumption and switching by UK grey seals. – ICES Journal of Marine Science, 71: . Grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) are adaptable generalist predators whose diet includes commercial fish species such as cod. Consumption by the seals may reduce the size of some...
Article
A long-term photo-identification study of killer whales (Orcinus orca) in northern Norway was initiated in 1986, when their prey the Norwegian spring-spawning herring (Clupea harengus) started to winter in a complex fjord system. The aim of this work was to estimate population size and apparent survival rates in this killer whale population using p...
Article
A central theme in ecology is the search for pattern in the response of a species to changing environmental conditions. Natural resource management and endangered species conservation require an understanding of density-dependent and density-independent factors that regulate populations. Marine mammal populations are expected to express density dep...
Article
Full-text available
Small boat surveys were conducted in the Kuching Bay area of Sarawak, East Malaysia, in order to determine the distribution and abundance of coastal cetaceans. Photographic data collected from Jul.2007 through Oct.2010 was used to generate mark-recapture abundance estimates of Irrawaddy dolphins in the study area, and provided insights into ranging...
Article
Full-text available
The European Union (EU) Habitats Directive requires Member States to monitor and maintain at favourable conservation status those species identified to be in need of protection, including all cetaceans. In July 2005 we surveyed the entire EU Atlantic continental shelf to generate robust estimates of abundance for harbour porpoise and other cetacean...
Poster
Full-text available
First results on bottlenose abundance estimates in Madeira archipelagp, using the robust distance sampling methodology
Poster
Full-text available
S. 2005. Habitat preference modelling as a conservating tool: proposals for marine protected areas for cetaceans in southern Spanish waters. Aquatic Conserv.Mar.Freshw. Ecosyst. 1 15:495-521 Merriman, M., Markowitz, T.M., Harlin-Cognato, A. D. and Stokin, K.A. 2009. Bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops Truncatus) Abundance, Site Fidelity, and Group Dynamic...
Article
Full-text available
The west coast of Scotland is comprised of complex coastlines and topography, and a range of physical processes influence its coastal marine environment. The region is host to one of the highest densities of harbour porpoise Phocoena phocoena in Europe. The aim of this study was to identify habitat preferences driving the distribution of harbour po...
Article
1. The distribution, movements and abundance of highly mobile marine species such as bottlenose dolphins Tursiops truncatus are best studied at large spatial scales, but previous research effort has generally been focused on relatively small areas, occupied by populations with high site fidelity. 2. We aimed to characterize the distribution, moveme...
Article
The European Union (EU) Habitats Directive requires Member States to monitor and maintain at favourable conservation status those species identified to be in need of protection, including all cetaceans. In July 2005 we surveyed the entire EU Atlantic continental shelf to generate robust estimates of abundance for harbour porpoise and other cetacean...
Article
Full-text available
The harbour seal (Phoca vitulina) is a widespread marine predator in Northern Hemisphere waters. British populations have been subject to rapid declines in recent years. Food supply or inter-specific competition may be implicated but basic ecological data are lacking and there are few studies of harbour seal foraging distribution and habits. In thi...