Philip C. Calder's research while affiliated with University of Southampton and other places

Publications (33)

Article
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most prevalent liver disease globally. The first stage of NAFLD is steatosis, the accumulation of triacylglycerols within hepatocytes. Inflammation and oxidative stress both contribute to progression to more severe disease. In 2004 Clinical Science published two papers reporting on fatty acids and ox...
Article
There is currently growing attention being paid to the role of elevated triglycerides (TGs) as important mediators of residual atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk. This role is supported by genetic studies and by the persistent residual risk of ASCVD, even after intensive statin therapy. Although TG lowering drugs have shown conflic...
Article
The immune system is weakened by advancing age, often referred to as immunosenescence, increasing the vulnerability to, and frequently the severity of, infectious diseases in older people. This has become very apparent in the current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic for which older people are at higher risk of severe outcomes, even thos...
Article
Background Disturbances in protein metabolism and impaired muscle health have been observed in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The ω-3 (n–3) PUFAs EPA and DHA are known for their anti-inflammatory and muscle health-enhancing properties. Objectives We examined whether daily EPA + DHA supplementation can improve daily protein homeostas...
Article
The immune system is key to host defence against pathogenic organisms. Aging is associated with changes in the immune system, with a decline in protective components (immunosenescence), increasing susceptibility to infectious disease, and a chronic elevation in low grade inflammation (inflammaging), increasing risk of multiple non-communicable dise...
Article
Purpose of review: non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is now the most prevalent form of liver disease globally, affecting about 25% of the world’s adult population. It is more common in those living with obesity, where it may affect as many as 80% of individuals. The aim of this article is to describe recent human studies evaluating the infl...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Obesity is associated with enhanced inflammation. However, investigation in human subcutaneous white adipose tissue (scWAT) is limited and the mechanisms by which inflammation occurs have not been well elucidated. Marine long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFAs) have anti-inflammatory actions and may reduce scWAT in...
Article
Full-text available
Respiratory infections place a heavy burden on the health care system, particularly in the winter months. Individuals with a vulnerable immune system, such as very young children and the elderly, and those with an immune deficiency, are at increased risk of contracting a respiratory infection. Most respiratory infections are relatively mild and aff...
Article
Purpose of review: This article will briefly describe the role of specific dietary components, mainly micronutrients, in supporting the immune response and summarise the literature regarding foods and dietary patterns in the context of immunity and infectious illness. Literature on SARS-COV-2 infection and COVID-19 is referred to where appropriate....
Article
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Patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) are characterized by, among other symptoms, impaired functional capacity and walking difficulties. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have been found to improve MS patients’ clinical outcomes; however, their effect on other parameters associated with daily living activities need further investigation. The curr...
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Macrophages and lymphocytes demonstrate metabolic plasticity, which is dependent 19 partly on their state of activation and partly on the availability of various energy yielding and bio-20 synthetic substrates (fatty acids, glucose and amino acids). These substrates are essential to fuel-21 based metabolic reprogramming that is supports optimal imm...
Article
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br/> Bronchiectasis is a chronic condition in which areas of the bronchial tubes become permanently widened predisposing the lungs to infection. Bronchiectasis is an age-associated disease with the highest prevalence in people older than 75 years. While the prevalence of bronchiectasis is higher in males, disease is more severe in females who have...
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br/>Upper and lower respiratory tract infections are amongst the most common infections globally, and in the United Kingdom they account for about half of all oral antibiotics prescribed. Antibiotic overuse and the emergence of “superbugs” that are resistant to their effects is a global problem that is becoming a serious concern. Considering this,...
Article
Omega-3 fatty acids from fish oil reduce triglyceride levels in mammals, yet the mechanisms underlying this effect have not been fully clarified despite the clinical use of omega-3 ethyl esters to treat severe hypertriglyceridemia and reduce cardiovascular disease risk in humans. Here we identified in bile a class of hypotriglyceridemic omega-3 fat...
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Full-text available
Longitudinal evidence on the relation between dietary intake of n-3 (omega-3) very long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), in mid-childhood and asthma risk is scarce. We aimed to investigate whether a higher intake of EPA and DHA from fish in childhood is associated with a lower risk of in...
Article
Mol. Nutr. Food Res. 2020, 65, 1901071 DOI: 10.1002/mnfr.201901071 Dietary stressors, including saturated fats and sugars, generate endogenous stress signals that reconfigure host metabolism towards a glycolytic pro‐inflammatory state. Conversely, exercise, unsaturated fats, and dietary antioxidants direct metabolism towards oxidative phosphorylati...
Article
Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) modulate immune function and have been associated with risk of childhood atopy and asthma. We investigated the effect of maternal fat intake in mice on PUFA status, elongase and desaturase gene expression, inflammatory markers and lung function in the offspring. C57BL/6J mice (n=32) were fed either standard chow (...
Article
Although inflammation has a physiological role, unrestrained inflammation can be detrimental, causing tissue damage and disease. Under normal circumstances inflammation is self-limiting with induction of active resolution processes. Central to these is the generation of specialised pro-resolving lipid mediators (SPMs) from eicosapentaenoic acid (EP...
Article
This article describes the pathways of eicosanoid synthesis, eicosanoid receptors, the action of eicosanoids in different physiological systems, the roles of eicosanoids in selected diseases, and the major inhibitors of eicosanoid synthesis and action. Eicosanoids are oxidised derivatives of 20-carbon polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) formed by t...
Article
Background & aims Patients who have chronic intestinal failure require home parenteral nutrition (HPN) support. Intravenous lipid emulsions (IVLEs) are a vital part of HPN. The conventional IVLE is based on pure soybean oil, which contains a high concentration of omega-6 fatty acids. Alternative IVLEs are commercially available. These contain vario...
Article
Full-text available
The immune system protects the host from pathogenic organisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, parasites). To deal with this array of threats, the immune system has evolved to include a myriad of specialised cell types, communicating molecules and functional responses. The immune system is always active, carrying out surveillance, but its activity is enh...
Article
Full-text available
The innate immune system responds in a rapid and non‐specific manner against immunologic threats; inflammation is part of this response. This is followed by a slower but targeted and specific response termed the adaptive or acquired immune response. There is emerging evidence that dietary components, including yeast‐derived β‐glucans, can aid host...
Conference Paper
The effect of a duodenal-jejunal bypass liner device (Endobarrier®) on lipid profile and blood concentrations of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids Michael A Glaysher, James Ward, Madhawi Aldhwayan, Aruchuna Mohanaruban, Christina Gabriele Prechtl, Helena L Fisk, Christopher J Gelauf, Navpreet Chhina, Werd Al-Najim, Claire Smith, Natalia Klimo...
Conference Paper
Introduction and objectives There is evidence of a protective effect of prenatal long-chain (LC) n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on asthma risk, but longitudinal data on the relation between dietary intake in childhood and asthma risk are scarce. We aimed to investigate whether a higher intake of LC n-3 PUFA from fish in childhood is associa...
Article
Full-text available
Recently adopted regulatory standards on infant and follow-on formula for the European Union stipulate that from 2021 onwards, all such products marketed in the European Union must contain 20-50 mg/100 kcal of omega-3 docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), which is equivalent to about 0.5-1 % of fatty acids and thus higher than typically found in human milk a...

Citations

... It may explain the U-shape in the association between SSB intake and ST. Relatively high glucose levels are proven to be linked with low (32) -grade inflammation in humans (33), the latter of which could cause fatigue (34); consequently, an individual with relatively high glucose levels shows less active and more sedentary behavior. On the other hand, relatively low glucose levels may have a similar effect, as bodily activity is energy supplementary dependent; therefore, low glucose levels can hardly support the activity of the human body. ...
... So far, studies regarding inflammation in overweight and obese subjects have mostly explored circulation markers of inflammation, although it is well known that PUFAs present in adipose tissue is the precursors for lipid mediators that are involved in inflammation onset [53,60]. Recently, Fisk et al. [61] revealed that greater subcutaneous adipose tissue inflammation in obesity is associated with lower levels of specialized pro-resolving mediators and hydroxyl-DHA metabolites together with altered expression of genes involved in n−3 PUFAs activation, oxylipin synthesis, inflammation, and immune response in adipose tissue. Moreover, dietary treatment with fish oil in the study of Fisk et al. [61] did not induce increased generation of the EPA and DHA metabolites in overweight/obese subjects to the same extent as normal weight individuals. ...
... The relationship between adequate nutritional status and immune function has been well described [13,14]. Many vitamins and trace minerals are well-known to help ensure an optimal immune response to infection. ...
... M2 macrophages are involved in the resolution, activated during the repair phase of functional activity of tissue injury, through OXPHOS and FAO as the main functional pathways (28). There is also evidence that FAO induces M2 phenotypic transformation, although whether this process is sufficient for M2 polarization has not been fully elucidated (29), inhibiting fatty acid transporter proteins promotes their M1 phenotype (30). Therefore, we are not yet able to determine the causal relationship between reprogramming of FAO energy utilization and M2 polarization behavior. ...
... Resolvin E1 is produced via transcellular biosynthesis with interactions between human neutrophil (PMN) and hypoxic vascular endothelial cells that release 18-HEPE, which is converted to the bioactive resolvin E1 [21] (Fig. 2). The therapeutic uses of EPA in cardiovascular medicine and health are still heatedly debated [68] even today, 50 years after the landmark Greenland study and publication clearly pointing to reduced cardiovascular disease in the indigenous population study participants and their marine-based nutrition [69]. Prescription omega-3 fatty acids are used clinically to reduce triglycerides in patients. ...
... Despite the importance of underlying conditions in the development of bronchiectasis in young adults, a significant proportion of patients have idiopathic bronchiectasis. Thus, factors that contribute to bronchiectasis, including demographic factors such as nutritional status, require further exploration [8]. ...
... Vitamin D exerts its immunomodulatory activity by affecting the function of cells of the innate and the adaptive immune system, including dendritic cells (DCs), macrophages, T cells and B cells (as shown in Figure 2). The actions of vitamin D on the immune system are extremely complex due, in part, to the vitamin D receptor (VDR), which is expressed in many immune cells (36)(37)(38)(39)(40)(41)(42)(43)(44)(45)(46). The VDR, a member of the nuclear steroid receptor family, is encoded by the VDR gene on chromosome 12 and modulates gene transcription (47). ...
... Interest in more recent years has been stimulated by the observed ability of ω-3 FAs to lower plasma TGs [43]. This may occur by reducing very-low density lipoprotein production, by stimulating catabolism of TG-rich lipoproteins by way of lipoprotein lipase [44][45][46][47], or through formation of a biliary metabolite that can limit lipid absorption and prevent hepatic lipid accumulation [48]. ...
... Among them, n-3 and n-6 PUFAs possess important physiological functions [13,14]. The change of the n-3/n-6 LC-PUFA ratio in the diet, especially the increased consumption of n-6 LC-PUFA and the decreased consumption of n-3 LC-PUFA, are considered to be linked with an increased risk of asthma or wheeze [15][16][17]. In many countries, high consumption of vegetable oils and meat has increased the intake of n-6 LC-PUFA and arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4, n-6), respectively. ...
... So far, one of the leading fields is the development of novel, more sophisticated adjuvants [3], usually targeting dendritic cell functions [4]. However, in parallel to the rapid progress done in chemistry research of adjuvant design, behavioral aspects such as quality of sleep [5] and its deprivation [6], exercising [7][8][9][10][11], smoking [12] and a proper nutritional status with regard to dietary fiber [13], vitamins [14] and other micronutrients [15] have started to emerge as a potent approach capable of modifying the magnitude of immune response upon vaccination [12]. ...