Petr Šmilauer's research while affiliated with University of South Bohemia in České Budějovice and other places

Publications (136)

Preprint
Full-text available
Ecological theory posits that temporal stability patterns in plant populations are associated with differences in species ecological strategies. However, empirical evidence is lacking about which traits, or trade-offs, underlie species stability, specially across different ecosystems. To address this, we compiled a global collection of long-term pe...
Article
Analysing temporal patterns in plant communities is extremely important to quantify the extent and the consequences of ecological changes, especially considering the current biodiversity crisis. Long‐term data collected through the regular sampling of permanent plots represent the most accurate resource to study ecological succession, analyse the s...
Article
Full-text available
Nest location is a key factor influencing reproductive success in birds, and habitat choice is considered the main way in which birds select nest sites. Less attention has been devoted to the demand for proximity to other bird nests, which can provide additional profit, namely defense against predators. Here we analyzed the contributions of habitat...
Article
Fen meadow habitats host many rare bryophytes. Lack of management has resulted in eliminations of specialized fen bryophytes by competitively stronger vascular plants or common bryophytes. We studied the effects of management (mowing only or in combination with disturbance and litter removal) on three fen moss species, Breidleria pratensis, Sphagnu...
Preprint
Full-text available
Analysing temporal patterns in plant communities is extremely important to quantify the extent and the consequences of ecological changes, especially considering the current biodiversity crisis. Long-term data collected through the regular sampling of permanent plots represent the most accurate resource to study ecological succession, analyse the s...
Article
Full-text available
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) represent important players in the structure and function of many ecosystems. Yet, we learn about their roles mostly from greenhouse-based experiments, with results subjected to cultivation bias. This study explores multiple aspects of this bias and separates the effect of increased nutrient availability from othe...
Article
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are important symbionts for the majority of terrestrial vascular plants, yet the drivers of the compositional variation in AMF communities need to be better understood. What effects does the ontogenetic stage of host plants have and do these effects differ between plant functional groups? Are the AMF communities m...
Article
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Questions Compensatory dynamics are described as one of the main mechanisms that increase community stability, e.g. where decreases of some species on a year‐to‐year basis are offset by an increase in others. Deviations from perfect synchrony between species (asynchrony) have therefore been advocated as an important mechanism underlying biodiversit...
Article
The stability of ecological communities is critical for the stable provisioning of ecosystem services, such as food and forage production, carbon sequestration, and soil fertility. Greater biodiversity is expected to enhance stability across years by decreasing synchrony among species, but the drivers of stability in nature remain poorly resolved....
Article
Full-text available
The stability of ecological communities is critical for the stable provisioning of ecosystem services, such as food and forage production, carbon sequestration, and soil fertility. Greater biodiversity is expected to enhance stability across years by decreasing synchrony among species, but the drivers of stability in nature remain poorly resolved....
Book
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!!!ALREADY AVAILABLE FROM THE PUBLISHER AND FROM amazon.co.uk!!! From amazon.com it will be available in August 2020. Biostatistics with R provides a straightforward introduction on how to analyse data from the wide field of biological research, including nature protection and global change monitoring. The book is centred around traditional stati...
Article
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Communication between vascular plants through volatile organic compounds (VOCs) impacts on ecosystem functioning. However, nothing is known about that between non-vascular plants. To investigate plant–plant VOCs interaction in bryophytes we exposed rare peatland moss Hamatocaulis vernicosus to VOCs of its common competitor Sphagnum flexuosum in an...
Article
To better understand the ecology of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis, we need to measure functional traits of individual fungal virtual taxa under field conditions. The efficiency of AM fungi in locating nutrient‐rich patches in soil space is one of their central traits in this symbiotic relationship. We used plots of a long‐term field experim...
Article
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Abstract Among the traits whose relevance for plant invasions has recently been suggested are genome size (the amount of nuclear DNA) and ploidy level. So far, research on the role of genome size in invasiveness has been mostly based on indirect evidence by comparing species with different genome sizes, but how karyological traits influence competi...
Article
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Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi establish symbiotic associations with many plant species, transferring significant amounts of soil nutrients such as phosphorus to plants and receiving photosynthetically fixed carbon in return. Functioning of AM symbiosis is thus based on interaction between two living partners. The importance of dead AM fungal bi...
Article
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Despite the crucial importance of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) for numerous processes within terrestrial ecosystems, knowledge of the determinants of AMF community structure still is limited, mainly because of the limited scope of the available individual case studies which often only include a few environmental variables. Here, we describe t...
Article
Infant care from adult males is unexpected in species with high paternity uncertainty. Still, males of several polygynandrous primates engage in frequent affiliative interactions with infants. Two non‐exclusive hypotheses link male infant care to male mating strategies. The paternal investment hypothesis views infant care as a male strategy to maxi...
Article
We asked whether the competition among community components (1) destabilizes individual components, (2) increases the asynchrony of their fluctuations and (3) stabilizes the total community biomass. Seminatural meadow in South Bohemia, Czech Republic. We used biomass fluctuation data from a 13 year removal experiment. The plots used for this study...
Article
•Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are important plant symbionts, but we know little about the effects of plant taxonomic identity or functional group on the AMF community composition. To examine effects of the surrounding plant community, of host, and of the AMF pool on the AMF community in plant roots, we manipulated plant community composition...
Article
Full-text available
In several cercopithecine species males exhibit a specific type of male–infant–male interaction during which two males briefly manipulate an infant. These interactions typically occur after a male carrying an infant (infant holder) approaches or is approached by another male who is not holding an infant (infant nonholder). The agonistic buffering a...
Article
Full-text available
Questions Species pools are the product of complex ecological and evolutionary mechanisms, operating over a range of spatial scales. Here, we focus on species absent from local sites but with the potential to establish within communities — known as dark diversity. Methods for estimating dark diversity are still being developed and need to be compar...
Presentation
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A new Master's study programme in Ecology (www.prf.jcu.cz/ecology) at the University of South Bohemia, will start in September 2019 with 2-years duration, the applications gate is open, deadline for applications is May 16, 2019. The programme extends a successful Quantitative Ecology Module (botanika.prf.jcu.cz/quantecol) lead by Professor Jan Lepš...
Article
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are ubiquitous soil microorganisms establishing mutualistic relationships with plants. AMF inoculation is used to increase plant productivity, including in horticulture, and AMF are introduced into commercial peat-based substrates. Little is known, however, about long-term persistence of AMF in these substrates, e...
Article
Full-text available
The relationship between mycorrhiza functioning and composition of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal communities is an important but experimentally still rather little explored topic. The main aim of this study was thus to link magnitude of plant benefits from AM symbiosis in different abiotic contexts with quantitative changes in AM fungal commun...
Article
The idea that hybridization promotes range expansion has received recent attention, but support from field studies is limited. We hypothesized that in the cladoceran waterflea Daphnia, parental species are geographically and ecologically separated, whereas hybrids occupy intermediate or occasionally extreme environments, potentially facilitating ra...
Technical Report
A new 2 year Masters study programme in Ecology, at the University of South Bohemia in České Budějovice, Czech Republic will start in October 2019. The programme is an extension of the successful Quantitative Ecology Module (botanika.prf.jcu.cz/quantecol) lead by Professor Jan Lepš, since 2011. Students will be trained in modern ecology research. T...
Article
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Establishment of nonmycorrhizal controls is a “classic and recurrent theme” in mycorrhizal research. For decades, authors reported mycorrhizal plant growth/nutrition as compared to various nonmycorrhizal controls. In such studies, uncertainties remain about which nonmycorrhizal controls are most appropriate and, in particular, what effects the cont...
Article
Full-text available
Correspondence analysis with linear external constraints on both the rows and the columns has been mentioned in the ecological literature, but lacks full mathematical treatment and easily available algorithms and software. This paper fills this gap by defining the method as maximizing the fourth-corner correlation between linear combinations, by pr...
Article
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Physiological adjustments accompanying insect cold acclimation prior to cold stress have been relatively well explored. In contrast, recovery from cold stress received much less attention. Here we report on recovery of drosophilid fly larvae (Chymomyza costata) from three different levels of cold stress: supercooling to -10 °C, freezing at -30 °C,...
Article
Full-text available
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and dark septate endophytes (DSE) form symbiotic relationships with plants influencing their productivity, diversity and ecosystem functions. Only a few studies on these fungi, however, have been conducted in extreme elevations and none over 5500 m a.s.l., although vascular plants occur up to 6150 m a.s.l. in the...
Article
Functional traits and phylogeny offer different, and often complementary, information about ecological differences between species, an essential step to uncover biodiversity assembly mechanisms and their feedbacks to ecosystem functions. However, traits and phylogeny are often related due to underlying trait evolution. Consequently, when combined,...
Article
The high-elevation cold deserts in Tibet and Himalaya are rich in soil cyanobacterial communities, which facilitate an initial establishment of vascular plants. During the following succession, the increasing cover of vascular plants modifies light intensity and nutrient availability for soil cyanobacterial community and other soil phototrophs. Des...
Article
Ecology of hypogeic mycorrhizal fungi, such as truffles, remains largely unknown, both in terms of their geographical distribution and their environmental niches. Occurrence of true truffles (Tuber spp.) was therefore screened using specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays and subsequent PCR amplicon sequencing in tree roots collected at 322...
Article
Full-text available
Context Urban environments create a wide range of habitats that harbour a great diversity of plant species, many of which are of alien origin. For future urban planning and management of the green areas within the city, understanding of the spatial distribution of invasive alien species is of great importance. Objectives Our main aim was to assess...
Article
Full-text available
Social knowledge beyond one’s direct relationships is a key in successfully manoeuvring the social world. Individuals gather information on the quality of social relationships between their group companions, which has been termed triadic awareness. Evidence of the use of triadic awareness in natural contexts is limited mainly to conflict management...
Article
Full-text available
Background Sexual selection has been hypothesised as favouring mate choice resulting in production of viable offspring with genotypes providing high pathogen resistance. Specific pathogen recognition is mediated by genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) encoding proteins fundamental for adaptive immune response in jawed vertebrates. MH...
Article
Sphagnum expansion to alkaline fens has accelerated during the last decades in Europe, leading to changes in diversity, habitat distributions and carbon storage. The causes are still not clearly understood and involve an interplay between climate change, hydrology, nutrient supply and Sphagnum physiology. We conducted a 4-year field experiment in e...
Article
Full-text available
Plants have evolved several strategies to cope with disturbance, and one strategy is tolerance. In tolerance, plants store resources (meristems, carbohydrates) so that they can resprout after disturbance and thereby compensate to some degree for losses. Because tolerance is costly (it occurs at the expense of current growth), we can expect adaptati...
Technical Report
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We would like to invite you (or your students) to enroll into an exciting one-semester “Quantitative ecology” module, which will be held in autumn 2017 for Master and PhD students in the University of South Bohemia, in Ceske Budejovice (Czech Republic). We have been organizing the module each odd year (this will be the fourth one, after the 2011, 2...
Article
Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi are present in all soils and comprise an important component of soil biota with respect to plant nutrition and growth as well as soil quality. Previous research in a number of agroecosystems had documented large impacts from various management practices (e.g., tillage, fertilization, crop rotation) on the levels of...
Book
Full-text available
Biostatistika je moderní učebnicí statistiky, která představuje statistické nástroje klíčové pro čtenáře z biologických a biologii blízkých oborů. Autoři nejprve představují problémy, které daná statistická metoda řeší, a poté uvádějí princip metody i její nezbytné předpoklady. Podstatnou součást knihy tvoří praktické příklady. Jejich řešení, postu...
Data
ABSTRACT: Biostatistika je moderní učebnicí statistiky, která představuje statistické nástroje klíčové pro čtenáře z biologických a biologii blízkých oborů. Autoři nejprve představují problémy, které daná statistická metoda řeší, a poté uvádějí princip metody i její nezbytné předpoklady. Podstatnou součást knihy tvoří praktické příklady. Jejich řeš...
Article
Full-text available
The invertebrates of the Macocha Abyss, Moravian Karst, Czech Republic, were collected in 2007-2008 and 222 species were identified in total. The relative abundance of individual taxa of land snails, harvestmen, pseudoscorpions, spiders, millipedes, centipedes, terrestrial isopods, beetles, and ants was evaluated. The cold-adapted mountain and subt...
Article
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Ecological theory and biodiversity conservation have traditionally relied on the number of species recorded at a site, but it is agreed that site richness represents only a portion of the species that can inhabit particular ecological conditions, that is, the habitat-specific species pool. Knowledge of the species pool at different sites enables me...
Data
Table S1. Locations of the six areas for the test communities and the representation of the vegetation types considered. Table S2. Variables used in the species distribution models with Biomod.
Poster
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We take the liberty to invite you to our regular course, based on the Cambridge University book - Smilauer & Leps Multivariate Analysis of Ecological Data using Canoco5 (2014)
Article
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Wet meadows have traditionally been managed at low intensity, promoting the co-existence of a variety of plant species. The remaining fragments of these meadows are now being degraded by either mowing abandonment or by agricultural intensification, such as increased fertilization. We tested the theoretical expectation that certain functional traits...
Article
Full-text available
Background and aims: Senescence is the process of losing fitness when growing old, and is shaped by the trade-off between maintenance and reproduction that makes reproduction more unsure and maintenance more costly with age. In repeatedly reproducing plants, reductions in growth and fertility are signs of senescence. Disturbance, however, provides...