Peter Z. Fulé's research while affiliated with Northern Arizona University and other places

Publications (223)

Article
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Prior research suggests that Indigenous fire management buffers climate influences on wildfires, but it is unclear whether these benefits accrue across geographic scales. We use a network of 4824 fire-scarred trees in Southwest United States dry forests to analyze up to 400 years of fire-climate relationships at local, landscape, and regional scale...
Article
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After more than a century of low fire activity in the western United States, wildfires are now becoming more common. Reburns, which are areas burned in two or more fires, are also increasing. How fires interact over time is of interest ecologically as well as for management. Wildfires may act as fuel treatments, reducing subsequent fire severity, o...
Preprint
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Weather and climate play an important role in shaping global wildfire regimes and geographical distributions of burnable area. As projected by the Sixth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC-AR6), in the near future, fire danger is likely to increase in many regions due to warmer temperatures and drier conditions....
Article
Tribal nations in the US have worked to uphold their long history of managing forests in ways that reduce fuels, support ecosystem functioning, and enhance Indigenous livelihoods. Forests on the Hualapai Nation at the western end of the Grand Canyon have been actively managed for decades using fire and other treatments. We collected data on tree si...
Article
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We report on survival and growth of ponderosa pines (Pinus ponderosa Douglas ex P. Lawson & C. Lawson) two decades after forest restoration treatments in the G. A. Pearson Natural Area, northern Arizona. Despite protection from harvest that conserved old trees, a dense forest susceptible to uncharacteristically severe disturbance had developed duri...
Article
Interest in use of naturally ignited wildland fires managed to meet multiple resource objectives (resource objective wildfire) is increasing among U.S. public forest managers; however, only a limited number of studies have examined this approach for conserving or restoring understory plant diversity, productivity, and community structure. We analyz...
Article
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Fire regimes in North American forests are diverse and modern fire records are often too short to capture important patterns, trends, feedbacks, and drivers of variability. Tree‐ring fire scars provide valuable perspectives on fire regimes, including centuries‐long records of fire year, season, frequency, severity, and size. Here, we introduce the...
Article
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Fire is a concern for the sustainability of dry forests such as those of the Mediterranean region, especially under warming climate and high human use. We used data derived from Landsat and MODIS sensors to assess forest changes in the Talassemtane National Park (TNP) in North Africa from 2003–2018. The Talassemtane National Park is a protected are...
Article
As wildfires increase in extent and severity, we need new tools to rehabilitate burned landscapes. We tested the effectiveness of adding fire moss tissue, produced in the greenhouse, as a bio-inoculant to severely burned soils in dry mixed conifer forests. We conducted three sequential experiments using knowledge gained from previous experiments to...
Article
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Current forest monitoring technologies including satellite remote sensing, manned/piloted aircraft, and observation towers leave uncertainties about a wildfire’s extent, behavior, and conditions in the fire’s near environment, particularly during its early growth. Rapid mapping and real-time fire monitoring can inform in-time intervention or manage...
Article
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Background Subtropical coniferous forests of the lesser Himalaya provide critical ecosystem services but fire regimes have received limited scientific attention. We reconstructed fire regimes using tree-ring methods in a chir pine ( Pinus roxburghii Sarg.) forest of Uttarakhand, India. We cross-dated tree-ring samples with fire scars from 36 trees...
Chapter
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Forests in the southwestern USA are well adapted to dry conditions. High lightning incidence, long human habitation, and frequently windy conditions make the Southwest stand out for a high pace of burning. Forests are structured by climatic gradients created by elevation and topography. Low-elevation woodlands experience the driest conditions, but...
Article
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Forests are critically important for the provision of ecosystem services. The Sacramento Mountains of New Mexico, USA, are a hotspot for conservation management and the Mescalero Apache Tribe's homeland. The multiple ecosystem services and functions and its high vulnerability to changes in climate conditions make their forests of ecological, cultur...
Article
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Restoration of degraded tropical peatland is considered to be one of the most cost-efficient measures in reducing greenhouse gas emissions and conserving biodiversity. Although benefits of restoration are often expected to substantially exceed the costs, most restoration projects are being carried out without clear cost analyses. This study provide...
Article
Broad-scale forest restoration projects are implemented across the western United States to restore seasonally dry, frequent-fire-adapted ecosystems to improve ecological function and enhance resilience by increasing resistance to crown fire and climatic stressors. Despite the widespread use of restoration treatments that center on tree thinning an...
Article
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Wildfires are one of the costliest and deadliest natural disasters in the US, causing damage to millions of hectares of forest resources and threatening the lives of people and animals. Of particular importance are risks to firefighters and operational forces, which highlights the need for leveraging technology to minimize danger to people and prop...
Preprint
Wildfires are one of the costliest and deadliest natural disasters in the US, causing damage to millions of hectares of forest resources and threatening the lives of people and animals. Of particular importance are risks to firefighters and operational forces, which highlights the need for leveraging technology to minimize danger to people and prop...
Article
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Several recent studies have documented how fire severity affects the density and spatial patterns of tree regeneration in western North American ponderosa pine forests. However, less is known about the effects of fire severity on fine-scale tree regeneration niche attributes such as understory plant composition and cover, surface fuel abundance, an...
Article
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Changing disturbance regimes and climate can overcome forest ecosystem resilience. Following high-severity fire, forest recovery may be compromised by lack of tree seed sources, warmer and drier postfire climate, or short-interval reburning. A potential outcome of the loss of resilience is the conversion of the prefire forest to a different forest...
Article
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Wildland fires have a multitude of ecological effects in forests, woodlands, and savannas across the globe. A major focus of past research has been on tree mortality from fire, as trees provide a vast range of biological services. We assembled a database of individual-tree records from prescribed fires and wildfires in the United States. The Fire a...
Article
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Widespread, rapid aspen ( Populus tremuloides ) mortality since the beginning of the 21st century, sometimes called sudden aspen decline (SAD), has been documented in many locations across North America, but it has been particularly pronounced in the southwestern U.S. We investigated the relationship between aspen growth, mortality, and climate acr...
Article
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Pinus leiophylla, or Chihuahua pine (PILE), and P. ponderosa, or ponderosa pine (PIPO), are two wide-ranging North American species with distributions that overlap in Arizona, USA. We compared the growth of 58 trees from three study sites over an elevation gradient at the northernmost point of PILE occurrence. Because the PILE trees were growing at...
Article
The Mescalero Apache Tribal Lands (MATL) provide a diverse range of ecosystem services, many of which are of fundamental importance for the Mescalero Apache Tribe’s well-being. Managing forests on MATL, especially under climate change, involves prioritizing certain ecosystem services. We used an iterative survey of experts’ opinions to identify tho...
Article
Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forests occur at their warmer, drier environmental limits in the Mogollon Highlands ecoregion (MHE) of the Southwestern United States, and are commonly found in stringers or discrete stands that form ecotones with interior chaparral. These "rear edge" forests are likely to be highly vulnerable to rapid changes in st...
Article
Changes in climate and land use are altering fire regimes in many regions across the globe. This work aims to study the influence of wildfire recurrence and burn severity on woody community structure and plant functional traits under different environmental conditions. We selected three study sites along a Mediterranean-Oceanic climatic gradient, w...
Article
Forest managers of the western United States are increasingly interested in utilising naturally ignited wildfires to achieve management objectives. Wildfires can accomplish a range of objectives, from maintenance of intact ecological conditions, to ecosystem restoration, to playing vital natural disturbance roles; however, few studies have carefull...
Article
Fire mosses, including Ceratodon purpureus, Funaria hygrometrica and Bryum argenteum, can achieve high cover within months to years after high-severity fire, but do so heterogeneously across space and time. We conducted a survey of moss cover and erosion-related functions after 10 wildfires in Pinus ponderosa and mixed-conifer forests of the southw...
Article
Indonesia declared an ambitious plan to restore its degraded and fire‐prone peatlands, which have been a source of significant greenhouse gas and haze. However, the progress has been slow and the plan cannot succeed without sustained social supports and political will. Although many previous studies argued for the need to see ecological restoration...
Conference Paper
Recently, using drones for forest fire management has gained a lot of attention from the research community due to their advantages such as low operation and deployment cost, flexible mobility, and high-quality imaging. It also minimizes human intervention, especially in hard-to-reach areas where the use of ground-based infrastructure is troublesom...
Article
Over the past three decades, wildfires in southwestern US ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Lawson & C. Lawson) forests have increased in size and severity. These wildfires can remove large, contiguous patches of mature forests, alter dominant plant communities and increase woody debris, potentially altering fungal community composition. Additionally...
Article
Fire shapes landscapes long after the flames are extinguished by leaving legacies of heterogeneous fuel mosaics, species composition patterns, and age classes. Fire perimeters have received little research attention, but their locations have implications for both landscape patterns and processes, including vegetation structure and subsequent distur...
Chapter
Many tropical forests of India are highly degraded and sometimes lack adequate regeneration. In the tropical dry deciduous forest, Shorea robusta is a highly valued timber species. The Mainpat/Phendeling Tibetan settlement was established in 1962 in Chhattisgarh, east-central India. We assessed the forest surrounding the settlement and interviewed...
Article
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Climate change affects all ecosystems but despite increasing recognition for the needs to integrate Indigenous knowledge with modern climate science, the epistemological differences between the two make it challenging. In this study, we present how Indigenous belief and knowledge system can frame the application of a modeling tool (Climate‐Forest V...
Article
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The US Endangered Species Act has enabled species conservation but has differentially impacted fire management and rare bird conservation in the southern and western US. In the South, prescribed fire and restoration‐based forest thinning are commonly used to conserve the endangered red‐cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis; RCW), whereas in the We...
Article
Fire frequency and burn severity may increase in pine forests in the Mediterranean Basin under the warmer and drier climate projected for this region. Our study aims to evaluate the role of fire frequency and burn severity in the post-fire recruitment and development of Mediterranean serotinous pines under different environmental conditions. Two pi...
Article
As wildfires increase in extent and severity in the western United States, land managers need new tools to stabilize and rehabilitate impacted hillslopes. One potential tool is the use of three disturbance‐adapted mosses Ceratodon purpureus (Redshank), Funaria hygrometrica (Cord moss), and Bryum argenteum (Silvergreen moss), collectively known as f...
Article
Tree rings have been widely used to reconstruct environmental history, especially water availability, because historical records of streamflow are often limited. In the semiarid southwestern USA, springs provide critical water resources and support biodiversity hotspots, but spring flows are poorly documented and spring effects on tree-ring growth...
Article
Fire is an ecological factor in ecosystems around the world, made increasingly more critical by unprecedented shifts in climate and human population pressure. The knowledge gradually acquired on the subject is needed to improve fire behaviour understanding and to enhance fire management decision-making. This issue (Volume 28, issue 7, International...
Poster
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Pinus merkusii, the only pine species in Indonesia, are threatened by land-use change. The habitat of this species is scattered in three locations, namely Aceh, Tapanuli, and Kerinci. In Tapanuli and Kerinci, P. merkusii forests are experience surface fires that change forest composition and structure overtime. This project examined the difference...
Article
Although fire is an intrinsic factor in most terrestrial biomes, it is often perceived as a negative disturbance that must be suppressed. The application of successful fire prevention policies can lead to unsustainable fire events for ecosystems adapted to a specific fire regime. In addition, new climate and land use scenarios are influencing fire...
Book
The book brings together research topics having a broad focus on human and climate change impacts on the terrestrial ecosystems in the tropics in general and more specifically from the most significant and vulnerable Himalayan ecosystem. A total of 16 contributions included in the book cover a diverse range of global change themes such as the impac...
Article
Integrating traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) with western science and modeling tools can enhance not only the delivery of culturally important species, but also community support and overall effectiveness of management. This paper presents a case study of co-producing usable science integrating TEK on a culturally important species with a mod...
Article
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Accelerated vegetation changes are predicted for Southwestern forests due to changing disturbance regimes and climate. The 2001 Leroux Fire burned across a landscape with pre-existing permanent plots during one of the most extreme drought periods over the last few decades, providing a rare opportunity to assess wildfire−drought interactions. The wi...
Article
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Statistical descriptions of reconstructed fire regimes are often extrapolated from a composite of small forest stands to represent extensive geographical areas. However, statistical properties of fire regimes are scale‐dependent, thus causing some extrapolations from fine scale to coarse scale and comparisons between fire‐scar‐based reconstructions...
Article
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Fire has played an important role in the evolutionary environment of global ecosystems, and Indigenous peoples have long managed natural resources in these fire‐prone environments. We worked with the Navajo Nation Forestry Department to evaluate the historical role of fire on a 50 km² landscape bisected by a natural mountain pass. We used fifty 5‐h...
Article
Climate change and wildfire are interacting to drive vegetation change and potentially reduce water quantity and quality in the southwestern United States, Forest restoration is a management approach that could mitigate some of these negative outcomes. However, little information exists on how restoration combined with climate change might influenc...
Thesis
Tropical peatlands hold 15-19% of global peat carbon with Indonesia as the largest contributor in Southeast Asia. Many of Indonesia's peatlands are degraded into fire-prone and non-forest vegetation state. There are several peatland restoration projects now being carried out by several entities with public and private investments. These projects va...
Article
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Contemporary wildfires in southwestern US ponderosa pine forests can leave uncharacteristically large patches of tree mortality, raising concerns about the lack of seed-producing trees, which can prevent or significantly delay ponderosa pine regeneration. We established 4-ha plots in high-severity burn patches in two Arizona wildfires, the 2000 Pum...
Article
In this study we analysed a novel tree-growth dataset, inferred from annual ring-width measurements, of 7 forest tree species from 12 mountain regions in Greece, in order to identify tree growth – climate relationships. The tree species of interest were: Abies cephalonica, Abies borisii-regis, Picea abies, Pinus nigra, Pinus sylvestris, Fagus sylva...
Article
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Initial seedling recruitment is one of the most critical stages for plants in the Mediterranean basin. Moreover, wildfires and post-fire environmental conditions might deteriorate regeneration success, which can lead to problems for sustainable forest restoration and forest persistence. On this context, different seed origins and pine species may b...
Article
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Predicting restoration outcomes requires an understanding of the natural variability of ecosystem properties. A hierarchy of predictability has been proposed that ranks measures of restoration success from most-to-least predictable in the following order: vegetation structure > taxonomic diversity > functional diversity > taxonomic composition. Thi...
Article
Forest sustainability depends on reliable tree regeneration but seedling survival is affected by climate change and disturbance. Based on seed introduction experiments, we compared recruitment of native pine species in central Spain in totally burned, thinned, and dense stands of Spanish black pine (Pinus nigra Arn. ssp salzmannii). Seed sources in...
Article
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The occurrence of wildfire is influenced by a suite of factors ranging from “top-down” influences (e.g., climate) to “bottom-up” localized influences (e.g., ignitions, fuels, and land use). We carried out the first broad-scale assessment of wildland fire patterns in northern Mexico to assess the relative influence of top-down and bottom-up drivers...
Article
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Current U.S. forest fire policy emphasizes short-term outcomes versus long-term goals. This perspective drives managers to focus on the protection of high-valued resources, whether ecosystem-based or developed infrastructure, at the expense of forest resilience. Given these current and future challenges posed by wildland fire and because the U.S. F...
Article
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The restoration of historical fire regimes is often a primary objective in the conservation of fire-adapted forests. However, individual species' responses to future climate change may uncouple historical vegetation–disturbance relationships, producing potentially negative ecological consequences to fire restoration. We used a landscape simulation...
Article
Increasing tree density that followed fire exclusion after the 1880s in the southwestern United States may have also altered nutrient cycles and led to a carbon (C) sink that constitutes a significant component of the U.S. C budget. Yet, empirical data quantifying century-scale changes in C or nutrients due to fire exclusion are rare. We used tree-...
Article
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Quantifying historical fire regimes provides important information for managing contemporary forests. Historical fire frequency and severity can be estimated using several methods; each method has strengths and weaknesses and presents challenges for interpretation and verification. Recent efforts to quantify the timing of historical high-severity f...
Data
Additional age structure plots with fire history Illustration of the range of age structure and possible stand age values associated with frequent fire regimes (Figure A). Black lines represent fire years and green lines represent tree establishment dates (= sample date–breast height age–correction factor [5 years a-h, 8 years i-l]). Red vertical l...
Poster
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Mountain forests have been commonly affected by wildfires, hence their fire ecology has been widely studied and described. However, predictions of post-fire vegetation recovery under future climate change are still very uncertain, and more information is necessary for forest managers to make decisions about treatments. This paper focuses on modelin...
Poster
Full-text available
Seasonally dry pine forests have been affected by wildfires in areas with different climate all over the world, hence their fire ecology has been widely studied and described. However, predictions of post-fire vegetation recovery under future climate change are still very uncertain, and more information is necessary for forest managers to make deci...
Article
Two ends of the fire regime spectrum are a frequent low-intensity fire regime and an infrequent high-intensity fire regime, but intermediate fire regimes combine high- and low-severity fire over space and time. We used fire-scar and tree-age data to reconstruct fire regime attributes of mixed-conifer and aspen forests in the North Rim area of Grand...
Article
Community forestry in rural Mexico presents a unique opportunity to study the linkages and feedback within coupled social-ecological systems due to the fact that agrarian or indigenous communities control approximately half of the national territory of Mexico. We used social and ecological diagnostic tools to develop a fire management strategy for...
Article
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Dendrochronologists studying fire history must be strategic in their search for fire-scarred tree samples. Because it is desirable to extend the period of analysis in a site by looking for old scars, recent scars, and trees with large numbers of scars, researchers have developed rules of thumb regarding which trees are most likely to meet these goa...
Article
It has been suggested that large, high-severity fires historically structured warm–dry mixed conifer forests in the American Southwest. To test this, we reconstructed fire regime characteristics of an 1135-ha (11.3 km 2) mixed conifer landscape in northern Arizona using complementary approaches. We analysed composite fire intervals, point fire inte...
Article
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The diverse forest types of the southwestern US are inseparable from fire. Across climate zones in California, Nevada, Arizona, and New Mexico, fire suppression has left many forest types out of sync with their historic fire regimes. As a result, high fuel loads place them at risk of severe fire, particularly as fire activity increases due to clima...
Article
Full-text available
Mountains of the northern Mediterranean basin face two major threats under global change. Aridity and available fuel are both expected to increase because of climatic and land-use changes, increasing fire danger. There may already be signs of such effects in the case of the Pinus nigra and Abies cephalonica forests on Mt. Taygetos (southern Greece)...